Presentation on theme: "HFE 451/651 User and Task Analysis"— Presentation transcript:
1 HFE 451/651 User and Task Analysis From:User and task analysis for interface design. Hackos & Redish, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
2 Topics Needs Analysis User Analysis Task Analysis Conceptual Evaluation Plan
3 Needs AnalysisEstablish that a system (or product) is needed based on goals of organization and/or marketplace.Basic goalsPurposefeaturesSpecify what will be required in the system and what would be “nice to have”.
4 User Analysis Understanding the users (examples) Who are the users? What do the users want?What are the users goals?What are individual characteristics that may affect behavior with software or information designed?What do they know that helps them perform their tasks?What values to they bring to their job?Do they want a user interface that is fun, not boring?
5 Understanding the users (cont.) Are they interested in saving money, saving time, becoming an expert, having an easy job to do?What is their prior experience with similar tools and interfaces?What jobs or tasks will the be performing? Under what conditions?
6 User Analysis Users you may want to study include: users who buy and use the software alone (e.g. at home)users who use it as part of the work they dogroups of people who use software as part of a larger business processsoftware administratorsusers who repair or troubleshootusers who installcustomers of the users
7 User Analysis Some examples of data to collect Age, gender, physical differences,experience in job, educational level, background of traininggeographic location, wage differences, culture and nationalitieslanguage skills, terminology differencesjob level (eg. technicians vs engineers, or technicians vs doctors)Assumptions about the users (how to test these assumptions)Mental models users haveIndividual differencesMotivational differences
8 Task AnalysisComplete description of tasks, subtasks, and methods for performing task.Analysis of users tasks - what they do and what they need to do.Function analysis - determining what functions the system as a whole (computer and user) will includeTask-Function allocation - What will be allocated to the various components of the system (e.g. what will the user do, what will the system do)Requirements Analysis - What will be the requirements for the design.
9 Task Analysis User Goals Relating Goals to tasks and actions Choices of task to meet goalsWhat users do when they encounter problems
10 Types of Task Analyses Work Flow Analysis What is the process by which they accomplish the work.This includes work that flows across people.Where are communication links?
11 Types of Task Analyses Job Analysis Understanding what a person does in their particular job. What tasks do they perform?Frequency: How often do they perform the tasks?Criticality: How important are the tasks?Time: How time consuming are the tasks?Difficulty: How difficult are the tasks?Division of responsibility: Do all people in the job perform this task?
12 Techniques for Task Analysis Task Lists or InventoryGood for pre-design.What tasks do the user want to accomplish using the product? (Does not tell you how!)Example: Programwrite messagesend messagereceive messageread messagesave messageetc..
13 Techniques for Task Analysis Process analysis or task sequencesSeries of tasks that users are likely to do (or must do) in a certain orderE.g. write a mail message precedes sending it.Example, operational sequence diagram
14 Techniques for Task Analysis Task hierarchiesTask can be decomposed into their sub-tasks
15 Techniques for Task Analysis Procedural analysisDetermine what a user does in performing a specific task. What decisions and actions must be made?Shows how users are currently using tools.
16 Consider stages of users NovicesNovices are goal and task orientedNovices do no want to learn, just doAdvanced BeginnersFocus on accomplishing taskImpatient with learning concepts rather than performing tasksRandomly access tasksBy adding new and more complex tasks begin to develop empirically based mental model
17 Consider stages of users Competent performersFocus on accomplishing more complex tasks that require many coordinated actionsAbility to plan how to perform a complex series of tasks to achieve a goalWillingness to learn how the task fits into a consistent mental model of the interface as a wholeInterest in solving simple problems by applying a conceptual framework to diagnose and correct errors
18 Consider stages of users ExpertsFocus on developing a comprehensive and consistent mental model of the productAbility to understand complex problems and find solutionsInterest in learning about concepts and theories behind a productInterest in interacting with other experts