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Fredda N. Lerner October 31, 2001

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1 Fredda N. Lerner October 31, 2001
Collaborative Intranets: A (Sometimes Uneasy) Marriage of People and Technology Fredda N. Lerner October 31, 2001

2 Enterprise Knowledge Enterprise Knowledge = Social Capital +
Intellectual Capital Components of Social Capital Knowledge Nexus Components of Intellectual Capital

3 The Intranet provides access and enables use of enterprise knowledge
Knowledge Management Enterprise Knowledge Management (KM) is a collaborative, integrated strategy to create, capture, organize, access, use and reuse enterprise knowledge assets The Intranet provides access and enables use of enterprise knowledge

4 Agenda Content Managing content Process Managing change
The Collaborative Intranet Case study

5 Enterprise Content Corporate Culture Enterprise Content
100% Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge  80%  20% Who knows how (expertise and skills) Acquired through practice and experience Complex to capture Qualitative Who knows what Formalized and specialized Available for capture Quantitative Structured Data Unstructured Data  80%  20% Databases Spreadsheets Documents, images Audio, video, multimedia

6 Using Content KM implementation affects the tacit versus explicit, i.e., 80:20, ratio More tacit knowledge becomes explicit Accessible Applicable Usable Reusable As more tacit knowledge is captured Enterprise knowledge base and content grow Tacit versus explicit ratio shifts, i.e., 80:20  20:80

7 Agenda Content Managing content Process Managing change
The Collaborative Intranet Case study

8 Intranet Content Lifecycle
Gestation and Authoring Archive Inactive Usage Active Usage Publish and Distribute Content Activity Time Record Records Management Content Management Author controlled Corporate controlled Destroy

9 Content and an Intranet
Static content, e.g., documents, records, images Dynamic content, e.g., interactive forms Web pages, modules, and page elements such as text, graphics, controls, multimedia, advertisements, and scripts Applications, middle-tier components, database procedures, and other programming logic Database information that directly supports the creation of dynamic Web pages or enables the customer to execute business transactions Downloadable files of all types

10 Intranet Content Management
Design Authoring Review Approval Conversion Storage Testing Staging Deployment Maintenance and updates Retirement and archival Reporting and analysis Automated workflow and audit THE GOOD NEWS: Anyone can be a content provider THE BAD NEWS: Anyone can be a content provider

11 Generic CM Application Functionality
Library Services Content Development Content Interchange Library services Check-in and check-out Version control Search and retrieval Foldering Security Indexing Product suite Object middleware File-format conversion Neutral interchange formats Language translators Workflow management Navigation Mark-up tools Intelligent objects Message-based project management

12 Benefits of Content Management
Provides control Intranet information is timely, correct, and accessible Increased responsiveness to the end user Single point of contact for content management and change management Minimize retention of out-of-date content Decrease the business process time Organize and share information

13 Agenda Content Managing content Process Managing change
The Collaborative Intranet Case study

14 Process Business rules govern all business processes
Who does what When does it happen What transpires What documents change Processes naturally evolve over time Usually manual and paper-driven Can have as many work-arounds as participants Automated processes are known as workflows

15 The Three “Rs” of Workflow
Rules determine which items take which routes at each decision point, and what needs to be done to them in the transformation process. Roles define what each worker’s specific function(s) in the process of delivering the organization’s goods and services. Routes are the paths the workitems take in being transformed from inputs to outputs.

16 WfM Features WfM system features include:
ability to set rules and policies governing flow and fulfillment of work tasks ability to audit, monitor workloads and reallocate resources accordingly the capability to revise the flow of work after identifying inefficiencies and bottlenecks Workflow Management (WfM) enables organizations to define and manage work processes in terms of participants, inputs and outputs, and to route work tasks, and the information required to perform them, automatically throughout the organization. Workflow can route any type of information, including images, electronic documents, video, , etc., coded or uncoded data. A WfM system can manage workflows ranging from small groups through the entire enterprise. A WfM system effectively binds and digitizes enterprise business processes.

17 Agenda Content Managing content Process Managing change
The Collaborative Intranet Case study

18 Change Management Change management is the process of helping an organization to operate successfully in a new environment, by optimizing-- The understanding that the workforce has of the new environment The ability of the workforce to operate effectively in the new environment The willingness of the workforce to accept and adapt to the new environment

19 Change Management Provides traceability
Manages content change as it is published on the Intranet As close to real time as possible Business rules based Auditable Current and timely content only Legacy content either deleted or archived (records management) Incorporates automated workflow management

20 Change and Culture Organizational culture varies from rigid to flexible Larger and older organizations tend to be more rigid Rigid cultures are slower to change Individuals within rigid cultures can be much more receptive to change and therefore can serve as catalysts (and champions) for change

21 Cultural Evolution Knowledge hoarding Knowledge sharing
Little or knowledge base Paper-based Older business models Little automated workflow, usually by Client/server applications Vertical organizational models Knowledge sharing Large knowledge base Web-based applications Intranet Automated workflows Integrated e-document management systems Newer business models Communities

22 Resistance to Change Organizations resist change for several reasons
Large-scale change programs require changes in behavior Change programs often require people to think in new ways (e.g., learn new skills or tools) Change will not be sustainable without the support and active participation of those being asked to change There are numerous issues at play in new system implementation Changed service offering Loss of perceived “control” of the source Changed organizations, processes, reporting relationships, and responsibilities Displaced IT workers

23 Incorporating Change Human nature tends to resist change
Users may (unknowingly) construct their own “barriers” To integrate and adopt a new system and/or process into the corporate culture, identify and motivate using WIIFM (What’s in it for me?) Motivate/reward for knowledge sharing

24 Change and Technology Business drives technology
New business opportunities drive new technologies Intranet content can reflect the enterprise evolution Embracing change is key for adoption of new technology Resistance to change is the single biggest deterrent to adoption of technology, a digital knowledge base, and a “living” intranet

25 Agenda Content Managing content Process Managing change
The Collaborative Intranet Case Study

26 Intranet Evolution The collaborative Intranet is the evolving enterprise operating environment It has progressed from a static repository where vertical entities post general information to an interactive hub of collaboration, standardization, knowledge-sharing, business transactions, training, and document distribution The Intranet can serve as the corporate/enterprise knowledge base.

27 Intranet Components Collaborative project workspaces
User interface to the enterprise Content aggregation Search (Intranet, Internet and document management system) Communities Workflow management Categorization and tagging Application integration Enterprise knowledge base Collaborative project workspaces Taxonomy (classification of tacit and explicit knowledge) Personalization Single sign-on and security Caching Uniform user interface Metadata dictionary

28 Knowledge Islands

29 Why Use an Intranet? Positive motivation Negative motivation
Personal reward Personal benefit/growth Group/enterprise benefit Excitement Negative motivation No other options Ramifications if new procedures not followed Fear

30 Intranet Challenges Inconsistent Environment
HW/SW configurations Security Reliability Inconsistent application support and troubleshooting Reduced portability and scalability Content management Change management User acceptance, adoption and use Personalization

31 General Implementation Issues
Who has what Who does what Who knows what Who knows how What is the process Lack of consistency Lack of relevant documentation Lack of reliable accountability Lack of reliable guidelines and governance Lack of comprehensive and repeatable processes Lack of control

32 Issues and Risks WfM perceived as policeman
Reward systems based on intranet use Intranet content is limited User experience and expectations are different for every user How can users expectations be met? Users have different perspectives User and enterprise perceptions of technology as the problem solver

33 Risk Mitigation Initially, the Intranet content can be very focused (see case study) Potentially initial greater acceptance and adoption Intranet content and breadth will grow as it gains enterprise-wide acceptance Pilot application and receive feedback Include “warm and fuzzy” content Mimic the “paper” world Too much change can turn off many potential users Perform BPR (if needed) on the digital processes when they are more mature and users are more comfortable

34 A Successful Marriage Define Intranet value
Users will have a better understanding Value all content providers Non-technical users are important, too Recognize achievement from content providers Individual or group Celebrate successes Seek and integrate quick successes into the Intranet Create a strong identity and sense of community Motivate and reward through WIIFM Reward for knowledge sharing

35 Agenda Content Managing content Process Managing change
The Collaborative Intranet Case Study

36 Implementation Methodology
Phase 1 Assess Current (As-Is) Models Define Vision and Strategy Phase 3 Conduct Gap Analysis Establish Guidance, Value Proposition Objectives and Goals Pilot Implement Deploy Maintain Phase 2 Develop Target (To-Be) Models

37 Implementing a KM Intranet
Refine enterprise vision Define enterprise goals Subdivide goals into “palatable” KM subprojects Define subproject goals Define subproject tasks Develop metrics of success for each subproject Iterate as needed Incorporate completed project into IT strategy Redefine enterprise goals

38 Case Study – Introduction
The Organization - NIH DCAB 75 Project Managers 3,000 Construction Projects per Year In-house and contracted services Large and small projects Potential (significant) administrative delays Little collaborative efforts No effective documentation and use of “lessons learned”

39 Case Study - The Problem
ISO 9000 Certification Existing system paper-based Difficult to easily monitor projects Funding requests/contracts etc., lost Unable to manage projects collaboratively Auditing very difficult

40 Case Study - The Solution
Automated workflow system that follows ISO 9000 procedure manual Electronic forms for all form requirements with integrated workflows Central repository for all project related documents Named user access control to prevent casual access On-line, real time collaboration with threaded discussions

41 Case Study - The Solution
Logon to PIN Enterprise Workspace Personal Workspace DCAB Teams and Other Groups PIN Project Workspace Team 3 – Research East Project Officer Name PO – Lerner, Fredda Active projects Active Projects Specific project HCA0006 Categories of Work

42 Case Study - The Solution
Integration with legacy contracting systems for consolidated view of cost information Ad hoc and standard reporting Automated download of project from mainframe project initiation system On-line time cards Auditable Completely web-based

43 Case Study - Technical Details
Solution included customization using three COTS software packages Open Text - Livelink Intranet IBI - Web Focus Pure Edge - XML Forms During system development, the project team used Livelink to: Demonstrate and learn capabilities and limitations Actively use the tool prior to deployment Practice what we preach Project duration from requirements analysis to deployment was approximately five months

44 PIN Enterprise Workspace

45 PIN Home Page

46 Booz-Allen and Hamilton
For More Information... Fredda Lerner Booz-Allen and Hamilton 8283 Greensboro Drive McLean, VA 22102


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