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User-Centred Design: The Design Process (lecture 2)Prof. dr. Matthias Rauterberg Faculty Industrial Design Technical University of Eindhoven
The Groupwork Themes: C2 next generation of a learning environment (N = 5) FE environment of plants and factories (N = 8) HC design of a home consumer product (N = 5) OB (re)design of old and/or public buildings (N = 5) PE environment for poor and moneyless people (N = 8) PT design of a public transportation system (N = 7) RE environment for recreation and entertainment (N = 9) RP design of a recycable product (N = 5) SE environment with sustainable energy resources (N = 11) UW non-pollution urban environment with parks (N = 7) WF design of a way finding system (N = 4) WH integrated environment for working and living (N = 3) © M. Rauterberg, TU/e
Milestones for Groupwork:First: organize regular group meetings once a week for 1-2 hours Second: collect material about your theme WHAT: newspapers, books, journals, internet WHERE: publisher, library (abstracts), museum, your PC Third: present your preliminary results Thursday, 14 January 1999 about 5 minutes for each group, 1-2 transparencies © M. Rauterberg, TU/e
Two General Design Strategies1. 2. © M. Rauterberg, TU/e
Five Design CharacteristicsThree Elementary Activities The complex activity called “designing”interconnects three constituent activities: imaging, presenting,and testing/evaluation. Two Types of Information Information used in designing tends to be useful in two ways: as a heuristic catalyst for imaging and as a body of knowledge for testing. Shifting Visions of Final Product Designers continually modify predictions about their final result in response to new information and insight. The design process is thus a series of conceptual shifts or creative leaps. Toward a Domain of Acceptable Responses Designers aim to reach one acceptable response within a range of possible solutions. This domain of acceptance is measured largely by how well a product is adapted to its environment and how coherent constituent parts of the product are with one another. Development through Linked Cycles: A Spiral Metaphor Conceptual shifts and product development in design occur as the result of repeated, iterative movement through the three elementary design activities. © M. Rauterberg, TU/e
The Spiral Model of Zeisel© M. Rauterberg, TU/e
The Imaging-Present-Test Cycle© M. Rauterberg, TU/e
The Spiral Model of Philips Design© M. Rauterberg, TU/e
The Analysis-Creation-Evaluation Cycle© M. Rauterberg, TU/e
The Three Levels of Abstractions© M. Rauterberg, TU/e
What is User-Centred Design?...based on expertise: state-of-the-art knowledge for the design expert as a designer models of users ...based on participation: end-user involvement in analysis, design and evaluation expert as a moderator real users © M. Rauterberg, TU/e
Why is User-Centred Design necessary?decreased time to market reduced costs rapid development innovative and usable products © M. Rauterberg, TU/e
Relationship between Effort and CostsFixing an error in the early product development phase costs about 2-10 $ Fixing an error in the late product development phase costs about $ Conclusion: the more effort at the beginning, the less cost at the end! (ref.: Barry Boehm, Software Engineering Economics. 1981, Englewood Cliffs, ISBN X) © M. Rauterberg, TU/e
(ref.: Lei Lei, User participation and the success of information system development, 1994, ISBN X) © M. Rauterberg, TU/e
What are the barriers for knowledge integration?discipline oriented mind set different “languages” naive “user-models” users as domain experts © M. Rauterberg, TU/e
How to achieve User-Centred Design?© M. Rauterberg, TU/e
User Involvement in the Product Creation ProcessUsers can become involved in a direct and productive way right through the design process--from the very start until the design is finally complete. The video from Philips Corporate Design demonstrates the work of the Applied Ergonomics Group of Philips Corporate Design. Clips from real evaluations are used to demonstrate just of the range of methods used by the group. Those shown methods are: Field Studies User Workshops Interviews Private Camera Conversations Think Aloud Protocols Experiments First hand experience of users opinions and attitudes is essential in the process of creating useful, usable products that will © M. Rauterberg, TU/e
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