4Who else do we interview? CustomersWhat are their goals?What frustrates them?What is the decision process for purchasing/using?
5What do we ask? Goal-oriented questions System-oriented questions What activities currently waste your time?What is most important to you?What helps you make decisions?System-oriented questionsWhat are the most common things you do with the product?What parts of the product do you use most?What are your favorite aspects of the product?How do you work around problems?What shortcuts do you employ?
6How do we interview? Interview where the interaction happens Avoid a fixed set of questionsFocus on goals first, tasks secondAsk for show and tellI want to collect money owed me.I want a list of people with open balances.
7More interview tips Avoid making the user a designer. Avoid discussion of technologyGuide the interviewee towards examining problems and away from expressing solutions (e.g., not “Would this feature be useful…”)Encourage storytelling about experiences with a product.Encourage both typical cases and exceptional ones.
8Example Interview Questions: EECS Website Why do you come to the website?What do you primarily use the site for?Is there anything on the site that prevents you from doing what you need to do quickly and efficiently?Is what you need present?What sort of information do you expect when searching for a school?Did anything on our EECS website convince you to do your graduate work here?Is the current color theme of the EECS page appealing?
9Identifying Users to Interview Persona Hypothesis.What different sorts of people might use the product?How might their needs and behaviors vary?What ranges of behaviors and environments need to be explored?May also identify behavioral and demographic variables.
10Example Persona Hypothesis: EECS Website StudentsPotential StudentsHigh School studentsTransferInternationalContinuing EducationGraduateCurrent Undergraduate StudentsNon-EECSEECSCurrent Graduate StudentsParentsPotential studentsExisting studentsFacultyCSM FacultyCollaboratorsJob CandidatesProspective Employers
11Example Behavioral Variables: EECS Website education level (high school, undergrad, grad, faculty, etc)aesthetic preference (simple-> pictures -> flash/more dynamic)level of interest (quick browsing, casual search, focused search, detailed reading)persistence (easily frustrated, tolerant)skills (basic website navigation, comfortable, expert navigator)familiarity with department (no knowledge, alumni, current major, current non-major, parent)frequency of use (never, seldom, occasional, frequent)
12User ObservationMost people are incapable of accurately assessing their own behaviors. You can talk to users about how they think they behave, or you can observe it first-hand. The latter route provides superior results. Technological aids such as audio or video recorders may be used, but should not be too obtrusive.
13Example Ethnography/Usability: EECS Website Task: Find out what classes are going to be offered next semester.Observation: First went to course home pages but couldn't find the info there. Then went to course descriptions and found it, but took two minutes or so of looking around the page to find the information. It is hidden at the bottom of the page kind of out of the way.
14Example Ethnography: Programming IDE Lots of sitting and staring at screen.Frequent switch to explanation of assignmentLooking for specific details as opposed to rereading assignmentLot of time reading lab description for insight.Frequent switching between .h and .cpp without adding code to either. Lot of confusion about what goes in each section.No textbooks in sightLots of warnings, errors that won’t go away. Compile, receive error, remove line, recompile, still have error. Rely on error messages from IDE, but often don’t understand the message.Lots of looking at neighbor’s code.
15Continued Observations No one googled errorsStudents not making much use of resources like chapter notes.Many students have difficult time typing, which slows them down significantlyUsers seem to spend more time navigating around code that actually writing code.Some students who appeared to be lost spent time messing around with Visual Studio interface.
16Market Research*Identify and analyze the market need, market size and competitionNot Marketing Research (how to market a product effectively)* from Wikipedia
17Competitor Analysis – Why? “Competitor analysis is an essential component of corporate strategy. It is argued that most firms do not conduct this type of analysis systematically enough. Instead, many enterprises operate on what is called “informal impressions, conjectures, and intuition gained through the tidbits of information about competitors every manager continually receives.” As a result, traditional environmental scanning places many firms at risk of dangerous competitive blindspots due to a lack of robust competitor analysis.”** Fleisher & Bensoussan, 2007
18How? Competitor ArrayDefine your industry - scope and nature of the industryDetermine who your competitors areDetermine who your customers are and what benefits they expectDetermine what are the key success factors in your industryRank the key success factors by giving each one a weighting - The sum of all the weightings must add up to one.Rate each competitor on each of the key success factorsMultiply each cell in the matrix by the factor weighting.
22Example Literature Review: CONNECT PokenPoken is used for social networking, personal identification communication. It uses Near Field Communication (NFC) to exchange social data between two keychains. An individual is identified with a ‘poken’, a keychain. The primary data exchanged is a ‘social business card’. Which the digital mirror of your business card. Contact information on a ‘poken’ their website.Crowd VineThis product creates profiles for people that contain their contact information. There doesn’t seem to be a way to exchange contact information with people other than sharing your address or profile name. A profile contains the user’s social networking profile information. The site is like a social business card for finding ways to interact with people. The basic functionality is very similar to LinkedIn.
23Handling the Interview Data Identify expectationsMap behavioral variables to interview subjectsCreate personas
24Example Expectations: EECS Website Primary persona (current undergraduate) expectations…I expect that the website will:Help me plan my schedule for next semesterHelp me contact my professor(s)Help me decide whether to continue for a master’s degreeHelp me find job opportunities in CS/in the departmentSecondary persona (prospective student) expectations…Help me decide whether to attend CSMHelp me figure out how much it will costHelp me determine if the research relates to my interests
25Example: Map Subjects to BV EECS Website Frustration Tolerance LevelLow frustration toleranceHigh frustration toleranceUser1User2User3User5User4Exploring/boredSpecific taskReason for visiting siteUser2User5User3User1User4Amount of time spent on siteBarely any time spent on siteSpent lots of time on siteUser3User2User4User1User5K-12Student StatusNon-student (or graduate)User3User4User1User2User5
26PersonasBased on real interview subjects (not stereotypes) – but not one exact subjectGiven a name for reference, easier for designers to relate toResolve 3 user-centered design issues:Elastic user - generic “user” bends and stretches the designSelf-referential - developers project their own goals, motivations, skills and mental models onto a product’s design.Design edge cases must be programmed for, but they should never be the design focus.
27Example Persona: EECS Website Persona: Alex (Non-Macs major)Doesn't want to spend a lot of time on the site -- in and out mentalityNot very experienced with the site -- infrequent visitsWants to find either course home page and bookmark it or professor contact info -- probably won't come back till next semesterWould like an easy to navigate site, overcomplicated is bad.Familiar with mines, knows that EECS classes generally have course home pages.Not particularly interested in non class or professor related information.
28Example Persona: EECS Website Persona: Laura (transfer student)New to Mines, in need of EECS related informationVisited the site just a couple times, not sure where everything is yetCritically needs EECS degree information to decide on a major at minesNeeds info like flowcharts and course descriptionsWould like to see current and up-to-date information on the site so she can get a feel for the departmentHopes to be able to find the desired information without issue.
29Example Persona: EECS Website Persona: Robert (Computer Science Major) (Primary Persona)Familiar with the site -- visits it once or twice a monthWants easy access to course homepages and professor contact informationWould like to see frequent updates on upcoming important events (such as group advising for registration)Needs course flowcharts, course descriptionsNeeds graduate school info
30Persona ExpectationsExpectations for a product and its context of use are informed by the persona’s mental model of the product.Identify behaviors expected or desired from the productThink about: what do subjects mention first, what action words do they use, and what intermediate tasks they don’t mention.
31Persona Expectation: EECS Website Website will help me plan my scheduleWebsite will allow me to contact my instructorWebsite will tell me what I need to know to become a CS major at MinesWebsite will help me be part of the Mines CS community