Presentation on theme: "AP World History Pilot Lecture Series. “China will be the next superpower.” That claim was made by the British newspaper, The Guardian, in June 2006."— Presentation transcript:
“China will be the next superpower.” That claim was made by the British newspaper, The Guardian, in June 2006 was not alone in its assessment. As the new millennium dawned, similar headlines appeared with increasing frequency in lectures, newspaper and magazine articles, and in book titles worldwide. China’s huge population, its booming economy, its massive trade surplus with the U.S., its military potential,and its growing presence in global political affairs – all of this suggested that China was headed for a major role, perhaps, even a dominant one, in the 21 st century. Few of these authors, however paused to recall that China’s prominence on the world stage was hardly something new OR that its 19 th and 20 th century position as a “backward,” weak or dependent country, was distinctly at odds with its long history. Is China poised to resume in the 21 st century a much older and more powerful role in world affairs? A look at China’s Golden Age begins now…
A. Background ▪ 1. Han dynasty ruled China from 206 BC to AD 220 ( >400 yrs) ▪ 2. After Han collapsed, military leaders split China into rival kingdoms and chaos ensued, a period known as the Period of Disunion. a. lasted over 350 years b.ended in 589 when Yang Jian (YANG jee-EN) reunified China and founded the Sui dynasty & became its first emperor
1. Began in 589 CE 2. Accomplishments a. “The basics” ▪ 1.centralized government ▪ 2. restored order ▪ 3. created a new legal code b. Grand Canal ▪ 1. greatest accomplishment of the Sui ▪ 2. 1,000 mile waterway linked northern & southern China ▪ 3. Began under Emperor Yang Di (son of Yang Jian) ▪ 4. Millions of Peasants forced to work ▪ 5. Hundreds of thousands died
The Chinese peasants & officials stood along the canal in awe. A line of boats, many shaped like dragons, were part of Emperor Yang Di’s royal tour of the Great Canal. To show his power, he ordered the boats to be built in the shape of dragons, the symbol of China’s imperial family. He was dressed in golden, silk robes, which only, he as the Son of Heaven, could wear. Tour showed power & unity.
1. Sui (SWAY) general seized power & established the Tang (TAHNG) Dynasty 2. Ruled China from 618 – 907, nearly 300 years 3. Period of prosperity and cultural achievement 4. Chinese influence spread – became a model across East Asia
5. Accomplishments – a. Internal affairs ▪ 1. created a strong gov’t. ▪ 2. established one capital at Chang’an and a second capital at Luoyang. ▪ 3. centralized government, bureuacracy ▪ 4. expanded civil service exams b. Foreign affairs: EXPANSION ▪ 1. regained western lands in Central Asia ▪ 2. Gained influence over Korea ▪ 3. Increased contact w/ Japan – Japanese scholars came to China to study Chinese gov’t and culture.
a. ruled from 626 CE – 649 CE b. responsible for expansion c. relied on talented ministers – had prep schools built for civil service exams d. military conquests e. one of China’s most admired emperors
a. ruled after Taizong’s death when her husband was too weak/ sickly b. eventually became emperor herself –only woman in Chinese history to do so c. effective but ruthless d. overthrown in 705 CE
a. ruled from 712 – 756 CE b. ruled during the height of the Tang c. Known for his patronage of the arts & his own artistic talents d. Gave money for acting schools * *most famous was near a pear garden… Young people practiced acting, singing, dancing, acrobatics – aka Children of the Pear Garden Beginnings of the Chinese Opera – Traditionally, incense is burned before Chinese Opera performances, in his honor.
1. Buddhism originally came to China during the Han but few adopted it. 2. However, after the Han, during the Period of Disunion, many Chinese turned to Buddhism. a. taught that people could escape suffering & achieve peace (nirvana) b. appealed to people in the midst of turmoil 3. By the time of the Tang, Buddhism was well established.
4. Many Tang rulers were Buddhist. 5. Buddhist temples were constructed. 6.Buddhist missionaries were active throughout Asia. 7. Because of Buddhism’s popularity, the period from about 400 CE – 845 CE in China is known as the Age of Buddhism. 8. Age of Buddhism ended when it lost official favor in the mid 800s. A Tang emperor, saw it as a threat – texts burned & temples destroyed; it was weakened but not eliminated.
1. Began to decline in the 750s 2. Suffered military defeats – led to the loss of Tang lands in Central Asia and the north. 3. Nomadic invasions 4. Peasant rebellions over rising taxes 5. Ended in 907 when its emperor was killed by a general *Will not be unified again until the Song…
1. Was after the Tang 2. Reunified China in 960 CE 3. Ruled til 1279 4. Made Chinese civilization the most advanced in the world under its rule!
a. established capital Keifeng b. reformed the civil service exam system 1.) were very difficult to pass 2.) ensured that only the most talented ran the gov’t 3.)tested students knowledge on Confucianism 4. allowed for social mobility – pathway to gaining wealth and status c. Favored Neo-Confucianism
1. TANG a. poetry b. paintings – celebrating Buddhism & nature c. exquisite pottery d. architecture – buddhist pagodas d. innovations 1.) woodblock printing 2.) paper money 3.) porcelain 4.) gunpowder 5.) magnetic compass BUDDHIST PAGODA
2. SONG a. perfected porcelain White Black Pale green b. movable type – made printing much faster!!! c. gunpowder – used for fireworks & for signals, NOT as a weapon
1. AGRICULTURE IMPROVES a. new irrigation techniques increase acreages b. fast ripening rice from SE Asia enabled Chinese farmers to grow 2-3 crops a year instead of one c. cotton d. tea e. Population explosion- Song farmers fed the most populous country in the world 2. TRADE a. improvements in roads and canals b. during Tang: mostly overland via The Silk Road – to Central Asia, India, & beyond c. Late Tang Song dynasty: sea trade increased w/ advances in shipbuilding & sailing-
a. shops b. restaurants c. markets – featuring foreign goods! d. entertainment e. Tang capital, Chang’an, had a population of over 1 million. f. Song Dynasty – boasted several cities over 1 million each e. Port cities boom g. Despite urban growth, most Chinese lived in the countryside and farmed. see next slide
1. status of women declined 2. upper class women were encouraged to stay at home 3. footbinding Resulted from the desire for dainty/ small feet Feet wrapped – caused pain & deformity Symbolic of a husband’s authority over his wife.
Sui and Tang Dynasties –reunified China Sui had Grand Canal linked northern & southern China; Tang ruled from 618 - 907 CE, a period of great brilliance, prosperity, & cultural achievement. Tang regained western lands in Central Asia; increased outside contacts.
Huge waterway Probably aided reunification efforts Allowed for easier travel Facilitated trade between north and south
Only woman to hold the title of Emperor Ruled China after her husband’s death Ruthless but efficient
Expanded civil service Created flexible law code Expanded China Increased contact with other peoples
Sinification : the term used for the spread of Chinese culture. During the Tang & Song Dynasties, China exerted a powerful political and cultural influence over its neighbors, in particular Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
1. Tang Dynasty conquered Korea but found maintaining rule to be too difficult, so they removed their military forces from Korea. In return, the Korean Silla dynasty made regular payments of money & goods – tribute – to China! 2. Impressed by the political & economic success of Tang China, Korean leaders did some cultural borrowing from China.
a. Koreans studied in China – consulted with Confucian scholars b. Chinese culture – writing, religion, (Buddhism), fashion & architecture entered Korea c. Korean elite adopted Confuciansm
1. China NEVER conquered Japan. 2. Success of China under the Tang motivated Japanese emperors to adopt elements of Chinese civilization 3. reputation as one of history’s greatest cultural borrowers! Buddhism Confucianism
A. an ultracivilized aristocracy Details of this life are captured in Lady Murasaki’s, The Tale of Genji B. Eventually emperor loses power to the establishment of the Shogun, rule by a military strongman. Emperor remained, but with a greatly reduced role
Became a feudal society Similar to western Europe at about the same time Rich landowners overseeing poor farm workers & obtaining protections from a private army of knights, the Samurais.
During the Tang, Chinese armies marched into Vietnam with mixed results Vietnamese revolted early & often Women in Vietman did NOT accept Confucius’ system of male dominance Rice! One benefit the Tang got from their interaction with Vietnam was a quicker-ripening form of rice. Became an important part of the Chinese diet
East Asia: 600 - 1450 Main Idea: The Mongols built a vast empire across much of Asia, founded the Yuan dynasty in China, and opened China and the region to greater foreign contacts and trade. Mongols emerged in the 1200s.
Thousands of soldiers moved forward in a mass as much as 50 miles wide. Terror spread before them like a huge tidal wave. Their reputation and their appearance were so frightening that, at word of a Mongol approach, towns and cities would surrender without a fight. The nomadic Mongols emerged in the late 1200s as one of history’s most brutal & efficient military forces. When on the move, they resembled a small, mobile city.
Soldiers traveled in divisions of 10,000 along with their families and herds. Mongol women carried out domestic tasks but could step into battle to provide help. Borrowing from many groups, the Mongols combined superior tactics and weaponry with sheer brutality. The world would not see such military dominance until the modern era!
A. Nomads from the vast steppes, or grasslands, of north-central Asia in 1200s 1. land was too dry for farming 2. lived as patoralists/ raised goats & sheep (and raiders as needed) 3. skilled with horses 4. tough environment = tough warriors
1. Traditional a chief was known as a khan 2. Late 1100s, a power khan, Temujin, began to conquer his rival and unite Mongols clans. 3. In 1207, he took the title Genghis Khan, meaning Universal Leader a. bloody campaign of conquest begins… b. battle tactics included brutality and psychological warfare c. would burn any town or city who resisted & kill its inhabitants
1. Genghis Khan will spend 20 years conquering much of Asia until his death in 1227. 2. Challenges his descendents to conquer the world… 3. Mongols divided his empire into 4 khanates, or regions and an heir would rule each region, with the Great Khan would rule the whole empire
4. Conquered China, Korea, Russia (Russians called them Tartars), Poland, & Hungary. 5. Ready to move into Western Europe, they turned back on learning of the Great Khan’s death India and Western Europe had escaped Mongol wrath, but most of Eurasia had been devastated.
1. Interesting contradiction: brutal in conquering, peaceful in ruling a. tolerated local beliefs and way of life b. often allowed local rulers to stay in power as long as they pay tribute c. even adopted aspects of conquered peoples - Mongols in Central Asia & Persia adopted Islam 2. Pax Mongolia: Mongol Peace
a. Ensured safe travel b. Secured trade routes - protected the Silk Road - The was no single road; the term "Silk Road" refers to the network of roads which together composed the system. As can be implied by its name, one of the chief commodities which traveled The Silk Road was silk itself. c. Also noteworthy: most scholars think the Black Death, which wiped out most of Europe during the 1300ss, spread from Asia to the Middle and Europe during this time
1.Created in 1279 when Kublai Khan – grandson of Genghis Khan – declares himself emperor 2.For the 1 st time: foreigners ruled ALL of China Kublai Khan gave his dynasty a Chinese name Distrusted the Chinese ▪ They were forbidden to hold high gov’t posts ▪ Mongols forbidden to marry Chinese ▪ Chinese had different laws and (HEAVY) taxes ▪ Used native Chinese as laborers for public works projects
3. Foreign Trade a. Pax Mongolia made for safe travel for merchants b. sea travel encouraged – much contact with SW Asia & India
a. an Italian trader from Venice, visited China during the Yuan dynasty b. Polo described the grand palace of The Great Khan – walls were covered in gold and silver Marveled at the postal system Impressed with use of paper money His tales peaked European curiosity
Kublai Khan suffered losses when trying to invade SE Asia Repeated failures to take over Japan Ongoing Chinese resentment Expensive public works projects Flooding of the Yellow River Kublai Khan died in 1294 1300s many Chinese factions rebelled 1368: rebel army defeated Mongols who retreated to Manchuria!!!
Delhi Sultanates 1. series of Muslim Turk dynasties who settled in the Northern portion of South Asia 2. fought off invaders, especially the Mongols, & sometimes blended Islam with aspects of the Hindu culture of the region. ▪ Ex. Sikhism ▪ *In contrast to Muslim conversions in North Africa to Central Asia, Muslims in S.Asia never accounted for more than 25%
Rulers of the Delhi Sultanate were tolerant & allowed the Indian people to practice their traditional beliefs. HOWEVER, they did work to spread Islam in India by inviting artists and scholars from the Muslim world. New cultural developments; Language: URDU is born – combination of Arabic & Sanskrit