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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

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Presentation on theme: "GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY"— Presentation transcript:

1 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
Utilization of GIS Technology for Operational Agrometeorological Applications Raymond P. Motha Chief Meteorologist U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Office of the Chief Economist World Agricultural Outlook Board Washington D.C., U.S.A. World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Introduction Several analytical techniques are used to monitor crop weather worldwide time series analyses analog comparisons static maps Until recently, many maps were static and depicted just one variable, making it difficult to: overlay data sets visualize and evaluate relationships easily assess crop weather conditions Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have helped overcome these hurdles World Agricultural Outlook Board

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GIS Described Simple GIS GIS defined: method for organizing, displaying, and analyzing spatial data and their relationships using computers and compatible technologies GIS incorporates quantitative data directly into the system, helping users: overlay multiple data sets create precise maps perform spatial analyses Numerous organizations use GIS to study, monitor, and model processes Robust GIS World Agricultural Outlook Board

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GIS Users USDA Forest Service GIS used to map wildfire burn severity and to focus efforts to minimize flooding and erosion World Agricultural Outlook Board

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GIS Users USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service GIS used to map crop areas annually for selected states World Agricultural Outlook Board

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GIS Users USDA Farm Service Agency GIS used to delineate field boundaries, map land use, and calculate acreages World Agricultural Outlook Board

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GIS Users USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service/Oregon State University GIS used to map various climatic parameters World Agricultural Outlook Board

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GIS Users National Weather Service GIS used to track tropical cyclones World Agricultural Outlook Board

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GIS Users Federal Emergency Management Agency GIS used to map flooding associated with a landfalling hurricane World Agricultural Outlook Board

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WAOB GIS Software ArcView 3.x ArcGIS 9.x Hardware 7 Pentium IV desktop computers Processing speed 2.4 to 2.8 GHz 512 MB RAM Windows 2000/XP operating system PCs connected via local area network Oracle 9i database World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Data U.S. National Weather Service synoptic/cooperative observer data WMO data important NWS/WMO data archived in DBMS Data describing extreme weather tropical cyclone wind/coordinate data mesonetwork temp./precip. data USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) crop production, yield, and area data NASS weekly crop progress/condition data World Agricultural Outlook Board

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USDA Agrometeorological GIS Applications WAOB GIS regularly used to create a variety of agricultural weather analyses Products grouped into three categories: Manual, single-parameter applications Automated, single-parameter applications Manual, multiple-parameter applications World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Manual, Single-Parameter Applications Refer to those WAOB products that map one agricultural or meteorological parameter and are generally labor-intensive to create Created by manually converting raw data into GIS-compatible formats and then using a GUI to import and display these data in the GIS GUI also used to add text and legends to the crop and weather maps, and thus create the finished products World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Crop Production Data – Internet U.S. Corn World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Crop Production Data – Excel U.S. Corn World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Crop Production Data – ArcView U.S. Corn World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Crop Maps – United States U.S. Corn World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Weather Analyses – Text File Text file, comma-delimited WMO data Note latitude/longitude data in addition to weather data World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Weather Analyses – GIS Table World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Weather Analyses – Data Plotted World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Weather Analyses – Data Contoured World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Automated, Single-Parameter Applications Similar to manual, single-parameter applications in that one agricultural or meteorological parameter is displayed and analyzed on each map, however, the process for creating these products has been automated Product creation process can be time consuming and tedious if a large number of products are desired and these products are created manually Automation significantly reduces the time and labor required to produce these products World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Avenue Scripts Object-oriented programming language, enables users to automate various tasks associated with mapping Examples of automation: loading data spatial analysis (e.g., contouring) defining map scale/extent annotation creating a map legend exporting/printing a map World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Daily Plot Maps Green number = precipitation Red number = maximum temperature Blue number = minimum temperature Empty, partially filled, and completely filled green circles symbolize precipitation amounts World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Color Contour Maps World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Crop Progress & Condition Maps World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Manual, Multiple-Parameter Applications Refer to those WAOB products that map two or more agrometeorological parameters and are generally labor-intensive to create Demonstrate the significant overlay capabilities of GIS, specifically the ability to visualize – and quantify – the percent of agriculture affected by various types of weather Often typify the special crop weather assessments prepared by WAOB meteorologists in response to extreme or severe weather World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Crop Weather Analyses – Hurricane Frances World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Crop Weather Analyses – Hurricane Ivan World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Crop Weather Analyses – Freeze Product World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Crop Weather Analyses – Drought Forecast Product World Agricultural Outlook Board

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U.S. Drought Monitor – Background In 1999, government and university scientists began working together to produce the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), a weekly product designed to provide a single snapshot of the spatial extent and intensity of drought in U.S. Drought experts from four agencies are responsible for coordinating USDM production each week On a rotating basis, an individual from one of these agencies serves as product author for the week, and typically authors the product for 2 weeks. World Agricultural Outlook Board

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U.S. Drought Monitor - Methodology Each Monday, author consults data from numerous sources quantitative observational networks model output satellite and radar imagery subjective reports Author uses these data to prepare a first draft of the USDM for that week Draft distributed via list-server to approximately 150 people, including fellow authors and climate and water experts from around the country. 1st draft 2nd draft 3rd draft FINAL 1st draft 2nd draft 3rd draft FINAL 1st draft 2nd draft 3rd draft FINAL 1st draft 2nd draft 3rd draft FINAL World Agricultural Outlook Board

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U.S. Drought Monitor - Methodology Members of drought list provide author feedback, used to refine USDM Through iterative process, author prepares and distributes 2-3 drafts of the USDM during Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of each week to obtain the best product possible. Final product and an accompanying text summary posted every Thursday at 0830 LT on the USDM web site: (http://www.drought.unl.edu/dm/monitor.html) World Agricultural Outlook Board

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U.S. Drought Monitor - Software Originally prepared using CorelDraw unable to overlay indices quantitative analysis not possible USDM authors switched to ArcGIS Authors obtained professional training draw drought areas annotate map print/export product Initial difficulties using GIS blamed on author inexperience deadlines limiting troubleshooting time World Agricultural Outlook Board

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U.S. Drought Monitor - Applications World Agricultural Outlook Board

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North American Drought Monitor USDM authors began collaborating with drought experts from Canada and Mexico to create NADM Produced monthly More frequent updates desirable, but differences in drought monitoring programs and policies prevent this Input integrated from 3 countries U.S. – from U.S. Drought Monitor Mexico – drawn by USDM after consultation with Mexican experts Canada – drawn by Canadian experts Products remains experimental World Agricultural Outlook Board

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Conclusion Numerous organizations have recognized the benefits of using GIS to display, manage, and statistically evaluate spatial data and the relationships among multiple data sets GIS nice because not discipline specific Can use GIS to map and analyze any data set that has a spatial component economic landmark population transportation agrometeorological data! World Agricultural Outlook Board

39 WEEKLY WEATHER AND CROP BULLETIN
Thank You ! World Agricultural Outlook Board


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