3 HURRICANES Eye of the hurricane the calmest part
4 VOLCANOES Volcanic disasters are caused by lava flows, triggered by volcanic activities such as eruptions. Covering extensive areas, volcanic disasters can cause a large-scale damages and serious personal injury. Secondary disasters such as debris flows are often triggered by rainfall after a volcanic eruption. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFOAVVo9zQI
5 EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes, are jerking of the field of variable intensity and short duration, produced in the earth's crust due to the sudden release of energy within the Earth. We perceive it as a tremor or shaking of the ground. Although they may have different causes, most earthquakes are caused by vibrations that occur when large masses of rocks inside the rigid crust abruptly after fracture is subjected to enormous pressures. EARTHQUAKES
TECTONIC EARTHQUAKE 6 The magnitude and intensity of earthquakes is measured using two scales used for the magnitude of Richer and the Mercalli intensity. The first with a total of ten degrees and the second with twelve
VOLCANIC EARTHQUAKE 7 1. Magma chamber 2. Bedrock 3. Conduit (pipe) 4. Base 5. Sill 6. Branch pipe 7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano 8. Flank 9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano 10. Throat 11. Parasitic cone 12. Lava flow 13. Vent 14. Crater 15. Ash cloud
8 CONCLUSION Earthquakes occur when instantly released from the stored energy inside the Earth and consequently the ground shakes, and there are different types of waves and earthquakes. The consequences are always negative, major earthquakes can cause considerable damage, as they make the opening large cracks in the ground, fall and damage buildings, bridges collapse and break water and gas pipes.
In the early hours of 26 April 1986, one of four nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl power station exploded. Moscow was slow to admit what had happened, even after increased radiation was detected in other countries. The lack of information led to exaggerated claims of the number killed by the blast in the immediate area. Contamination is still a problem, however, and disputes continue about how many will eventually die as a result of the world's worst nuclear accident
The sarcophagus encasing Chernobyl was built in haste and is crumbling. Despite strengthening work there are fears it could collapse, leading to the release of tonnes of radioactive dust. Work is due to begin on a £ 600m replacement shelter designed to last 100 years. This New Safe
Confinement will be built on site and then slid over the sarcophagus. The shelter will allow the concrete structure to be dismantled and for the radioactive fuel and damaged reactor to be dealt with. The ends of the structure will be closed-off. Despite the lasting contamination of the area, scientists have been surprised by the dramatic revival of its wildlife. Wild horse, boar and wolf populations are thriving, while lynx have returned to the area and birds have nested in the reactor building without any obvious ill-effects.
The disaster released at least 100 times more radiation than the atom bombs dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Much of the fallout was deposited close to Chernobyl, in parts of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. More than 350,000 people resettled away from these areas, but about 5.5 million remain. Contamination with caesium and strontium is of particular concern, as it will be present in the soil for many years. After the accident traces of radioactive deposits were found in nearly every country in the northern hemisphere. But wind direction and uneven rainfall left some areas more contaminated than their immediate neighbours. Scandinavia was badly affected and there are still areas of the UK where farms face post-Chernobyl controls.
The number of people who could eventually die as a result of the Chernobyl accident is highly controversial. An extra 9,000 cancer deaths are expected by the UN-led Chernobyl Forum. But it says most people's problems are "economic and psychological, not health or environmental". Campaign group Greenpeace is among those to predict more serious health effects. It expects up to 93,000 extra cancer deaths, with other illnesses taking the toll as high as 200,000. The most obvious health impact is a sharp increase in thyroid cancer. About 4,000 cases of the disease have been seen, mainly in people who were children or adolescents at the time. Survival rates are high and only 15 people are known to have died. But Greenpeace says there could eventually be 60,000 cases of the disease, among 270,000 cases of all
Japan is beginning the cleanup after Friday’s deadly earthquake and tsunami. The death toll is currently at 573 with hundreds more people missing. Most of the people died in the massive tsunami, which was up to ten metres high. Japan’s Fire and Disaster Management Agency says the number of destroyed buildings has reached 3,400, but that is expected to rise. In the quake-hit areas, around 5.57 million households currently have no electricity, while more than one million homes have had their water supply cut off.
The mega-earthquake is the seventh largest ever recorded. It hit northeast Japan at 2:46 p.m. with a magnitude of 8.9 on the Richter scale. It was felt as far away as Beijing, China. The following tsunami has completely washed away large parts of Japan’s north. The damage is in tens of billions of dollars. Fifty- three countries in the Pacific Rim were put on tsunami alert. Japan’s Prime Minister Naoto Kan said his main focus now is to stop a nuclear power plant from overheating. Scientists released radioactive steam from the plant to reduce the pressure inside it. A second explosion has occurred at the nuclear power plant that was damaged in Friday ’ s catastrophic earthquake and tsunami. Nuclear reactor 3 from the Fukushima plant suffered a similar explosion to that which hit reactor 1 on Saturday. Officials say the blast did not damage the casing which houses the uranium fuel rods in the reactor ’ s core. Experts believe the latest explosion was caused by a build-up of hydrogen in the building that covers the core. Japan ’ s prime minister Naoto Kan has told people there is no danger of a radioactive leak, but warned the situation to cool the reactors is still critical. He described recent events as "the biggest crisis Japan has encountered in the 65 years since the end of World War II".
Japan is beginning to understand more details of its tragedies. The death toll is slowly rising. Police found over 2,000 bodies on the coastline of Miyagi prefecture on Monday and at least ten thousand people are missing in the port town of Minamisanriku. Tens of thousands of people have been evacuated from a 20-km radius of the Fukushima nuclear power plants – many fear they will never see their homes again. More than 22 Fukushima residents are being treated for the effects of exposure to radiation. The whole of Japan is extremely concerned about the ongoing crisis at the power plants. Experts say a disaster on the scale of Chernobyl is highly unlikely. Nevertheless, the quiet fear and panic experienced by the Japanese raise questions about nuclear safety.
GRAPH OF THE EVOLUTION OF NET COMSUPTION OF ELECTRICITY IN SPAIN Evolution of the power of the energy in Spain AñosMillones de KwhTasa de variación % 196014.6258,4 197045.30010,4 198092.0064,6 1985105.5792,9 1990129.1613 1991138.0466,9 1992139.4261 1993139.065-0,3 1994145.0334,3 1995150.2893,6 1996154.9283,1 1997162.3384,8 1998173.9067,1 1999185.6116,7 2000196.4215,8
TEN LARGEST CONSUMER COUNRIES NUCLEAR POWER COUNTRYUNITSTOTAL OF MW(e) Estados Unidos10999.784 Francia5658.493 Japón5938.875 Alemania2122.657 Federación de Rusia2919.843 Canadá2215.755 Ucrania1512.679 Reino Unido1211.720 Suecia1210.002 República de Corea108.170 Total335297.978 GLOBAL CONSUMER432340.347
FIGURES INTERPRETATION In 2008, 50% of the energy produced in Spain was of nuclear origin (15,368 ktoe or thousands of tonnes of oil equivalent), 15% came from coal, 6% hydro and 29% of other renwables. Renewable energy, Spain is the largest producer of solar and wind power the third world in 2009. After the "boom" of installing photovoltaic panels in Spain in 2008, the real power of solar energy production could reach 3,130 MW, surpassing Germany was the leading producer, according to the National Energy Commission (CNE).
FIGURES IINTERPRETATION In recent years, Spain is higher theoretical capacity of generating wind power than nuclear, with 16,740 MW installed in 2008. In 2003 Spain became the world's largest producer, but it is expected that the U.S., Germany and China are ahead in 2010. Spain and Germany in 2005 they produced more electricity from wind farms that from hydroelectric plants.
NUCLEAR ENERGY ARGUMENTS FOR VS AGAINST NUCLEAR ENERGY DEBATE: ARGUMENTS FORAGAINST Renewables do not produce all the electricity needed nowJust a positive impact on climate change because the main source of emissions is road transport Countries such as France, Finland and the United States opt for this alternative United States, France, Japan, Germany, Russia and South Korea (75% nuclear power in the world) have a persistent public opposition Ensure power supply in Spain to operate the reactor 9 24 hours a day 365 days a year In the above countries, for example, to keep constant the number of operating reactors should be built 80 new reactors in the next ten years Is a clean energy, avoiding the emission of 60 million tonnes of CO2 per year Even with 1,000 or 1,500 plants in the next 50 years, global electricity coverage would not reach the 20% and reducing CO2 emissions would not reach 10% It is economical because the kWh produced at reasonable cost Is not competitive. If one wanted to produce all the world's electricity by nuclear means would have to build 2 plants each week for 50 years. And their high capital costs account for 75% of the total cost of the nuclear kWh Guaranteed SecurityObvious security now increased international terrorism. Besides the problems that generate waste and nuclear proliferation that would require use plutonium as fuel
46 THE WORST ACCIDENTS AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS HAVE RESULTED IN SEVERE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION.
47 RISK OF CANCER There have been several epidemiological studies that claim to demonstrate increased risk of various diseases, especially cancers, among people who live near nuclear facilities. Among recent studies, a widely cited 2007 meta- analysis of 17 research papers was published in the European Journal of Cancer Care. It offered evidence of elevated leukemia rates among children living near 136 nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom, Canada, France, United States, Germany, Japan, and Spain.  Elevated leukemia rates among children were also found in a 2008 German study that examined residents living near 16 major nuclear power plants in Germany. These recent results are not consistent with many earlier studies that have tended not to show such associations. But no credible alternate explanations for the recent findings have so far emergedmeta- analysis 
SAVIN G ENERG Y YouTube - Energy, let's save it!
What are we going to do? The earth is warning us with natural disasters, so why do we continue maltreating her? We think that is easier to leave the job to next generations, but do we want our children to suffer the consequences that we have caused?
ENERGY LET’S SAVE IT (aquí va el video con hipervinculo) 54
55 8 NUCLEAR UNITS WORKING NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS IN SPAIN