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Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world CCS – Environmental Impacts Roger Barrowcliffe, 14 November 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world CCS – Environmental Impacts Roger Barrowcliffe, 14 November 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world CCS – Environmental Impacts Roger Barrowcliffe, 14 November 2007

2 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world Distribution of sources and sinks in Europe

3 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world Sources and sinks in NW Europe (2030)

4 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world Opportunities for environmental impact Fuel extraction Fuel transport Power Generation CO 2 transportCO 2 storage Waste products Emissions

5 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world Fuel – environmental issues ‘Fuel penalty’ has implications for: Use of a finite resource Socio-economic impacts GHG and other emissions Occupational risk Fuel transport has implications for: GHG and other emissions

6 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world CO 2 transport/pipelines Additional pipelines associated with: Temporary land take and ecological impact Temporary socio – economic impact Risk of rupture and consequent hazard Energy use through compression

7 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world EU scale of CO 2 capture and storage Mass of CO 2 captured (MT) by:  Oxyfuel (7%)  Pre-combustion (IGCC) (64%) 34371,4063,0385,397  Post-combustion (PC) (29%) ,3502,399 Total (cumulative MtCO 2 )46792,1874,7268,395 Total length of CO 2 transport pipeline (km) 233,1597,05711,51817,029 Annual volume of CO 2 captured (MtCO 2 /yr)

8 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world CO 2 storage Use of offshore reservoirs associated with risk of: Leaks to seawater and effect on ocean pH Accidental release at the wellhead Onshore reservoirs associated with: Leakage, rupture and risk to humans/ecosystems

9 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world Peterhead Power Station (as proposed by BP)

10 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world Peterhead Power Station – the process (1)

11 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world Peterhead Power Station – the process (2) Hydrogen rich fuel Syngas Reformer Shift conversion of CO to CO 2 CO 2 Capture Gas turbines and HRSGs H 2 O + ½ O 2 Pre-Combustion Decarbonisation CO 2 Electric Power Natural gas Partial Oxidation: CH 4 + ½ O 2 = CO + 2H 2 & Steam Reforming: CH 4 + H 2 O = CO + 3H 2 Water Gas Shift Conversion: CO + H 2 O = CO 2 + H 2 H 2 O + NO X and residual CO 2 Capture, transport and storage of CO2 Power generation

12 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world Peterhead Power Station – the carbon balance Natural Gas Fuel In 1231MWh (253.5TCO 2 /hr) Power station: Thermal Efficiency 38.6% (Net/LHV) CO 2 to Atmosphere 20.3Tonnes/hr CO 2 to Miller 233.2Tonnes/hr Electricity Export 475MW (Net) St Fergus Compression & Miller Operations CO 2 to Atmosphere 19.02TCO 2 Miller + St Fergus 5.59TCO 2 Total 24.61TCO 2 /hr Net CO 2 sequestered T/hr 477 barrels (64 tonnes) of oil Recovered/hr Assumptions: 92% Capture St Fergus Compression (13MW) (430g CO2/kW) (Reference Case) Miller Platform (92MW for nominal 41MW output at 35% efficiency) (260g CO 2 /kW UK Ave) Steady state operation profile (Reference Case, Offshore compression requirements based on initial years of operation)

13 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world Natural Gas Fuel In 2.59 kWh (534 gCO 2 ) Thermal Efficiency 38.6% (Net/LHV) CO 2 to Atmosphere 43 g CO 2 to Miller 491 g Electricity Export 1 kWh (Net) DF1 Peterhead 43 gCO 2 (to atmosphere) /kWh (92%CO 2 capture) Natural Gas Fuel In 1.79 kWh (368 gCO 2 ) Thermal Efficiency 56.0% (Net/LHV) CO 2 to atmosphere 368 g Electricity Export 1 kWh (Net) 368 gCO 2 /kWh electricity export UK Current Proven CCGT Technology - (F Class) Peterhead PS v Current CCGT PS

14 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world Peterhead PS: a comparison with existing electricity generation

15 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world Super critical coal fired PS – additional emissions (Source: IPCC) Rate (kg/MWhr) Increase (kg/MW hr) Atmospheric emissions: CO SO NO x Resource consumption: Fuel Limestone Solid Waste: Ash

16 Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world Summary of environmental issues Most impacts are modest – but widely distributed Some impacts are unknown and constitute risks


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