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World Englishes Lexical Aspect. Variability  Variability can be observed on each level of the language and it is an ontological and universal feature.

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Presentation on theme: "World Englishes Lexical Aspect. Variability  Variability can be observed on each level of the language and it is an ontological and universal feature."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Englishes Lexical Aspect

2 Variability  Variability can be observed on each level of the language and it is an ontological and universal feature of any language

3 Variant  The variable unit is understood as a model or norm. The term “variant” is understood as a modification of that norm or deviation from it

4 Norm vs. Varieties  British English illustrates the norm, and varieties of English are the variants of this norm.  The varieties of English show the deviation from the normative British English.

5 English: Three Main Directions  English as a native language  English as a language of the official communication  English as a foreign language.

6 Kachru’s Three-Circle Model


8 Inner Circle  Inner Circle is represented by the US, Britain, Canada, Australia, Ireland, and New Zealand, where English is used primarily as a first language.


10  Outer Circle groups together countries such as the Philippines, Singapore, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, where English functions primarily as an institutionalized additional language


12 Expanding Circle  Expanding Circle counts as members Japan, China, South Korea, Indonesia, among others, where English is used primarily as a foreign language.


14  Language and culture are inseparable  The reality is expressed trough the language  Each speaker is a culture bearer  National and cultural specificity is most widely expressed through the lexical units

15 Inner Circle Varieties  Specific vocabulary refers to the following word-groups  Religion  Customs  Traditions  Clothing  Political system and etc.

16 Australian English Plants, animals and tools National holidays and governmental system People and different rituals DingodogCanberra Day celebration of the official naming of Canberra Gina woman Jumbucksmall shipAnzac Dayday of remembrance in Australia Koradjideals with traditional medicine Warataha tree with large red flowers Borroloola Show Day holiday for the documented region around Borroloola. Myalla stranger, wild aboriginal Geebunga bush with fruit The Australian Greens Australian Political party Nulla - nullaa military club Boomerangthrown toolThe High Court of Australia Australian CourtWaltzing and Matilda Carry one's swag

17 Examples  My old folks used to call me him a myall, he was very remote all the time  This gin in a shop was arguing with the manager so furiously, I thought she was about to blow up.  Matilda was a mock-romantic word for a swag, and to waltz matilda was to hit the road with a swag on your car

18 Kangaroo AnimalsPlantsFoodSocial lifePolitical Sphere Kangaroo fishKangaroo bush Kangaroo steamer Kangaroo route Kangaroo Court Kangaroo ratKangaroo apple Kangaroo barKangaroo marriage Kangaroo grass

19 Examples  Kangaroo Court or Competent Tribunal?: Judging the 21st Century Military Commission  How can you even bear the smell of this kangaroo steamer? I can’t even look at it, you know  This old damn car gave me a kangaroo start, and it’s like that every morning!


21 New Zealand English Food and DrinkNational Holidays and Governmental System Plants, animals and birds Social Life and everyday items HopsNew Zealand beer Dominion day the Memorial day Kiwiflightless birds Drango a fool WarehouNew Zealand fiish and chips Waitangi Day Celebration of the legal arrangemen t between Maori and the UK Keaa parrotOld chumimmigrant from the UK Hangiatraditional New Zealand Maori dish United Future Political party Hoihoa yellow eyed penguin Tall poppyA succefull man Lolly cakecake with lollies or pieces of candy Māori PartyPolitical party Hopukua sea fishChipa basket for fruit Anzac dinner biscuit a biscuit made from wheat flour, New Zealand First Political party Kakarikia jumping sparrow Tupperwarea plastic container for food

22  The sneaky process that resulted in Dominion Day's assassination is certainly a story worth retelling  She brought the anzac biscuits with her, like we were going to have a picnic or something  My mom said they come from the old chum family, and they are still proud to be the first ones...


24 Indian English Unique Items used only in India Food and SpicesReligion Kirana storegrocery storeMutton do- piaza a dish of lamb with onions Dharmaspiritual protection Shamianadecorative tarpaulin made of cloth ChotaA small measure of alcohol AsanaYogic posture: Shikakaivegetable extract used for wishing hair Bhel puriIndian fast food dish Yoga Bandaha closure of all shops and institutions in a place Rasammulligataway soup Pujaritual prayer Croreten millionKariTraditional Indian spice Sadhviwoman spiritual aspirant

25  The police has put up a 'shamiana' at the scene of the blast in order to facilitate the work of investigators and forensic experts  I had bhel puri in Kailash Parbhat once and totally loved it. Since we went for lunch buffet, the chaat items were unlimited  She became a Sadhvi after she was widowed

26 Dharma behaviors that are considered to be in accord with order that makes life and universe possible cosmic law and order teachings of the Buddha teachings of the Jians the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings.

27 Examples  The study of Dharma helps us to find happiness within ourself.  Therefore they say of a man who speaks truth, "He speaks the Dharma," or of a man who speaks the Dharma, "He speaks the Truth.  Dharma and Adharma do not go around saying, ‘‘That is us.’’ Neither do gods, nor gandharvas, nor ancestors declare what is Dharma and what is Adharma.


29 Singapore English Food and DrinkEveryday SituationsSocial Life Angkatcurry flavorPakatcollobarate in secret, get into an alliance BuayaTo flirt Rojaka traditional fruit and vegetable salad dish RugiMake a lossKetuktrick someone into paying for a meal ChaiteaBedeklieAtashave a taste for expensive things Kampong Chai Chee a special sort of tea Kucing kurapsmall or insignificant/idi om Tekanpressured or pushed to the limit Buat bodohfeign ignorance/idio m Kacaudisturb

30 Examples  I think the contractor bedek u lah, only 245A is completed.  Eh, don’t ketuk me lah.  People there are very atas.  Don’t pakat against me.

31 Makan Everyday SituationsSocial Life MakanfoodMakansiphoned MakanTo eatMakanto take advantage of Chari makana gathering at which food is served Makan sessiona communal meal

32 Examples  The money that Durai makan from NKF, no need to return, ah  Want to makan?  There’s makan there, what.  I am a very naïve one, first day at work sure makaned by lao jioas.


34 China English FestivalsReligionSocial Life Spring FestivalChinese New Year Mogwai -monsterBeijing Opera -Chinese opera Dragon Boat festival traditional Chinese holiday Fenguang -mythological bird Paper tiger -something that seems threatening Blue Dragon Festival holiday tasks can be organized using special calendar Li qinumerologyIron rice -an occupation with guaranteed job Double Seventh Festival Star festivalSheng -birthPutonghua- a standardized variety of Chinese Shangsi Festival a festival to ward off misfortunes FengshuigomeopacyDazibaobig-character poster, commonly used during the Cultural Revolution


36 European English  The famous linguist Berns suggests his own theory of concentrating circles, which covers the European countries. This theory gives the following classification:  -the Inner circle: Great Britain and Ireland;  -the outer circle: Holland, Germany, Luxemburg;  -the expanding circle: Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain

37 European English

38 Political SystemBorrowings from European Language Peculiar use of British words Democratic deficit - a gap between the powers of the EU and the power of its citizens to influence EU Biro -ballpoint penActualcurrent Subsidiarity - :EU principle that decisions should be taken as closely as possible to the citizen HandyphoneEventual -possible Co-decision -the means by which the European Parliament shares decision- making with the European Council Bonnet -hood:Transmit -foresee Eurocrat -a staff member of the administrative commission of the European Union CourgettezuchinniThousand millionbillion

39 Examples  Don’t forget that we need courgetter to make this.  Can you pass the biro, please?  The Cohesion Fund is aimed at Member States whose Gross National Income (GNI) per inhabitant is less than 90 % of the EU average.  The eurocrat pioneers joined just before the easily won referendum on Harold Wilson's sham “renegotiation”.


41 European EnglishBritish English On the other handOn the other side Makedo HaveOther verbs

42 Examples  I think it is in all fairness probably best not to have a definitive judgment at this point.  My first son is an economist, the second makes research in biology.  EU makes many wrong things but this problem doesn’t come from EU.

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