Presentation on theme: "ICE – 6 th June 2014 Some background material on the ways globalisation is changing the role of national governments."— Presentation transcript:
ICE – 6 th June 2014 Some background material on the ways globalisation is changing the role of national governments
Anthony Giddens ‘globalisation is the intensification of world wide social relations, which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa’. To this Michael Mann added ‘ the extension of distinct relations of ideological, economic, military and political power across the world’. He ended by stating that ‘ the capitalist mode of production, the extension of military striking distances and the extension of the nation-state across the world, first with TWO empires and now with ONE’ Some may now say that the above is being overtaken by a new and emerging world order.
Some apparent trends in the changes caused by globalisation Greater de-localisation, production/productivity increasingly controlled by a knowledge-based generation, who have access to and can control vast flows of information. A decline in face-to-face interaction, people now have to deal with distant systems, we are developing a different concept of what is known as our space. What happens in our world of work, neighbourhood employment patterns are increasing influenced by forces that operate miles away from where the impact of those decisions is felt.
A changing world… The reality of how we live is one of deeper, multiple connections. This has seen a reduction in the influence and power of national governments – World Bank, IMF, EU, ECB al add another level of control that is above the national government. Policy is now being driven more and more by market forces, governments do not have the control over domestic economies in the ways they once had – they now have to ‘manage’ national politics in ways that allow domestic conditions to adjust to the pressures of a trans-national set of market forces. The relationship between a domestic government and its citizens is altering
A changing world…. The rise of the knowledge economy – knowledge capitalism – innovate, get to market, make returns – what of the gap between rich and poor nations? Should knowledge be more open – so encouraging those in a wider range of countries to be more ambitious? What will government do to generate this, who will control ‘rights’ and access to new ideas? What of the hazards raised through trade across vast distances and from different cultures – linked risk is now an accepted part of the global expansion but what can individual governments do?
A changing world…. Is everything to become a COMMODITY – does this produce a CONTRADICTION between profit and property interests – risk has been globalised and what are the legal rights of those affected by decisions made thousands of miles away? Over 60% of world trade is carried out by MNC’s – what do they actually bring to the countries in which they operate? Do they create needs, exploit this, what can a government do – child- based fashion, cigarette sales – a consumer led media – the age of marketed celebrities. The rise of the ‘brand’ and all its inherent ‘educational’ attachments. Leisure, ‘shopping’, the new cathedrals BUT might happen if they started to become the new mosques?
A changing world….. What will happen to social capital and civic community – who knows who and why – send the aged away to die – MNC’s influence government policy – they ‘lobby’ decision-makers in nation states, collective (EU) and even wider(IMF) The influence of national governments over their domestic economies and the subsequent policy decisions needed has decreased BUT has the power on capital influence increased as they supply more and more of the goods and services once associated with the State and other forms of government – to whom is a corporation responsible to?
A changing world….. Those who mown brands hold power – these last longer than products – get copyright, patents, trade marks, corporate colours and logos – instant recognition – wide appeal – control information – control intellectual property rights, expand markets, control presentation, influence consumer tastes (MTV). Get them young, mould them, feed them values etc. – gain constant flows of income + new related ideas – trust is central, but what of image? Capitalism likes disruption, wants to be ever-changing, built-in obsolescence – 250 years 5:1 was the gap between the riches at the poorest, now it’s 400:1 – for how long – internet, social networks etc.
A changing world…. Sen - ‘ public action is needed that can radically alter the outcome of local and global economic relations.’ He goes on to note that it is inequitable form of global organisations that needs addressing. ‘ the question is NOT just whether the poor, too, gain something from globalisation, but whether they get a fair share and a fair opportunity to be part of this era in man’s development.’
Some final thoughts Will national education systems remain or alter to meet global norms and expectations? How much more complex will networks get, the sheer volume of trade increase, interaction and its associated risk continue to grow, the traditional values, beliefs and cultural norms stand the level of influence that is pushed at them? What will be the increased influence of corporate forces aligned against elected governments and those who make the decisions that affect the lives of ordinary citizens?