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Labour Migration in the Slovak Republic and in the EU Member States Bratislava, Slovakia 14 December - 2010 Meeting of the EMN National Migration Network.

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Presentation on theme: "Labour Migration in the Slovak Republic and in the EU Member States Bratislava, Slovakia 14 December - 2010 Meeting of the EMN National Migration Network."— Presentation transcript:

1 Labour Migration in the Slovak Republic and in the EU Member States Bratislava, Slovakia 14 December Meeting of the EMN National Migration Network “Labour Migration in the world – current global trends and perspectives” Ricardo Cordero Senior Specialist Labour Migration Department of Migration Management (DMM) IOM, Headquarters, Geneva

2 TOTAL IMMIGRANT AND EMIGRANT POPULATION BY REGION

3 WHY IS LABOUR MIGRATION IMPORTANT IN TODAY’S WORLD? The number of persons living outside their country of birth has increased from 75 million in 1960 to nearly 214 million in 2010 (UN, 2010) Roughly 105 million of this figure (49%) constitute migrant workers (ILO, 2010) In 2009 remittances sent to developing countries were estimated in USD 316 billion (World Bank)

4 Labour migration trends and characteristics Session 2: Terminology, trends and characteristics United Nations Population Division, 2009

5 Labour migration trends and characteristics Session 2: Terminology, trends and characteristics United Nations Population Division, 2009

6 Labour migration trends and characteristics Session 2: Terminology, trends and characteristics Feminization of labour migration The term “feminization of labour migration” must not be misunderstood: Women have always migrated The proportion of women in global migration flows has not significantly fluctuated over the past 50 years (around 46.6% in 1960; 49% in 1990; and 49% in 2010) What has changed is the share of women in labour migration flows; this share has increased since the 1970s

7 Highly Skilled Migration Family Migration Internal Migration Tourism Irregular Migration Study Abroad Types of mobility 10-15% of total flows Low and Semi-skilled Migration Work Refugees Types of mobility

8 CAUSES OF INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION 1.The “pull” of changing demographic and labour market needs in high-income countries 2.The “push” of unemployment, crisis pressures, and income disparities in developing countries

9 Examples of the “pull” factors in high-income countries: Ageing and shrinking population in developed countries (e.g. European workforce will decline by 20 million by 2030) Low demographic growth versus a growing economy (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, EU) Different procedures in admission (EU) Opportunities for employment and a higher standard of living The need for low- or middle-skilled employment in industrialised economies Access to better education and information Lack of interest of local workers on 3D occupations

10 Examples of the “push” factors in developing countries Poverty Unemployment Income disparities Political conflicts Environmental degradation Lack of proper working facilities and structures Overpopulation in developing countries due to high fertility rates

11 The existence of labour shortages does not necessarily reflect a need for foreign labour There are several ways to respond to labour shortages Labour migration is one of the tools for filling labour shortages Policy options for responding to labour shortages

12 Increasing the capital- or technology- intensity of the production process “Offshoring” or relocating to countries where labour costs are lower Increasing working hours Switching to production of less labour-intensive commodities Responses that do not rely on migration

13 In a knowledge-based economy, the necessary skills may not be available through the domestic supply Where shortages result from an inflexible labour force (mismatch in national labour market) Migration as a tool for filling labour shortages

14 DILEMMA: Permanent versus temporary migration ? Authorities in destination countries have to decide whether to opt for permanent or temporary labour migration. Traditional countries of immigration (i.e. Australia, Canada, N.Z. and the USA) accept permanent immigration as strategy to ensure economic growth. Most EU countries prefer the facilitation of temporary labour migration, distinguishing between skilled and lower-skilled migrant workers.

15 Temporary Schemes: Circular Migration Session 3: Circular Migration Country of destination: promise of flexible labour Country of origin: promise of remittances and technology transfer; solution to brain-drain issues Migrant workers: promise of new legal immigration channels

16 Circular migration: basic guidelines Session 3: Circular Migration An extra tool for promoting efficient migration management policies that respect migrants’ rights Conditions for a circular migration that benefit all parties concerned: Circular migration must be adapted to the labour market needs of countries of destination Circular migration must be rights-based Circular migration must set a favorable context for return Circulation migration must enable the acquisition and the transfer of skills and knowledge

17 Circular migration: good practices Session 3: Circular Migration Lessons learned from real circular migration projects: Labour market analysis in countries of origin and destination Offer of incentives to returning migrants Information dissemination and training of migrant workers Flexible work and stay/residence permits Skills upgrading and transfer of competences Portability of social benefits and pensions Permission of dual nationality Most activities require cooperation between countries of origin and countries of destination Bilateral labour agreements are the principal means for developing circular migration schemes

18 Practical implementation of circular migration schemes Temporary seasonal agricultural workers from Guatemala to Canada Two MOUs: IOM/Guatemala – FERME/FARMS IOM/Guatemala – Gov. of Guatemala 2003: 215 workers / 21 employers 2010: 4,200+ workers / 350+ employers

19 Guatemala – Canada: Main counterparts In Guatemala Ministry of Foreign Affairs (recruitment support) Ministry of Labour and Social Security (recruitment support) Embassy of Canada (visas, medicals) Embassy of Mexico (transit visas) Mexicana Airlines (tickets) In Canada The Office of Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) Consulates of Guatemala (Montreal, Ottawa) FERME (Québec) FARMS (Ontario,) Individual employers (Alberta, B.C.)

20 Guatemala – Canada: Key aspects Dynamic programme driven by requests from Canadian employers received by IOM Guatemala Excellent coordination among the partners (GoC, FERME/FARMS, IOM, GoG) Low drop-out rates: Early return 2.5% Non-return 0.2% Guatemalan government highly interested and committed Cultural orientation incorporates worker and employer feedback

21 Other forms of temporary labour migration Contract workers in Germany: Secondment system under the “Werkvertrag”: contract workers are posted to Germany, but continue to be employed by their employer in the home country. Work permit is required in Germany, but no labour market test needs to be met. Contract workers are only insured for social benefits in their own country, not in Germany; this reduces the cost of the worker to employers in Germany.

22 Main challenges of temporary labour migration programs Guarantee temporariness Keep migrants well informed Open and transparent process Ensuring human and labour rights Need for a deliberate approach Institutional capacity Inter-ministerial coordination Inter-State cooperation

23 Thank you Questions ?


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