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Digital Image Fundamentals Selim Aksoy Department of Computer Engineering Bilkent University
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy2 Imaging process Light reaches surfaces in 3D. Surfaces reflect. Sensor element receives light energy. Intensity is important. Angles are important. Material is important. Adapted from Rick Szeliski
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy3 Image acquisition Adapted from Gonzales and Woods
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy4 Image acquisition Adapted from Rick Szeliski
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy5 CCD cameras Lens collects light arrays. Array of small fixed elements replace chemicals of film. Number of elements (pixels) less than with film (so far). Adapted from Shapiro and Stockman
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy6 Sampling and quantization
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy7 Sampling and quantization
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy8 Problems with arrays Blooming: difficult to insulate adjacent sensing elements. Charge often leaks from hot cells to neighbors, making bright regions larger. Adapted from Shapiro and Stockman
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy9 Problems with arrays Clipping: dark grid intersections at left were actually brightest of scene. In A/D conversion the bright values were clipped to lower values. Adapted from Shapiro and Stockman
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy10 Problems with lenses Adapted from Rick Szeliski
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy11 Image representation Images can be represented by 2D functions of the form f(x,y). The physical meaning of the value of f at spatial coordinates (x,y) is determined by the source of the image. Adapted from Shapiro and Stockman
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy12 Image representation In a digital image, both the coordinates and the image value become discrete quantities. Images can now be represented as 2D arrays (matrices) of integer values: I[i,j] (or I[r,c]). The term gray level is used to describe monochromatic intensity.
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy13 Spatial resolution Spatial resolution is the smallest discernible detail in an image. Sampling is the principal factor determining spatial resolution.
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy14 Spatial resolution
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy15 Spatial resolution
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy16 Gray level resolution Gray level resolution refers to the smallest discernible change in gray level (often power of 2).
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy17 Bit planes
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy18 Electromagnetic (EM) spectrum
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy19 Electromagnetic (EM) spectrum The wavelength of an EM wave required to “see” an object must be of the same size as or smaller than the object.
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy20 Other types of sensors
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy21 Other types of sensors
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy22 Other types of sensors blue green red near ir middle ir thermal ir middle ir
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy23 Other types of sensors
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy24 Other types of sensors
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy25 Other types of sensors
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy26 Other types of sensors
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy27 Other types of sensors
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy28 Other types of sensors
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy29 Other types of sensors
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy30 Other types of sensors
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy31 Other types of sensors ©IEEE
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy32 Image enhancement The principal objective of enhancement is to process an image so that the result is more suitable than the original for a specific application. Enhancement can be done in Spatial domain, Frequency domain. Common reasons for enhancement include Improving visual quality, Improving machine recognition accuracy.
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy33 Image enhancement First, we will consider point processing where enhancement at any point depends only on the image value at that point. For gray level images, we will use a transformation function of the form s = T(r) where “r” is the original pixel value and “s” is the new value after enhancement.
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy34 Image enhancement
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy35 Image enhancement
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy36 Image enhancement
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy37 Image enhancement
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy38 Image enhancement
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy39 Image enhancement Contrast stretching:
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy40 Image enhancement
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy41 Histogram processing
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy42 Histogram processing Intuitively, we expect that an image whose pixels tend to occupy the entire range of possible gray levels, tend to be distributed uniformly will have a high contrast and show a great deal of gray level detail. It is possible to develop a transformation function that can achieve this effect using histograms.
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy43 Histogram equalization
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy44 Histogram equalization
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy45 Histogram equalization Adapted from Wikipedia
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy46 Histogram equalization Original RGB imageHistogram equalization of each individual band/channel Histogram stretching by removing 2% percentile from each individual band/channel
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy47 Enhancement using arithmetic operations
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy48 Image formats Popular formats: BMPMicrosoft Windows bitmap image EPSAdobe Encapsulated PostScript GIFCompuServe graphics interchange format JPEGJoint Photographic Experts Group PBMPortable bitmap format (black and white) PGMPortable graymap format (gray scale) PPMPortable pixmap format (color) PNGPortable Network Graphics PSAdobe PostScript TIFFTagged Image File Format
CS 484, Spring 2010©2010, Selim Aksoy49 Image formats ASCII or binary Number of bits per pixel (color depth) Number of bands Support for compression (lossless, lossy) Support for metadata Support for transparency Format conversion …
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