Introduction Definition Types of Reduced Relative Clause
Definition A Reduced Relative Clause: a Relative Clause formed with a participle and NO relative pronoun
Types of Reduced Relative Clauses Relative Clauses Reduced by TO+ Base Form of Verb Relative Clauses Reduced by TO+ Base Form of Verb Relative Clauses Reduced Participles Relative Clauses Reduced Participles
Relative Clauses Reduced by TO+ Inf. After the first, second… the last, next, the only… and sometimes a superlative Ex: He is the first man who comes and the last man who leaves. He is the first man to come and the last man to leave.
Relative Clauses Reduced by TO+ Inf. After a (pro) noun when there is an idea of purpose, obligation, permission of subject’s wishes Ex: They need a garden where they can play in. They need a garden to play in.
Relative Clauses Reduced Participles We use a present participle in place of an active verb. Ex: Do you know the woman who is talking to Tam? Do you know the woman talking to Tam?
We use a past participle in place of a passive verb. Ex: The boy who was injured in the accident was take to the hospital. The boy injured in the accident was take to the hospital.
Examples 1. Climbers bring with them canisters that contain fuel to cook their meal. Climbers bring with them canisters containing fuel to cook their meal. 2. We are concerned about people who are being held in prison without a trial. We are concerned about people being held in prison without a trial.
3. Most of the food which are made in this factory are exported. Most of the food made in this factory are exported. 4. They saw many houses that were destroyed by the storm. They saw many houses destroyed by the storm.
5. Have you got a key that can unlock this door? HHave you got a key to unlock this door? 6. We have some picture books that children can read. We have some picture books for children to read.
Task 1 Divide class into 6 groups Look at the task The group giving the answer first will take 1 point. At the end, which group has more point is the winner.
Reduce relative clauses to phrases: 1. The man who is sitting there is a clown. The man sitting there is a clown. 2. The city which was destroyed during the war has now been rebuilt. The city destroyed during the war has now been rebuilt.
3. The system which is used here is very successful. The system used here is very successful. 4. All students who don’t hand in their papers will fail in the exam. All students not handing in their papers will fail in the exam.
5. He was the second man who was killed in this way. He was the second man who was killed in this way. 6. There is a bench over there that your children can sit on. There is a bench over there for your children to sit on.
Task 2 Complete the sentences using the following verbs in the correct verb form
1. I was woken up by a bell ……… 2. Some of the people …….... to the party can’t come. 3. A few days after the interview, I received a letter ………. me a job. 4. Somebody……….Jack phoned while you were out. 5. The waiting room was empty except for a young man …….. by the window.……… a magazine. readcallinvite sitofferring ringing invited offering called sittingreading Task 2
Task 3 Divide class into 4 groups Make as many correct sentences as possible Which group make the more correct one is the winner The winner will win 1 big present from the teacher.
Use the words in the brackets to make sentences using REDUCED RELATIVE clauses 1. The house was empty. (nobody/ live/ in/ it) There was no body living in it. 2. The accident wasn’t serious. (no one/ injure) There was no one injured. 3. The piece of paper was blank. (nothing/ write/ on it) There was nothing written on it. 4. We were the only guests at this hotel. (no body else/ stay here) There was nobody else staying here. Task 3