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Department of Computer Science Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Science Introduction to Presence Prof. A. Ferworn.

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Presentation on theme: "Department of Computer Science Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Science Introduction to Presence Prof. A. Ferworn."— Presentation transcript:

1 Department of Computer Science Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Science Introduction to Presence Prof. A. Ferworn

2 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn Topics Course Management Form Assignments Buzz words –Telepresence –Presence Research Questions –The Gestalt of Presence Measuring Presence

3 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn What is Telepresence? Term coined by Marvin Minsky in 1980 but attributed to the futurist Patrick Gunkel He meant: Manipulation of objects in the real world through remote access technology

4 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn Telepresence

5 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn Example: MAX Teleoperated dog on the Web ( )

6 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn MAX

7 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn Presence Expanded definition of Telepresence by Thomas Sheridan (1994) Presence is a theoretical concept describing the effect that people experience when they interact with a computer-mediated or computer- generated environment.

8 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn What is Presence? Sense of being present in an environment –A physical –Virtual –Imagined –Hallucinated feeling Being there is all in your head Therefore it is tough to measure

9 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn 9 Open Research Questions Is there a definition of presence that is sufficiently operational and quantitative to be useful?Is there a definition of presence that is sufficiently operational and quantitative to be useful? What are the factors that create a sense of presence?What are the factors that create a sense of presence? Are there subjective and objective measures that can quantify presence?Are there subjective and objective measures that can quantify presence?

10 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn 10 More Questions Are there applications for which a sense of presence actually improves operator performance?Are there applications for which a sense of presence actually improves operator performance? Are there applications for which presence is a necessary ingredient? If so, how are these applications different from applications for which a more traditional display system is just as effective?Are there applications for which presence is a necessary ingredient? If so, how are these applications different from applications for which a more traditional display system is just as effective?

11 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn 11 Sheridan (1992) –Physical aspects of an experience that determine “presence”: What Sensory data is available and how much?What Sensory data is available and how much? Can the sensors be controlled?Can the sensors be controlled? Can the environment be modified?Can the environment be modified? Sensory Information Control of Sensors Ability to Modify Environment

12 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn Why is Presence applicable to Robotics One of definition of the word robot might be: –Any device that supports Sensing Actuation, and Control Sensory Information Control of Sensors Ability to Modify Environment

13 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn How do we measure presence? Well, it turns out, not very well Subjective Measurements –Questionnaires soliciting opinion about experience Indirect Psychological Measurements –Relate stimulus magnitude to opinion about the stimulus magnitude Objective Measurements –Based on Performance measures of tasks Physiological responses

14 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn Questionnaires Example: –Witmer and Singer Questionnaire Questions about reactions to virtual environments Hope to create consistency across systems General Approach among questionnaires –Take assumptions about what presence is and make up questions concerning the assumptions

15 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn Immersive Tendency Questionnaire

16 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn Virtual Environment-Centric

17 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn Physiological Responses Theory: –The real world changes our physiological responses to it. –A remote or virtual world should do the same if we are immersed in it. Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nervous, Sensory, Blood Chemistry

18 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn Measure this Relax Find your Pulse Watch this

19 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn 19 Performance measures Success vs. failure measuresSuccess vs. failure measures –Based on individual task performance Eg Bottle tests for teleoperation (next slide)Eg Bottle tests for teleoperation (next slide) Suspension of beliefSuspension of belief –Observable changes in mode of behavior relative to interface Forgetting the interface is there.Forgetting the interface is there. Instinctual responsesInstinctual responses –Ducking at approaching objects –Leaning into a perceived curve –Vocalizations

20 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn The Bottle Test While testing for presence is hit and miss, testing for other things can be quite easy This is the poor man’s testing strategy When you have nothing else, you can test an operator’s concentration and ability to focus with a simple bottle of water

21 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn The Bottle Test

22 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn Example: Simulated Rollercoaster

23 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn How to Measure the Presence Subjective Measure –Questionnaire concerning feeling before and after ride Indirect Psychological –Perceived speed of ride vs. stimulus producing this perception Physiological –Heart rate during ride

24 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn How would you measure these?

25 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn Some Heuristics for Presence Everyone brings their own state of mind (Gestalt) to a situation. There is a large difference between the intensity of actually being there and being virtually or distantly there. perceptions and behavior of and in real- world situations may be modified based on virtual or mediated experiencesperceptions and behavior of and in real- world situations may be modified based on virtual or mediated experiences Presence is consequence freePresence is consequence free

26 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn 26 Where is presence important? TherapyTherapy Pain controlPain control RehabilitationRehabilitation EntertainmentEntertainment TrainingTraining EducationEducation

27 Department of Computer Science Prof. Alex Ferworn Remember what I said about Gestalt


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