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EDU10003 The World of Maths Assessment 1: Maths and numeracy in the real world Fiona Pidgeon Student ID: 657999X

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Maths in the Real World Maths is everywhere. We use maths in various ways without even being conscious of it. This video shows how maths is used in everyday occurrences (Maths of planet Earth). Please press the play button to be redirected to the video. Beauty of Mathematics [Digital Video] retrieved from http://mathsofplanetearth.org.au/mathematics-changed-course-human-history- countless-times/ http://mathsofplanetearth.org.au/mathematics-changed-course-human-history- countless-times/

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Everyday occurrences of maths Maths and numeracy are a universal language. Wherever you are in the world, the concepts are the same. This is because maths is about numbers not language. (Annenburg Foundation, 2013). English - Pi approximately 3.14159 German - Pi etwa 3,14159 (Google Translate n.d.) French - Pi environ 3,14159 (Google Translate n.d.) Chinese (Tradition) - 皮約 3.14159 (Google Translate n.d.) Swahili - Pi takriban 3.14159 (Google Translate n.d.) We need maths for everyday things, buying cars, doing the shopping, building a house or travelling to school.

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What is Maths? According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary (2013), Mathematics is: “the science of numbers and their operations, interrelations, combinations, generalizations, and abstractions and of space configurations and their structure, measurement, transformations, and generalizations” ACARA (2013) state “Learning mathematics creates opportunities for and enriches the lives of all Australians. “ The photo ‘Mathematics’, Simmonds, B 2012.

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What is Numeracy? Numeracy means life skills. It is the foundation upon which we build our literacy skills but through using numbers (National Numeracy, 2013). Numeracy supports mathematics. It gives us the confidence we need to perform everyday tasks (National Numeracy, 2013). Organising elements for numeracy. ACARA, 2013.

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Differences and Similarities Maths is analytical; numeracy helps Fashion Designers determine the price of clothes. Fashion design requires maths in order to design a pattern and make it to standard sizes. Designers also need to determine how much the garment will cost. They calculate how much the product cost to make, adds various percentages to determine the final costing (You can do Maths, 2011) Other mathematics required include: Ordering materials Paying for deliveries

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Differences and Similarities This cost sheet gives an indication of what is required to cost a particular piece of clothing. Aligning this to the Australian Curriculum, a designer would use the following skills: Content Strands Number and Algebra Measurement and Geometry Proficiency strands Understanding Fluency Problem Solving Cost Sheet [Digital Image] retrieved from http://steffani333.com/steffani333/fashion_portfolio/c ollections/haut_battalion/images/sheath_cost_sheet. jpg

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Differences and Similarities Maths is about active experimentation; numeracy is following a recipe. Cooking is all about maths and numeracy. When cooking, often it is a process of experimentation. In cooking, maths is the measurement and spaces/shapes. We need numeracy to undertake the measurement. It also helps us work out how much time we need to cook something or how much money we need to buy the ingredients. We need numeracy to interpret the recipe.

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Differences and Similarities In the kitchen, children can develop their numeracy skills in a number of ways. Count the cupcake wrappers needed to fill tins. Measure the ingredients required. Measure how thick the pizza dough is with a ruler. Using problem solving skills by determining how many lollies are required in total and how many will be on each cupcake. Cooking recipe cards retrieved from http://www.twinkl.co. uk/resource/t-t-4328- traffic-light-biscuit- recipe-cards

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Differences and Similarities Maths is about patterns and rhythm; in music, numeracy helps to count the beat. You can read music just like you would read math symbols. Each symbol represents information about the piece of music. In music, there are Sections Measures and bars Time Beats Fractions There are numbers everywhere in musical pieces (Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences, n.d.).

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Maths vs Numeracy Using music can help children with understanding complex patterns (Edelson & Johnson, 2003, p65). Teachers can use simple tools such as a drum and drumstick. Making a pattern on the drum helps with their thinking and reasoning skills. Children then must: Work out the pattern to determine the rule Explain the pattern using words Make a prediction of what will come next (Edelson & Johnson, 2003, p65) Example of a Time Signature [Digital Image] retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/4116/Music/music.htm

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Everyday occurrences Nature, Maths and Symmetry Aristotle is quoted as saying “The mathematical sciences particularly exhibit order, symmetry, and limitation; and these are the greatest forms of the beautiful.” (Math Academy Online, 2013) The line of symmetry is when an object has a mirror image. An example of this beauty is in a butterfly. A butterfly’s left side, mirrors its right. Therefore, a butterfly is symmetrical. Butterfly [Digital Image] retrieved from http://w3.impa.br/~tpereira/sym metrycompletion/images/butterfl y2_repaired.png Butterfly Symmetry Art Example retrieved from http://artforkidshub.com/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/symmetr y-butterfly.jpg

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Everyday occurrences Many animals have symmetry and this is known as bilateral symmetry. That means, if an animal is evenly divided down the centre, both sides should be equal and mirror the other side. This peacock is demonstrating symmetry. Peacock [Digital Image] retrieved from http://listverse.com/2013/04/21/10-beautiful- examples-of-symmetry-in-nature/

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Everyday occurrences Nature has other ways of showing us symmetry. Some flowers have bilateral or radial symmetry. Flowers [Digital Images] retrieved from http://bobklips.com/Flowers&Fruits3_Symmetry.htmlhttp://bobklips.com/Flowers&Fruits3_Symmetry.html

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Everyday occurrences Maths and predicting the weather There have been a lot advances in how the weather has been predicted. Some of the earlier physicists (Newton, Galileo) all had an early involvement in determining how the weather works (Roulstone, I & Norbury, J, 2013). Vilhelm Bjerkness (1862-1951) in the late 1800’s/early 1900’s used mathematics to forecast weather patterns (Roulstone, I & Norbury, J, 2013). Vilhelm Bjerkness (1862-1951) [Digital Image] retrieved from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/ 4/42/Bjerknes.jpg

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Everyday occurrences Scientists divided the earth into grids and applied various mathematical equations to determine weather predictions (Eminger 2011). Nowadays, complex maths equations are written in code and incorporated into computer programs. These programs, with some degree of accuracy, predict weather outcomes over periods of time. Scientists use maths when calculating the temperature (Celsius/Fahrenheit) measuring rainfall (millimetres, centimetres) determining wind speed (knots or kilometres) measuring pollen in the air (low to high)(IMS Health Incorporated, 2013).

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Everyday occurrences Weather prediction [Digital Image] retrieved from http://www.bom.gov.au/sa/forecasts/adelaide.s html?ref=hdr Global weather recording (in Celcius) [Digital Image] retrieved from http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id= 3505

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Everyday occurrences learning ACARA (n.d.) state “Mathematics has its own value and beauty and the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics aims to instil in students an appreciation of the elegance and power of mathematical reasoning. Mathematical ideas have evolved across all cultures over thousands of years, and are constantly developing.” The role of today’s pedagogical leader is to incorporate the Australian Curriculum into everyday learning.

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Everyday occurrences learning Patterns in Nature exercise – A Nature Walk Describing symmetry in nature This activity assists the children in identifying the role maths plays in nature. Prior to the nature walk, discuss and demonstrate symmetry in nature by showing photographs and physical objects. Discuss and ask questions to determine understanding. On the nature walk, children are to look carefully at plants and animals. Count leaves, petals and observe faces, looking for symmetry. Post nature walk, children look at symmetry in the faces of fellow students. Using a mirror, children can see symmetry. Use photographs and cut in half. Distribute the halves and ask the students to find the other half. Exercise adapted from Nature’s Numbers, Educators Guide.

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Everyday occurrences learning This exercise can be linked to the Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2013) in the following ways: Mathematics / Foundation Year / Number and Algebra / Patterns and algebra Content description –Sort and classify familiar objects and explain the basis for these classifications. Copy, continue and create patterns with objects and drawings Elaborations –observing natural patterns in the world around us –creating and describing patterns using materials, sounds, movements or drawings

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References ACARA (n.d.). Australian Curriculum. Mathematics. Rationale retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Mathematics/Rationale http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Mathematics/Rationale ACARA (n.d.). Australian Curriculum. F-10 Curriculum. Mathematics. Foundation Year retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Mathematics/Curriculum/F-10 Annenburg Foundation (2013). Math in Daily Life. The Universal Language retrieved from http://www.learner.org/interactives/dailymath/language.html http://www.learner.org/interactives/dailymath/language.html Beauty of Mathematics [Digital Video] Maths of Planet Earth Organisation, 2013 retrieved from http://mathsofplanetearth.org.au/mathematics-changed-course-human-history-countless-times/ http://mathsofplanetearth.org.au/mathematics-changed-course-human-history-countless-times/ Cost Sheet [Digital Image] retrieved from http://steffani333.com/steffani333/fashion_portfolio/collections/haut_battalion/images/sheath_cost_sheet.jpg http://steffani333.com/steffani333/fashion_portfolio/collections/haut_battalion/images/sheath_cost_sheet.jpg

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References Edelson, R.J. and Johnson, G (2003). Music makes math meaningful. Childhood Education 80.2 (Winter 2003) p 65. Association for Childhood Education International retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE& inPS=true&prodId=AONE&userGroupName=swinburne1&tabID=T002&searchId=R1&resultListType=RES ULT_LIST&contentSegment=&searchType=AdvancedSearchForm¤tPosition=1&contentSet=GALE|A 112165887&&docId=GALE|A112165887&docType=GALE&role= Eminger, S (2011). The History of Weather Forecssting retrieved from http://www-history.mcs.st- and.ac.uk/HistTopics/Weather_forecasts.htmlhttp://www-history.mcs.st- and.ac.uk/HistTopics/Weather_forecasts.html Google Translate (n.d.) retrieved from http://translate.google.com.au/#auto/sw/Pi%20approximately%203.14159 http://translate.google.com.au/#auto/sw/Pi%20approximately%203.14159 IMS Health Incorporated, 2013. Pollen Count. Pollen levels increase your allergies retrieved from http://www.pollen.com/pollen-count.asp http://www.pollen.com/pollen-count.asp Math Academy Online, 1997-2013. The Platonic Realms Interactive Database of Math Quotes retrieved from http://www.mathacademy.com/pr/quotes/index.asp?ACTION=TOP&VAL=beauty http://www.mathacademy.com/pr/quotes/index.asp?ACTION=TOP&VAL=beauty

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References Merriam-Webster Incorporated, 2013. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Definition of Mathematics retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mathematicshttp://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mathematics National Numeracy, 2013. National Numeracy for everyone, for life. What is Numeracy? retrieved from http://www.nationalnumeracy.org.uk/what-is-numeracy/index.html http://www.nationalnumeracy.org.uk/what-is-numeracy/index.html Nature’s Numbers. Educators Guide. (n.d.) retrieved from http://www2.fi.edu/exhibitservices/resources/natures_numbers_edu.pdf http://www2.fi.edu/exhibitservices/resources/natures_numbers_edu.pdf Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences (n.d.). Math Central. Math beyond school. Music, Math and Patterns retrieved from http://mathcentral.uregina.ca/beyond/articles/music/music1.htmlhttp://mathcentral.uregina.ca/beyond/articles/music/music1.html Roulstone, I & Norbury, J, 2013. Invisible in the Storm: The Role of Mathematics in Understanding Weather (pp 3, 4). Princeton University Press Simmons, B, (2011). [Digital Image]. Mathwords: Terms and Formulas from Beginning Algebra to Calculus retrieved from http://www.mathwords.com/http://www.mathwords.com/ You can do Maths, (2011). Maths is everywhere. Career – Fashion Designer retrieved from http://www.youcandomaths.com.au/fashion-designer.html http://www.youcandomaths.com.au/fashion-designer.html

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