4What Happened?When Hitler’s Nazi Party assumed power in 1933 they immediately dismissed all Jewish and what they called “politically unreliable” professors from the German universities. .
5What Happened?When Hitler’s Nazi Party assumed power in 1933 they immediately dismissed all Jewish and what they called “politically unreliable” professors from the German universities.§ 3: Civil servants who are not of Aryan descent are to be placed in retirement...(this) does not apply to officials who had already been in the service since the 1st of August, 1914, or who had fought in the World War …§ 4: Civil servants who, based on their previous political activities, cannot guarantee that they have always unreservedly supported the national state, can be dismissed from service.
6Some of the Best Professors Were Dismissed Albert Einstein (Physics)Professor at the University of Berlin.Developed relativity theory.Nobel Prize in 1921.Dismissed 1933.Migrated to the United States (IAS Princeton).
7Some of the Best Professors Were Dismissed Fritz Haber (Chemistry)Professor at the University of Berlin.Developed Haber-Bosch process to produce ammonia. -> used as key input in fertilizer which caused massive increases in agricultural productivityNobel Prize in 1918.Dismissed 1933.Migrated to Switzerland.
8Some of the Best Professors Were Dismissed John von Neumann(Mathematics)Privatdozent at the University of Berlin.Major contributions in:MathematicsPhysicsComputer scienceEconomics (game theory)Dismissed 1933.Migrated to the United States (IAS Princeton).
14Effect of Losing Top Quality Scientists Regression Results
15Quantifying the Loss to German Unis German universities never recovered from this massive loss of human capital.Main channel: hiring quality fell. After losing stars German universities did not manage to hire good researchers.They lost 9,576 publications in top journals between 1933 and These publications received almost 200,000 citations.