Needs Analysis zEstablish that a system (or product) is needed based on goals of organization and/or marketplace. yBasic goals yPurpose yfeatures zSpecify what will be required in the system and what would be “nice to have”.
User Analysis zUnderstanding the users y(examples) xWho are the users? xWhat do the users want? xWhat are the users goals? xWhat are individual characteristics that may affect behavior with software or information designed? xWhat do they know that helps them perform their tasks? xWhat values to they bring to their job? xDo they want a user interface that is fun, not boring?
Understanding the users (cont.) xAre they interested in saving money, saving time, becoming an expert, having an easy job to do? xWhat is their prior experience with similar tools and interfaces? xWhat jobs or tasks will the be performing? Under what conditions?
User Analysis yUsers you may want to study include: xusers who buy and use the software alone (e.g. at home) xusers who use it as part of the work they do xgroups of people who use software as part of a larger business process xsoftware administrators xusers who repair or troubleshoot xusers who install xcustomers of the users
User Analysis ySome examples of data to collect xAge, gender, physical differences, xexperience in job, educational level, background of training xgeographic location, wage differences, culture and nationalities xlanguage skills, terminology differences xjob level (eg. technicians vs engineers, or technicians vs doctors) xAssumptions about the users (how to test these assumptions) xMental models users have xIndividual differences xMotivational differences
Task Analysis zComplete description of tasks, subtasks, and methods for performing task. yAnalysis of users tasks - what they do and what they need to do. yFunction analysis - determining what functions the system as a whole (computer and user) will include yTask-Function allocation - What will be allocated to the various components of the system (e.g. what will the user do, what will the system do) yRequirements Analysis - What will be the requirements for the design.
Task Analysis zUser Goals zRelating Goals to tasks and actions zChoices of task to meet goals zWhat users do when they encounter problems
Types of Task Analyses zWork Flow Analysis yWhat is the process by which they accomplish the work. yThis includes work that flows across people. yWhere are communication links?
Types of Task Analyses zJob Analysis yUnderstanding what a person does in their particular job. What tasks do they perform? xFrequency: How often do they perform the tasks? xCriticality: How important are the tasks? xTime: How time consuming are the tasks? xDifficulty: How difficult are the tasks? xDivision of responsibility: Do all people in the job perform this task?
Techniques for Task Analysis zTask Lists or Inventory yGood for pre-design. yWhat tasks do the user want to accomplish using the product? (Does not tell you how!) yExample: Program xwrite message xsend message xreceive message xread message xsave message xetc..
Techniques for Task Analysis zProcess analysis or task sequences ySeries of tasks that users are likely to do (or must do) in a certain order yE.g. write a mail message precedes sending it. yExample, operational sequence diagram
Techniques for Task Analysis zTask hierarchies yTask can be decomposed into their sub-tasks
Techniques for Task Analysis zProcedural analysis yDetermine what a user does in performing a specific task. What decisions and actions must be made? yShows how users are currently using tools.
Consider stages of users zNovices yNovices are goal and task oriented yNovices do no want to learn, just do zAdvanced Beginners yFocus on accomplishing task yImpatient with learning concepts rather than performing tasks yRandomly access tasks yBy adding new and more complex tasks begin to develop empirically based mental model
Consider stages of users zCompetent performers yFocus on accomplishing more complex tasks that require many coordinated actions yAbility to plan how to perform a complex series of tasks to achieve a goal yWillingness to learn how the task fits into a consistent mental model of the interface as a whole yInterest in solving simple problems by applying a conceptual framework to diagnose and correct errors
Consider stages of users zExperts yFocus on developing a comprehensive and consistent mental model of the product yAbility to understand complex problems and find solutions yInterest in learning about concepts and theories behind a product yInterest in interacting with other experts