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World War II and the Post- War Period Lecture 1 Labor During the War.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II and the Post- War Period Lecture 1 Labor During the War."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II and the Post- War Period Lecture 1 Labor During the War

2 Administrative Reading reminder – All the rest of the reading on this topic by the next class

3 Review Dramatic Changes in labor and employment law in the 1920s and 1930s Dramatic split in the American Federation of Labor and the creation of the CIO Rapid organization of the mass production industries, especially cars, tires and steel and the role of sit-down strikes Employers’ continued resistance to rights of employees and to unions

4 Today I.Wartime Economy II.Labor Movement During the War III.Women and Minorities in the War-time Labor Force

5 I. Wartime Economy Extremely full employment Typical war ‑ time inflationary forces – Why? Accordingly, for the first time in a decade, workers have jobs, money and bargaining power, but are frustrated by the absence of goods to buy

6 II. Labor Movement During the War Competition continues between A.F.L. and C.I.O. Both federations supported the war effort conscientiously

7 III. Women and Minorities in the War-time Labor Force Desperate need for workers led to dramatic increase of women working Many African-Americans promoted to do jobs previously reserved for whites In both cases, issue of equal pay gave rise to conflict

8 Race Issues 1941 Randolph threatened march on Washington if the government refused to do something about discrimination Roosevelt responded with Executive Order creating the Fair Employment Practices Committee Overall, sex and race barriers in employment decreased during the war

9 Next Time War-time Public Policy War-time industrial conflict

10 World War II and the Post- War Period Lecture 2 Industrial Conflict and Public Policy

11 Administrative Begin reading on 1960s for Wednesday –First reading

12 Review Wartime Economy –Unemployment virtually disappeared –Controlled economy Labor Movement During the War –AFL and CIO both strongly supported war effort –War Labor Board resolved disputes

13 Today I.Industrial Conflict during the war II.Labor law in the war and post-war periods

14 I. Industrial Conflict During the War Unions and employers had agreed to avoid industrial conflict Disputes to be resolved by War Labor Board Unions thrived under the War Labor Board

15 Conflict 1941 had been a very high strike year Relatively few strikes by AFL or CIO unions during the war Exception was the United Mine Workers

16 Conflict 1946 post-war strike wave On several occasions President Truman intervened Gradually the strike wave ebbed after 1947

17 II. Labor Law in the War and Post- War Periods United Mine Workers strikes during the war caused anti-union backlash Response was Smith-Connally Act (1943)

18 Smith-Connally Empowered president to seize companies where disputes imperiled the war effort Criminal penalties for those who instigated or promoted strikes

19 Taft-Hartley Act Response to the strike wave of 1946 Largely written by the National Association of Manufacturers Passed over Truman’s veto – “Slave Labor Act”

20 Taft-Hartley Outlawed the closed shop Allowed states to prohibit the union shop Reintroduced injunctions in labor disputes in a variety of circumstances Banned secondary strikes and secondary boycotts Required unions to file anti-Communist affidavits for officers

21 Taft-Hartley Denied unionization rights to low level managers Authorized 80-day injunctions against strikes imperiling national safety and welfare Introduced concept of union unfair labor practices

22 Taft-Hartley Did not destroy collective bargaining where it existed Did halt the momentum unions had established during the war

23 Next Time The Landrum-Griffin Act The post-war Anti-Communist scare The merger of the AFL and CIO

24 World War II and the Post- War Period Lecture 3 The Post-War Period

25 Administrative Reading reminder –Memphis Sanitation strike for next class –Teacher unionism and Cesar Chavez for following class Quiz reminder Essay reminder

26 Review Issues of race and gender during the war Relative absence of strikes during the war Public Policy Issues –Smith-Connally Act (1943) –Taft-Hartley Act (1947)

27 Today I.The post-war Anti-Communist scare II.The merger of the AFL and CIO III.The Landrum-Griffin Act

28 I. The Communist Scare Immediate post-war period one of rabid anti-Communism Anti-Communist campaign in Hollywood Senator Joseph McCarthy

29 Anti-Communism Labor movement emerged from World War II with Communist leadership of several major CIO unions Communists were also influential factions in a number of other major unions

30 Anti-Communism Overall, no one more Conservative than leadership of the trade union movement 1949 CIO expelled 11 unions with 20% of total CIO affiliated membership In some cases (e.g. electrical products) CIO chartered new unions to replace the expelled ones Other unions made Communists ineligible for office

31 II. The Merger By the mid-1950s, AFL affiliates had 9 million members and CIO affiliates had 6 million Reduced conflict over principles and personalities New leaders George Meany and Walter Reuther

32 Merger June 1953 negotiated “No-Raiding” pact February 1955 agreed to full merger at the end of the year –All existing unions to be preserved –No raiding –AFL to provide both President and Secretary- Treasurer

33 Merger Agreed on series of Campaigns Much of the labor movement remained outside –Railway brotherhoods –UMW –ILWU –Teamsters (expelled for corruption)

34 III. The Landrum-Griffin Act Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act Product of investigations of McClellan Committee Evidence of rigged elections, misuse of funds, embezzlement and sweetheart contracts

35 Act Assumed public interest in democratic and proper union behavior Assumed that unions would be unable to assure such behavior themselves Purposes of the Act –Protect against improper union behavior –Protect against union-management arrangements denying members proper representation –Plug loopholes in Taft-Hartley

36 Act Bill of Rights for union members Regulation of union elections Discipline of Members Regulation of Trusteeships Regulation of Financial Conflicts of Interest

37 Next Time Begin discussion of the 1960s

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