Nouns Person: man, Jake, plumber, pilot, golfer, Amanda Animal: dog, mouse, English Springer Spaniel, ferret Place: island, alley, street, city, wilderness, Fort Bragg Thing: desk, banjo, Chia Pet, radio Abstract idea: democracy, anger, love, morality
Common Noun A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense -- usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. computer moose politician house painting town mustard
Proper Nouns You always write a proper noun with a capital letter, since the noun represents the name of a specific person, animal, place, or thing. The names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organizations, religions, and languages are proper nouns. Catholic Declaration of Independence Mexican Gray Wolf George Bush English Sierra Club
Pronoun Take the place of common and proper nouns. I he she it we they our them you
Carrie combed the snarls out of Carrie’s hair and scrubbed Carrie’s body with the loofah Carrie’s friend had given to Carrie. Carrie combed the snarls out of her hair and scrubbed her body with the loofah her friend had given to her.
Finding Subjects The subject tells who or what did it, does it, or will do it, or it reveals who or what is being talked about in the sentence. It is generally placed before the verb. The water rippled. Sparks flew. The little conductor took a bow. The concert hall roared. My hair crackled.
Practice 1. A large, white seagull hovered over the waves. 2. She is sitting under the bridge. 3. His huge, calm, intelligent hands caressed the piano. 4. The door slammed in his flabbergasted face. 5. The werewolf and his wife wreaked havoc in the pantry.
Prepositions A preposition is a word that relates a noun or pronoun to another word. For example: In the sentence, "The rabbit ran around the tree," the preposition "around" shows the relationship between "rabbit" and "tree.“
Finding Prepositions 1. She slapped her daughter on the face. 2. They battled with each other in the ring. 3. It used to live near a waterfall under a canopy of trees. 4. With a raging temper, the boss screamed at his employees. 5. Beside the players on the field stood the coaches with tears in their eyes.
Subjects and Prepositional Phrases Prepositional phrases contain nouns, but those nouns can never be the subject of the sentence. 1. The storm broke over the city. 2. Lightning flashed across the night sky. 3. Across the sky, ear-splitting thunder roared loudly. 4. Suddenly, the room was plunged into total darkness. 5. In the house, most of the candles were lit. 6. After the crews fixed the lines, power was restored.
Special Case: Questions Sentences that express questions often do not place the subject in the beginning of the sentence. To find the subject, ask “what or who is the sentence about?” Why is the paper bag in the trash can? Where did the boys get in trouble this time? What do you want to do? How well do you think you did on the exam?
Special Case: There The word “there” can never be the subject of a sentence. 1. There are many ways to hunt bear. 2. There may be too many people in the kitchen right now. 3. There are always ways to find the subject of a sentence.
Special Case: You understood Sometimes a sentence begins with a verb that gives an order. Get me a glass of soda. Go to the store. Sit there and don’t say a word. Relax and wait for them to get here. In these sentences, the subject is “you” but it is not written; it is understood (or assumed to be there.).
Practice Bracket any prepositional phrases in the following sentences. Then underline the subject of each sentence with a single line. 1. Jonathan and Matt went to the mall on Friday afternoon after class. 2. Jonathan wanted a birthday gift for his new girlfriend, Chantal. 3. Buying a gift for a new friend is hard. 4. What should he choose as a present? 5. There are so many interesting ideas for gifts in the stores. 6. Would Chantal like perfume, jewelry, or clothing? 7. At last, Jonathan and his friend asked a salesgirl for advice. 8. Getting help was a great idea. 9. The salesgirl was a good friend of Chantal and suggested a bottle of Chantal's favorite cologne. 10. Of course, there is a moral to this story. 11. Always ask for help in a puzzling situation.