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User-Centred Design: The Design Process (lecture 2) Prof. dr. Matthias Rauterberg Faculty Industrial Design Technical University of Eindhoven
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e2 The Groupwork Themes: C2next generation of a learning environment (N = 5) FEenvironment of plants and factories(N = 8) HCdesign of a home consumer product(N = 5) OB(re)design of old and/or public buildings(N = 5) PEenvironment for poor and moneyless people(N = 8) PTdesign of a public transportation system(N = 7) REenvironment for recreation and entertainment(N = 9) RPdesign of a recycable product(N = 5) SEenvironment with sustainable energy resources(N = 11) UWnon-pollution urban environment with parks(N = 7) WFdesign of a way finding system(N = 4) WHintegrated environment for working and living(N = 3)
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e3 Milestones for Groupwork: First:organize regular group meetings »once a week for 1-2 hours Second:collect material about your theme »WHAT: newspapers, books, journals, internet »WHERE: publisher, library (abstracts), museum, your PC Third:present your preliminary results »Thursday, 14 January 1999 »about 5 minutes for each group, 1-2 transparencies
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e4 Two General Design Strategies 1. 2.
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e5 Five Design Characteristics Three Elementary Activities –The complex activity called “designing”interconnects three constituent activities: imaging, presenting,and testing/evaluation. Two Types of Information –Information used in designing tends to be useful in two ways: as a heuristic catalyst for imaging and as a body of knowledge for testing. Shifting Visions of Final Product –Designers continually modify predictions about their final result in response to new information and insight. The design process is thus a series of conceptual shifts or creative leaps. Toward a Domain of Acceptable Responses –Designers aim to reach one acceptable response within a range of possible solutions. This domain of acceptance is measured largely by how well a product is adapted to its environment and how coherent constituent parts of the product are with one another. Development through Linked Cycles: A Spiral Metaphor –Conceptual shifts and product development in design occur as the result of repeated, iterative movement through the three elementary design activities.
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e6 The Spiral Model of Zeisel
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e7 The Imaging-Present-Test Cycle
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e8 The Spiral Model of Philips Design
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e9 The Analysis-Creation-Evaluation Cycle
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e10 The Three Levels of Abstractions
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e11 What is User-Centred Design?...based on expertise: –state-of-the-art knowledge for the design –expert as a designer –models of users...based on participation: –end-user involvement in analysis, design and evaluation –expert as a moderator –real users
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e12 Why is User-Centred Design necessary? decreased time to market reduced costs rapid development innovative and usable products
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e13 Relationship between Effort and Costs Fixing an error in the early product development phase costs about 2-10 $ Fixing an error in the late product development phase costs about $ Conclusion: the more effort at the beginning, the less cost at the end! (ref.: Barry Boehm, Software Engineering Economics. 1981, Englewood Cliffs, ISBN X)
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e14 (ref.: Lei Lei, User participation and the success of information system development, 1994, ISBN X)
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e15 What are the barriers for knowledge integration? discipline oriented mind set different “languages” naive “user-models” users as domain experts
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e16 How to achieve User-Centred Design?
© M. Rauterberg, TU/e17 User Involvement in the Product Creation Process Users can become involved in a direct and productive way right through the design process--from the very start until the design is finally complete. The video from Philips Corporate Design demonstrates the work of the Applied Ergonomics Group of Philips Corporate Design. Clips from real evaluations are used to demonstrate just of the range of methods used by the group. Those shown methods are: Field Studies User Workshops Interviews Private Camera Conversations Think Aloud Protocols Experiments First hand experience of users opinions and attitudes is essential in the process of creating useful, usable products that will
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