2ChlamydiaBacterium that is spread by sexual contact and infects the genital organs of males and females.Approximately 975,000 new cases are reported each year.Adolescent girls have a particularly high rate of infection.
3Chlamydia Symptoms: Men: Women: Diagnosis: Men - urine sample Thin, usually clear discharge and mild discomfort on urination, appearing 7 to 14 days after infection.50 percent of cases are asymptomatic.Women:75 percent of cases are asymptomatic.Diagnosis:Men - urine sampleWomen - cell sample from cervix or urinesample.
4ChlamydiaTreatment:Curable with azithromycin or doxycycline; does not respond to penicillin.Poorly treated or undiagnosed cases may lead to:urethral damageepididymitis (infection of the epididymis)Reiter’s syndromeproctitis in men who had anal intercoursePelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)Problems with pregnancy and risks for newborn infants of infected mothers
5Chlamydia Risks from Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Possible infertility, due to scarring of the fallopian tubesEctopic (tubal) pregnancyChronic pelvic pain
6Chlamydia Prevention: Many infected people are asymptomatic and spread the disease unknowingly.Screening programs can identify, treat, andcure asymptomatic carriers.The best method of prevention is the consistentuse of a condom.
7HPV Human papillomavirus causes genital warts: Around the urethral opening of the penisOn the shaft of the penisOn the scrotumOn the vulvaOn the walls of the vaginaIn the cervixOn the anus
8HPV The majority of people infected with HPV are asymptomatic. HPV is the single most important risk factor for cervical cancer.Also associated with cancer of the penis and the anus.Individuals infected by oral sex have an increased risk of cancers of the mouth and throat.
9HPVDiagnosis is done by inspecting the warts or analyzing DNA of the patient.Several treatments are available:Podophyllin acid or bichloroacetic acid - applied directly to the wartsCryotherapy - warts are frozen offLaser therapy can also be used to destroy the warts.Several vaccines are currently being tested.
10Genital HerpesA disease of the genital organs caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV-1or HSV-2).Symptoms - small, painful bumps or blistersUsually found on the vaginal lips, penis, or anus.
11Genital Herpes Treatment: Drug acyclovir prevents or reduces recurring symptoms, but there is no cure.Valacyclovir and famciclovir are new drugs that are even more effective at shortening outbreaks and suppressing recurrences.Scientists are actively working to create an immunization against herpes.
12Genital Herpes Complications: Meningitis Narrowing of the urethra due to scarringIncreased risk of becoming infected with HIVTransfer of virus from mother to infant in childbirthPsychological consequences need to be taken as seriously as the medical consequences.One highly effective treatment program combines information on herpes, relaxation training, stress management training, and imagery technique.
13HIV Infection and AIDS AIDS - acquired immune deficiency syndrome HIV - human immune deficiency virus; the virus that causes AIDS.Opportunistic diseases make take over once HIV has damaged an individual’s immune system.
14HIV Infection and AIDSBy the end of 2005, more than 1 million persons in the United States had been diagnosed with AIDS; 550,000 had died from it.It is estimated that 40 million are infected with HIV worldwide.In the early years of the U.S. epidemic, gay male sex accounted for the majority of cases.Today, women are the fastest growing group for new HIV infection.
16HIV Infection and AIDSWatch Gapminder video here!
17HIV Infection and AIDS Transmission: Exchange of body fluids Contaminated blood and needlesFrom infected woman to baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
18HIV Infection and AIDS Transmission: Anal intercourse is the sexual behavior most likely to spread AIDS.Heterosexual, penis-in-vagina intercourse spreads HIV as well.The greater your number of sexual partners, the greater your risk of getting infected with HIV.Condoms are 87 percent effective in protecting against HIV transmission during heterosexual intercourse.
19HIV HIV is one of a group of retroviruses Retroviruses reproduce only in living cells of the host species, in this case humans.HIV invades a group of white blood cells (lymphocytes) called T-helper or T4 cells.These cells are critical to the body’s immune response in fighting off infections.When HIV reproduces, it destroys the infected T cell.
20HIVThe Centers for Disease Control has established the following categorization of HIV infection:Early Stage – initial infectionMiddle Stage – may have no symptomsAIDS
21HIV Diagnosis: Two major tests for HIV infection: ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) - blood test that detects the presence of antibodies to HIVProduces a substantial number of false positives.Western blot or immunoblot methodHighly accurate though more expensive and difficult to perform.
22HIVDiagnosis:ELISA test involves a waiting period of more than a week before results are known.OraQuick rapid HIV test for blood and OraQuick rapid HIV test for oral fluid both provide test results in 20 to 30 minutes.Both tests must be done in clinics.
23HIV Treatment: No cure for AIDS. AZT (azidothymidine zidovudine, ZDV) stops virus from multiplying.DDI (dideoxyinosine or didanosine) slows the progression of the disease.DDC (dideoxycytidine) stops the virus from replicating.
24HIVTreatment:Protease inhibitors - attack the viral enzyme protease, which is necessary for HIV to make copies of itself and multiply.HAART (highly active anti-retroviral therapy)Patients take a “drug cocktail” of protease inhibitor combined with AZT and another anti-HIV drug.Helping people survive much longerConcern about the emergence of resistant strains
25HIVHIV/AIDS is now the fifth leading cause of death for U.S. women between the ages of 25 and 44.Leading cause of death for African American women between the ages of 25 and 34.Intervention programs should include sexual assertiveness training, in which women are empowered to insist that their sex partners use condoms.
26HIV Children become infected: African Americans Hispanics From an infected mother at birth (89 percent)Because of hemophilia (4 percent)From transfusions of contaminated blood (6 percent)African Americans12 percent of population50 percent of AIDS casesHispanics13 percent of the population18 percent of AIDS casesAsian Americans and Native Americans have less than 1 percent of cases.
27HIV Denial of the reality Anger Depression Many patients experience a reaction that is a typical response to receiving a diagnosis of incurable disease.Denial of the realityAngerDepressionAIDS is a socially stigmatized disease.
28HIV/AIDS Progress in AIDS Research: Vaccine Researchers are working to develop a vaccine, but this is more difficult than was expected.Research on NonprogressorsHIV-infected people who go for 10 years or morewithout symptoms are being studied.They have high levels of chemokines(HIV-suppressor factors), which can block HIVfrom entering cells.
29HIV/AIDS Robust People: Studying people who resist infection may also yield clues to a vaccine or a cure.Some researchers believe that HIV’s property of rapid mutation could be used against it by forcing it to mutate to a harmless form.
30Gonorrhea Also called “the clap” or “the drip” Caused by a bacterium Oldest of the sexual diseasesSymptoms:Men: pus-like discharge and painful, burning urinationWomen: asymptomatic
31Gonorrhea Diagnosis: Men: Women: Both: Sample of discharge is examined.A urine test is also available.Women:Cervical discharge is taken and cultured.A pelvic exam should also be performed in women.Both:A swab from the throat or rectum should be taken and cultured if necessary.
32GonorrheaTreatment:The traditional treatment was a large dose of penicillin or tetracycline.Ceftriaxone is highly effective antibiotic, even against resistant strains.
33Syphilis Caused by the treponema palliduma bacterium. Incidence is much less than that of gonorrhea or chlamydia.Can damage the nervous system and even cause death.Syphilis infection makes one more vulnerable to HIV and vice versa.
34Syphilis Major early symptom - chancre A round, ulcerlike lesion with a hard, raised edge, resembling a craterSyphilis proceeds in stages:Primary-stage syphilisSecondary-stage syphilisLatent syphilisLate syphilisCongenital syphilis - passed from mother to infant.
35Syphilis Diagnosis: Physical exam; examination of fluid from chancre VDRL - fairly accurate blood test; cheap and easy to performTreatment - antibioticsPenicillin, tetracycline, or doxycyclineTotal elimination of syphilis seems to be a feasible goal.
36Viral HepatitisThere are 5 types of viral hepatitis but hepatitis B is of most interest in a discussion of STDs.People with long-term hepatitis B may develop serious liver disease involving cirrhosis or cancer.Treatment - rest, symptom relief, antiviral treatmentsPrevention - vaccine for hepatitis B.
37Trichomoniasis Caused by Trichomonas vaginalis protozoan. Transmitted mainly through sexual intercourse.Occasionally transmitted nonsexually -organism can survive on toilet seats and other objectsCan lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and problems with birth.
38Pelvic Lice (Crabs)Tiny lice that attach to the base of pubic hairs and feed on blood from their human host.Symptom - itchingTreatment - Nix and Rid both are available without prescription.
39Prevention of STI’s Abstain from sexual activity. Limit oneself to monogamous relationship with an uninfected person.Condoms can help.Careful washing and inspecting of genitals.Urinating before and after intercourse helps keep bacteria out of the urethra.
40Other General Infections Vaginitis –Vaginal inflammation or irritation.Monilia (candida) –Yeast infection.Bacterial vaginosisCystitis –Infection of the urinary tract or bladder in women.Prostatitis –Inflammation of the prostate gland.