Presentation on theme: "Author Workshop Author Workshop Shanghai University 14 May 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Author Workshop Author Workshop Shanghai University 14 May 2014
Outline Who we are What does the Publisher Do? Who sees it? -Access What does the Author Do? What not to do…Publishing Ethics What makes it better? - Innovation 2
Elsevier is a global leader in the development and dissemination of scientific, technological, and medical knowledge We are a global company, established in Amsterdam in 1880, with roots going back to 1580 We publish nearly 2,000 journals and over 1,400 new book titles annually, and all electronically We help societies, institutions, researchers and clinicians around the world to disseminate information globally, reach new markets and expand their customer base to advance science and medicine We are industry leaders in providing content and technology solutions 3 About Elsevier
Earth Sciences Over one million English language research articles published globally each year About 1000 English language research articles published with Elsevier per day 4 Elsevier by discipline
Over 7,000 people in 25 countries and more than 80 local offices We use our collective expertise to partner with experts in science and healthcare, and create content and technology solutions that help them get better outcomes. Elsevier Offices 5 It’s about people
Outline Who we are What does the Publisher Do? Who sees it? -Access What does the Author Do? What not to do…Publishing Ethics What makes it better? - Innovation 6
77 Solicit and manage submissions Manage peer review Production Publish and disseminate Edit and prepare Archive and promote 1,000 new editors per year 18 new journals per year >1 million+ article submissions per year 500,000 referees 1 million referee reports per year 7,000 editors 70,000 editorial board members 6.5 million author/publisher communications per year 300,000 new articles produced per year 180 years of back issues scanned, processed and data-tagged 10 million researchers 4,500+ institutions 180+ countries > 400 million downloads per year in 2008 2.8 million print pages per year 9 million articles available Organise editorial boards Launch new specialist journals 40%-90% of articles rejected Publishing Cycle
8 the average annual number of citations in year X to published in the two years prior, (X–1) and (X–2) Impact Factor = the average annual number of citations in year X to articles published in the two years prior, (X–1) and (X–2) Hirsch Index / h-index = A scientist has index h if h of his/her N p papers have at least h citations each, and the other (N p − h) papers have no more than h citations each. Journal citation data and bibliometrics can be used to measure the impact or influence of articles, authors, and journals Measuring Impact
Outline Who we are What does the Publisher Do? Who sees it? -Access What does the Author Do? What not to do…Publishing Ethics What makes it better? - Innovation 9
Gold OA (“Author Pays”) articles made up 7% of total in 2012 The level of uptake varies by field – highest in Life and Health Sciences 10 Open Access has grown in the last decade
Elsevier publishes 100 Open Access Journals This number will grow Elsevier publishes over 6,000 open access articles per year Elsevier offers the Open Article choice in 1,600 established, peer reviewed journals 11
Subscription journals making articles freely available online after time delay Time to free access varies due to differences in subject fields EXAMPLES Over 90 Elsevier journals now offer this solution in fields such as medicine, life sciences and mathematics Subscription journals making articles freely available online after time delay Time to free access varies due to differences in subject fields EXAMPLES Over 90 Elsevier journals now offer this solution in fields such as medicine, life sciences and mathematics Author processing fee per article published – sole mechanism to support journal Some journals use subsidies, grants and waivers Often referred to as “gold” open access EXAMPLES Elsevier has 100 OA journals Author processing fee per article published – sole mechanism to support journal Some journals use subsidies, grants and waivers Often referred to as “gold” open access EXAMPLES Elsevier has 100 OA journals Option to make an article within a subscription journal open access Supported by several funding organisations Often referred to as the hybrid model EXAMPLES Elsevier has 1,600 journals that offer this service Agreements with RCUK, Wellcome Trust, FWF, Telethon Option to make an article within a subscription journal open access Supported by several funding organisations Often referred to as the hybrid model EXAMPLES Elsevier has 1,600 journals that offer this service Agreements with RCUK, Wellcome Trust, FWF, Telethon Posted manuscripts, or pre-prints to websites and repositories Supported by many universities and research organisations Often referred to as “green” open access Elsevier has a very liberal posting policy that supports researcher needs Agreements developed with institutions to facilitate deposit Posted manuscripts, or pre-prints to websites and repositories Supported by many universities and research organisations Often referred to as “green” open access Elsevier has a very liberal posting policy that supports researcher needs Agreements developed with institutions to facilitate deposit So what is Open Access?
Elsevier’s Posting Allowances Pre-print version of article to internet websites Revised personal version of text of final article to author’s personal or institutional website or server According to funding body agreements (e.g. Wellcome Trust, HHMI, NIH) Elsevier’s Commercial Purpose Prohibitions Posting by companies for use by customers Placing advertisements against postings Charging fees for access or document delivery Any form of systematic distribution 13 Other Allowances and Restrictions
Elsevier content and ScienceDirect Over 12 million articles available Supported by your library Increasing distribution to mobile and apps
Outline Who we are What does the Publisher Do? Who sees it? -Access What does the Author Do? What not to do…Publishing Ethics What makes it better? - Innovation 15
This could be in the form of: Presenting new, original results or methods Rationalizing, refining, or reinterpreting published results Reviewing or summarizing a particular subject or field If you are ready to publish, a strong manuscript is what is needed next You should consider publishing if you have information that advances understanding in a certain scientific field Determine if you are ready to publish
Title Abstract Keywords Main text Introduction Methods Results Discussions Conclusion Acknowledgement References Supplementary Data Journal space is not unlimited: make your article as concise as possible Make them easy for indexing and searching! (informative, attractive, effective) General Structure of a Research Article
Why Is Language So Important? Save the Editor and the reviewers the trouble of guessing what you mean Write direct and short sentences One idea or piece of information per sentence is sufficient Avoid multiple statements in one sentence
Title of the Article A good title should contain the fewest possible words that adequately describe the contents of a paper. It is usually one complete sentence It usually captures the entire essence of the discovery Short catchy titles are more often cited No abbreviations or obscure acronyms 19
Keywords In an “electronic world”, keywords can determine whether your article is found or not! Avoid making them: too general (“petroleum”, “exploration”, etc.) too narrow (so that nobody will ever search for it) Effective approach: Look at the keywords of articles relevant to your manuscript Play with these keywords, and see whether they return relevant papers, neither too many nor too few 20
Abstract A clear abstract will strongly influence whether or not your work is further considered. Should stand alone! Consider it the advertisement of your article. Should tell the prospective reader what you did and highlight the key findings. Avoid using jargon and uncommon abbreviations. Use words which reflect the precise meaning Follow word limitations (50-300 words)
Introduction The place to convince readers that you know why your work is relevant Answer a series of questions: What is the problem? Are there any existing solutions? Which one is the best? What is its main limitation? What do you hope to achieve? General Specific
Pitfalls of The Introduction Too wordy – Never use more words than necessary. – Do not turn this section into a history lesson. Readers lose interest. A mixed bag of introduction with results, discussion, and conclusion thrown in for good measure. – Always keep sections separate to ensure the manuscript flows logically from one section to the next. Excessive use of expressions such as “novel”, “first time”, “first ever”, “paradigm-changing” (use these sparingly!)
Methods / Experimental Include all important details so that the reader can repeat the work. Details that were previously published can be omitted but a general summary of those experiments should be included Give vendor names (and addresses) of equipment etc. used Avoid adding comments and discussion Write in the past tense Most journals prefer the passive voice Consider use of Supplementary Materials Documents, spreadsheets, audio, video,..... Reviewers will criticize incomplete or incorrect descriptions, and may even recommend rejection
Results – What Have You Found? Only representative results, essential for the Discussion, should be presented. Show data of secondary importance in Supplementary Materials. Do not “hide” data in the hope of saving it for a later paper. You may lose evidence to support your conclusion. Use sub-headings to keep results of the same type together Easier to review and read Tell a clear and easy-to-understand story.
Results – Figures and Tables Illustrations are critical, because Figures and tables are the most efficient way to present results Results are the driving force of the publication A figure/table should convey the message besides giving the data of the experiment However, your figure legend should ONLY describe the figure, AND NOT THE DATA
Results – Appearance Counts! Un-crowded plots 3 or 4 data sets per figure; well-selected scales; appropriate axis label size; symbols clear to read; data sets easily distinguishable Each photograph must have a scale marker of professional quality in a corner All Text in English Not in French, Chinese, Arabic,... Use color ONLY when necessary Do not include long boring tables
Discussion – What Do the Results Mean? Check for the following: How do your results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section? Do you provide interpretation for each of your results presented? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? Or are there any differences? Why? Are there any limitations? Do not Make statements that go beyond what the results can support Suddenly introduce new terms or ideas There is some flexibility here with being creative, but do not over sell your results 28
Conclusions Without clear Conclusions, reviewers and readers will find it difficult to judge the work, and whether or not it merits publication in the journal. Tells how your work advances the field from the present state of knowledge. Do NOT repeat the Abstract, or just list experimental results. Provide a clear scientific justification for your work, and indicate possible applications and extensions. You should also suggest future experiments and/or point out those that are underway.
References: Get Them Right! Please adhere to the Guide for Authors of the journal It is your responsibility, to format references, not the Editor’s! Check Referencing style of the journal The spelling of author names, the year of publication Punctuation use Use of “et al.”: “et al.” = “and others”, Avoid citing the following: Personal communications, unpublished observations, manuscripts not yet accepted for publication: Editors may ask for such documents for evaluation of the manuscripts Articles published only in the local language, which are difficult for international readers to find.
Supplementary Material Data of secondary importance for the main scientific thrust of the article Or data that do not fit into the main body of the article e.g. audio, video,.... Remember that Supplementary Material is online only
Cover Letter View it as a job application letter; you want to “sell” your work… WHY did you submit the manuscript to THIS journal? Do not summarize your manuscript, or repeat the abstract Mention what would make your manuscript special to the journal Mention special requirements, e.g. if you do not wish your manuscript to be reviewed by certain reviewers, and any conflicts of interest. Mention if it is a revised and expanded version of a conference paper Most editors will not reject a manuscript only because the cover letter is bad, but a good cover letter may accelerate the editorial process of your paper.
Outline Who we are What does the Publisher Do? Who sees it? -Access What does the Author Do? What not to do…Publishing Ethics What makes it better? - Innovation What does the Editor Do?
The three are the most common forms of ethical misconduct that the research community is challenged with: Fabrication Making up research data Falsification Manipulation of existing research data Plagiarism Plagiarism takes many forms, from “passing off” another’s paper as the author’s own paper, to copying or paraphrasing substantial parts of another’s paper (without attribution), to claiming results from research conducted by others
Avoiding Plagiarism: Proper Citation A researcher, in writing his research paper, mentions a concept that is reported in an article written by his advisor. Does he need to cite his advisor’s work and list the advisor’s article in the bibliography? This is always a good idea Crediting the work of others (even your advisor’s or your own previous work) and noting permissioned materials is important to place your work in the context of the advancement of the field and to acknowledge the findings of others on which you build your research Q A
Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publication Ideally, the situation should be avoided where manuscripts that describe essentially the same research are published in more than one journal or primary publication An author should not submitting a previously published paper for consideration in another journal Duplication of the same paper in multiple journals of different languages should be avoided “Salami slicing”, or creating several publications from the same research, is manipulative and discouraged
Plagiarism Detection Tools Elsevier is participating in 2 plagiarism detection schemes: Turnitin (aimed at universities) Ithenticate (aimed at publishers and corporations) Manuscripts are checked against a database of 20 million peer reviewed articles which have been provided by 50+ publishers Editors and reviewers Your colleagues Other “whistleblowers” “The walls have ears", it seems...
83 publishers 25.5 million articles 48157 journals, books, conference proceedings Papers are run through iThenticate which matches the document against the Crosscheck database and major data providers and the open web Get a report displaying degree of similarity to other documents and a link to the fulltext of the matching documents Cannot detect plagarism but can identify a manuscript of concern Crosscheck
39 Publication Ethics – Self-Plagiarism Same colour left and right Same text 2003 2004
Publication Ethics – How It Can End..... Consequences vary according to the severity of the misconduct and the standards set by the journal editors, institutions and funding bodies. Possible actions include: Written letters of concern and reprimand – sometimes to be published Article retractions Some form of disciplinary action on the part of the researcher’s institute or funding body
The article of which the authors committed plagiarism: it won’t be removed from ScienceDirect. Everybody who downloads it will see the reason of retraction…
Outline Who we are What does the Publisher Do? Who sees it? -Access What does the Author Do? What not to do…Publishing Ethics What makes it better? - Innovation 42
Innovation: Easy submitting / ARTICLE TRANSFER SERVICE Article Transfer Service No need to reformat or resubmit – we will transfer your manuscript for you in minutes Shorter editorial times – the editors will use the work done by the previous editors and reviewers Revise your paper, taking into account any reviews already received, before finalizing submission to the new journal Keep the first submission date of your manuscript Remain in control of the submission process with minimal effort; just one click to agree to the transfer
Innovation: Easy submitting / YOUR PAPER YOUR WAY Your paper your way Journal-specific formatting such as reference style is no longer needed Authors can upload your entire manuscript as a single PDF or MS Word file the submission still needs to be structured and complete enough to allow editors and reviewers to assess your works – for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials & Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions Only when your paper reaches final revision stage, will you be requested to deliver the "correct format" for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article. The authors of 51.5% of submissions chose to submit via the Your Paper, Your Way route
Innovation: Format of the article / ARTICLE OF THE FUTURE
Innovation: Format of the article / AUDIO SLIDES Audio Slides 1212 published 2013 Positive feedback Non-peer reviewed SD and YouTube Gallery
Innovation: Format of the article / GRAPHICAL ABSTRACTS Graphical Abstracts A single, concise, pictorial and visual summary of the main findings of the article Either the concluding figure from the article or a figure that is specially designed for the purpose, which captures the content of the article for readers at a single glance The Graphical Abstract will be displayed in online search result lists
Innovation: Format of the article / SHARE The Sharing Hosted Autonomous Research Environments (SHARE) project aims to build an online library of virtual machines related to scientific publications, the purpose of which is to “share” securely and conveniently all data, software and configuration parameters related to scientific experiments. The SHARE special issue pilot appears in Elsevier’s Science of Computer Programming, Volume 85, Part A, Pages 1-100 (1 June 2014) Special Issue on Experimental Software Engineering in the Cloud(ESEiC) Guest editors' introduction to the first issue on Experimental Software Engineering in the Cloud (ESEiC) Authors: Pieter Van Gorp and Louis Rose Evaluation of model transformation approaches for model refactoring Authors: S. Kolahdouz-Rahimi, K. Lano, S. Pillay, J. Troya, and P. Van Gorp A survey and comparison of transformation tools based on the transformation tool contest Authors: Edgar Jakumeit, Sebastian Buchwald, Dennis Wagelaar, Li Dan, Ábel Hegedüs, Markus Herrmannsdörfer, Tassilo Horn, Elina Kalnina, Christian Krause, Kevin Lano, Markus Lepper, Arend Rensink, Louis Rose, Sebastian Wätzoldt, and Steffen Mazanek
Innovation: Format of the article / INTERACTIVE PLOTS Interactive Plots a new way for authors to include data and quantitative results with their journal article Interactive plots present author-submitted data as a line or scatter plot Readers can hover over the plot to see the value of a data point right from the plot