Presentation on theme: "ADAMS BEHIND THE EIGHT- BALL Problems from the Get- Go: Problems from the Get- Go: – Jay’s Treaty 1795 (w/GB): averts war, but seems to draw us closer."— Presentation transcript:
ADAMS BEHIND THE EIGHT- BALL Problems from the Get- Go: Problems from the Get- Go: – Jay’s Treaty 1795 (w/GB): averts war, but seems to draw us closer to England; most Americans (and Jefferson) hate it, and J.A. inherits it – Adams wins, but TJ is his VP; opposed to most of Adams’ agenda Adams’ Domestic Policy: Adams’ Domestic Policy: – Development of central authority, national military – Stunted by A. Hamilton (who thinks JA isn’t up the job) and T. Jefferson (who thinks JA/AH are betraying the revolution)
First Party System: Development of political parties – Federalists (Washington’s originals: pro-business, Pro- British, active fed. govt.) – Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson—pro-agriculture, small govt., pro-France) Jets! Sharks! Bloods! Crips!
Adams’ Foreign Policy Stuck between warring nations, England and France; Adams determined to stay out XYZ Affair, 1798 – French agents (X, Y, Z) demand bribes to maintain diplomatic relations with France – American refusal starts Quasi-War – Democratic-Republicans: Adams bungled the whole thing; he’s incompetent! – Federalists: the DR’s are too French- lovin’…so… – Military buildup (navy) – Alien and Sedition Acts Naturalization Act: extends length of residence necessary to become citizen from 5 to 14 years) Alien Act: President can deport any alien considered “dangerous to the peace and safety of the U.S.” Alien Enemies Act: apprehend/deport foreign residents if their home nation is at war with U.S. Sedition Act: makes it a crime to publish “false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government Ringing a bell with anyone…? In response, Mad/Jeff write Virginia (JM)/Kentucky (TJ) Resolutions Federal govt can only exercise powers specifically given to it (10 th Amendment) if Feds exceed their power, states can ignore (nullify) it This idea becomes the basis for states’ rights crisis, 1830-1860
Election of 1800 Adams v. Jefferson: 1 st really mean pres. Election Adams backstabbed by Hamilton, conspired against him w/i Fed. Party DRs win, but… Whoops! Same # electoral votes for TJ and “Crazy Aaron” Burr tie sends it to House; 36 ballots later, TJ is Pres. Federalists: election of TJ would “teach murder, robbery, rape, adultery and incest". DRs: Adams will make himself King, destroy the republican values of U.S. Refuse me, willya!?? Bleargh!! Federalist newspaper cartoon in 1800 attacks a drunken Jefferson for trying to pull down the pillars of the Washington- Adams Federalist achievements with the aid of the devil
JEFFERSON’S AGENDA: Alien/Sedition Acts gone Reduce size of fed. Govt. (to Republicans, the original goal of Revolution) eliminate debt (AH: that’s a source of economic growth!; TJ: it’s a source of corruption), internal taxes Destroy Federalists! “midnight appointments” (Marbury v. Madison) Louisiana Purchase, 1801Louisiana Purchase, 1801 Jefferson’s quibble: “I’m a strict constructionist; can we even buy new territory?”Jefferson’s quibble: “I’m a strict constructionist; can we even buy new territory?” uses treaty-making power to do ituses treaty-making power to do it Lewis and Clark expedition, 1802-1805Lewis and Clark expedition, 1802-1805 size of U.S. roughly doubledsize of U.S. roughly doubled
Meriwether Lewis (Jefferson’s secretary Meriwether Lewis (Jefferson’s secretary Captain William Clark Lewis and Clark's Outbound Route Shown in Red, Inbound in Blue
Jefferson’s Foreign Policy Jefferson’s Foreign Policy Napoleonic Wars in Europe threaten U.S. trade Napoleonic Wars in Europe threaten U.S. trade Chesapeake Affair, 1807 inflames U.S. Chesapeake Affair, 1807 inflames U.S. TJ’s response: Embargo Act, 1807 TJ’s response: Embargo Act, 1807 do no business with England/France do no business with England/France Disastrous economic consequences for U.S., little impact on European imports Disastrous economic consequences for U.S., little impact on European imports Monticello TJ’s grave; pretty solid resume
WAR OF 1812 JM, egged on by “War Hawks” in Congress to fight Britain Brought on by British practice of impressment D.C. burned, a few naval battles Battle of New Orleans, 1815: makes Andrew Jackson a celebrity (even though battle was fought after treaty) EVERYONE SKEDADDLING, AS THE BRITISH BURN WASHINGTON!
During War of 1812, Federalists had opposed War of 1812 Hartford Convention, 1814-1815: New England states opposed the war so much, secession from U.S. was discussed, anger over war/embargo’s impact on economy After Treaty of Ghent, popularity for war (and Andrew Jackson) surges, and Federalist party is mostly dead Republicans rule without opposition James Monroe: 1816-1824 (last Founding Father President) Foreign policy: the Monroe Doctrine (1823) The US declares the Americas off-limits to Europe; US will recognize existing European colonies, but no new ones “America’s Self-Defense Doctrine”; neutral, just like Washington wanted
The Supreme Court rules in several cases which help create basis for a strong central government –McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) –Maryland tries to tax branch of the Bank of the United States –Court says: Constitution lets Congress makes laws that are “necessary and proper” to carry out its own powers; this means there are powers only implied, not spelled out Constitution says national government is “supreme” law of the land; therefore, states can’t tax the national bank –Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) Court says that U.S. government is in charge of interstate commerce, which can include just about any commercial activity These rulings greatly expand the power/scope of the national government
1.Jay’s Treaty 2.XYZ Affair 3.Quasi-War 4.Alien and Sedition Acts 5.“Revolution of 1800” 6.Embargo Act, 1807 7.War of 1812 8.Monroe Doctrine 9.Marshall Court (McCulloch v. Maryland, Marbury v. Madison, Gibbons v. Ogden)