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Post World War I. Emperor Puyi Two parts

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Presentation on theme: "Post World War I. Emperor Puyi Two parts"— Presentation transcript:

1 Post World War I

2 Emperor Puyi Two parts

3 Post World War I Emperor Puyi -Puyi was three years old when he became emperor. His father ruled as his regent. -By 1911, there was a rebellion in China and Puyi abdicated on February 12, 1912. -He continued to live in the Forbidden City and was treated with enormous respect. -The city which was built between 1406-1420 did not allow commoners to enter.

4 Post World War I Emperor Puyi -In 1917 when he was 9, a warlord, Chang Hsun decided to restore him to the throne. Puyi proclaimed that he was emperor once again. Six days later a plane dropped three bombs on the Forbidden City. PuYi’s supporters abandoned him and he lost his throne.. He remained in the Forbidden City. m

5 Post World War I Emperor Puyi -In 1931 the Japanese army invaded Manchuria. The Japanese set up a new country in Manchuria called Manchukuo. They made Pu Yi the Chief Executive. -During World War II, Japanese developed Manchukuo as a military industrial base. -At the end of the war, Soviet forces invaded Manchuria were flown to the USSR and kept under house arrest March 9, 1932

6 Post World War I Emperor Puyi -At last, in 1950, Pu Yi was forced to leave his comfortable Russian Village and return to China, where he was sent at once to a prison camp. - He remained there for 9 years. In December of 1959, he was finally released. He was in his fifties. -In 1962, Pu Yi got married to Communist Party member, Li Shu- Hsien

7 Post World War I Yuan Shikai -1882 active military duty in Korea -Between 1876 and 1895, Japan and China struggle for influence in Korea -1885, Japan and Korea split influence in Korea equally -1894, Japan defeats China for control of Korea -Assigned to work on a modern Chinese military after China’s defeat. -Boxer Rebellion, he ignored the Court’s policy of support of the Boxers. He protected foreigners under his jurisdiction.

8 Post World War I -July 1901 he was commander of the best trained military in the north of China. -By 1908, after the death of Empress Dowager CiXi his career declined. - Double Ten Revolution (October 10) began in 1911. He was summoned back to duty to suppress the rebellion. -March 1912, the Manchus abdicated and Yuan was named the first president of the Chinese Republic. -By June 1916, exhausted and tired, he died.

9 Post World War I By 1919, Sun Yat-sen (Yixian) was back in power until the time of his death in 1925. Back in power? When was he IN power? The other side of the story After the death of Yuan Shikai, China slipped into twelve years of civil war and revolution. Sun Yat-sen was in power also from January 1912 until March 1912. He gave up his position as president of China to Yuan Shikai if he could get the Manchu’s to abdicate. Puyi abdicates on February 11, 1912 and Yuan Shikai remained as president until 1916.

10 Post World War I May 4 th Movement—1919 Precursor -Dynastic period ends 1912 -Imperialism—Opium War, Taiping Rebellion, Boxer Rebellion

11 Post World War I May 4 th Movement—1919 Purpose to strengthen China --Starts out with 3,000 student protestors who want cultural and intellectual changes --Closed many schools and colleges in 200 cities --Many reject Confucian traditions --Movement toward Western ideas of democracy and nationalism --Women looked to end arranged marriages, foot binding and seclusion. Result --Effective, Beginning of Chinese Nationalism --Ideology but no army

12 Post World War I May 4 th Movement

13 Post World War I By 1921, Sun Yat-sen had established a Nationalist party, Guomindang (gwoh meen Dawng). (meaning favorable to democracy)

14 Post World War I Sun Yat-sen --Born in 1866 --Joined older brother in Hawaii at 13, became very Westernized --By brothers support studied in Hong Kong completed medical degree in 1892 --Couldn’t practice medicine in Macao b/c he didn’t have a medical license from there. --Returned to Hawaii, then U.S. and London seeking support among Chinese overseas --Kidnapped by Ch’ing dynasty while in London who planned to send him to China for execution Song Quingling, wife, Japan, 1915

15 Post World War I Sun Yat-sen --Based in Tokyo and developed three principles People’s Nationalism People’s Democracy People’s Livelihood --The Ch’ing pressure obliged Japan to expel Sun in 1906 --Went to Vietnam but forced out by the French --He dies in 1925 and Chaing Kai-shek takes over in China Wuchang Hubei

16 Post World War I Nanking Decade 1927—1937 Northern China --During the 1920s, many floods, drought and famine killed millions. --As a result many peasants were landless. --Many western missionaries helped to rebuild roads, famine relief and rural credit cooperatives. --The Nationalist leader of China at that time during the agrarian crisis Chaing Kai-Shek mistrusted peasant organizations.

17 Post World War I Nanking Decade 1927—1937 Chiang Kai-shek --Major investor in Shanghai --Old Style Confucian --Set up secret Fascist organizations called Blue shirts similar to Hitler’s and Mussolini’s Brown and Black Shirts to ferret out Communists. --Employed German military advisors to stop communism and Japanese expansionism -- Liked by West, spoke English, western clothing, Harvard

18 Post World War I Murphey, Rhodes East Asia: A New History, 1997

19 Post World War I The Long March --Started in 1935 --The leader of the Communists at this time was Mao Zedong. --Chaing Kai-Shek drove 80,000 communists over 6,600 miles from southern to northern China. --10,000 finished --Chaing Kai-Shek flew above them to plan points along the route. --He was captured by a Manchirian warlord and demanded that he stop the civil war and join the United Front against Japan.

20 Post World War I


22 Post World War I Murphey, Rhodes East Asia: A New History, 1997

23 Post World War I The Long March

24 Post World War I Fascism in Italy History—a bundle of sticks with an ax Wrapped around it. It was a symbol of ancient Rome.

25 Post World War I Fasces in History—Mercury Dime

26 Post World War I Fasces in History—United States Capitol

27 Post World War I How does it work? It is any authoritarian government that is not communist. As an economic system, fascism is SOCIALISM with a capitalist veneer. Library of Economics and Liberty –

28 Post World War I What are the characteristics of Fascism? F A S C I S M Discipline and loyalty Rooted in extreme nationalism Individual to serve the state The state is absolute

29 Post World War I Why did it surface? It was started by Benito Mussolini (Il Duce—The Leader) and unemployed former soldiers

30 Post World War I Who followed Fascist ideas/thinking? Business leaders, wealthy landowners and lower middle class. Why was Fascism so popular? It revived national pride and offered a stable government. It appealed to people since it offered a stable government

31 Post World War I Mussolini became Italy’s leader in 1922. Mussolini distinguished fascism from liberal capitalism in his 1928 autobiography: The citizen in the Fascist State is no longer a selfish individual who has the anti-social right of rebelling against any law of the Collectivity. The Fascist State with its corporative conception puts men and their possibilities into productive work and interprets for them the duties they have to fulfill. (p. 280)

32 Post World War I Mussolini In Color

33 Post World War I Mussolini’s Bunker: Il Duce’s Futile Search For Safety

34 Post World War I The Rise of Nazism in Germany Treaty of Versailles

35 Post World War I The Rise of Nazism in Germany Economy

36 Post World War I The Rise of Nazism in Germany Philosophy

37 Post World War I The Rise of Nazism in Germany Propaganda

38 Post World War I


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