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T HE B EGINNING OF THE 20 TH C. & THE 1 ST W ORLD W AR - Greece of Venizelos -

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Presentation on theme: "T HE B EGINNING OF THE 20 TH C. & THE 1 ST W ORLD W AR - Greece of Venizelos -"— Presentation transcript:

1 T HE B EGINNING OF THE 20 TH C. & THE 1 ST W ORLD W AR - Greece of Venizelos -

2 G OUDI COUP Greece in 1900-1909 AD: o Greek defeat in 1897 AD & its humiliating consequences  Increase of irredentism o Price drop of raisin  Financial problems of the Greek agricultural society o Political instability o Institution of Sociological Society (A. Papanastasiou), as the 1 st Greek socialistic political party o New law (1900 AD), according to which Prince Konstantinos is the leader of the Army & the palace has full control of the Greek military forces  Negative reaction of the Army  Institution of General Staff (although with royalist staff) (1904 AD)

3 G OUDI COUP General disappointment of the army officers  Institution of the Military Association (1908 AD) 1908 AD: Goudi Coup by honest & capable officers, but without any political experience & capability 1910 AD: Invitation of Eleftherios Venizelos from Crete  Elections, won by the Federal Party Venizelos as new Prime Minister Many new members in the Parliament & some new parties, such as the “Sociologists” & the “Rurals”

4 E LEFTHERIOS V ENIZELOS Reforms: o Separation of political powers (legislative, administrative, judicial, executive) o State’s right of expropriation for public benefit o Permanence of public officials etc. o 1911 AD: New Constitution (completely renovated) 1911 AD: War between Italy & the Ottoman Empire  Chance to the Balkan states to lay claims against the Empire

5 B ALKAN W ARS 1 st Balkan War (October 1912 – May 1913 AD) Controversial parties: Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece AGAINST Ottoman Empire Montenegrin army in Skodra Serbian army in Northwestern Balkan Bulgarian army in Eastern Macedonia & Thrace Greek victories in Thessaly (Sarantaporo, Elasson) & Epirus (Ioannina) – Crucial matter, the liberation of Thessaloniki (before the Bulgarian army)  Conflict between Venizelos (Thessaloniki) & Prince Konstantinos (Northern Epirus))

6 B ALKAN W ARS Liberation of the Aegean Islands by the Greek fleet, under the leadership of Pavlos Kountouriotis Murder of King George 1 st (friend of the British) in Thessaloniki (March 1913 AD )  Konstantinos 1 st becomes the new king May 1913 AD Treaty of London: No Turkish claim for areas western of Hemus-Medea border line or Crete Areas eastern the previous line, given to the Balkan allies Institution of the Albanian state BUT no distribution of the liberated lands among the winners

7 B ALKAN W ARS 2 nd Balkan War (June 1913 – July 1913 AD) Controversial parties: Serbia, Greece AGAINST Bulgaria July 1913 AD: Treaty of Bucharest: o Area of Skodra to Serbia o Epirus, Macedonia & the Aegean Islands to Greece Defensive alliance between Greece & Serbia Armed conflicts with Bulgarian groups in Macedonia Systematic persecution of the Greek population in Eastern Thrace by the Turks

8 H EADING TO THE 1 ST W ORD W AR Transfer of Greek & Turkish population groups in the wider area Two great controversial alliances in Europe: o Triple Alliance, among Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy (since 1882 AD) o Triple Agreement (Entente Cordiale), among France, Great Britain & Russia (since 1898 AD) Basic issue: The German expanding policy 1 st World War (1914-1918 AD)

9 G REECE DURING THE 1 ST W ORLD W AR Unsettled diplomatic issues: o The status of the Aegean Islands o Attribution of Southern Epirus to Albania, in spite of the Greek majority of the population Question of involvement of Greece in the Macedonian battle front (Serbia already fighting by Entente – Pressure from England & France ) Conflict between King Konstantinos (supporter of neutrality) & Venizelos (supporter of Entente)

10 G REECE DURING THE 1 ST W ORLD W AR 1914 AD: Final resignation of Venizelos 1915 AD: Elections twice in that year  Violation of Constitution  Royalist governments till 1917 AD National Schism between the supporters of Venizelos & those of King Konstantinos (since 1915 AD)  Serious inner conflicts between the two political parties & their impact forces

11 G REECE DURING THE 1 ST W ORLD W AR 1916 AD: Bulgarian invasion in Eastern Macedonia  Danger for Thessaloniki Naval blockade of Piraeus by British & French ships & armed conflicts in Athens Formation of National Defense Committee in Thessaloniki 1916 AD: National Defense Coup & Formation of Revolutionary Government (Venizelos, Daglis, Kountouriotis) in Thessaloniki 1917 AD: Dethronement of Konstantinos 1 st  Ηis son Alexander as the new King

12 G REECE DURING THE 1 ST W ORLD W AR 1919 AD: Treaty of Versailles  End of 1 st World War Treaties concerning Greece: o Treaty of Neuilly (1919 AD)  Area between Evros River & Nestos River (Western Thrace) given to Greece (from Bulgaria) – Exchange of Greek & Bulgarian minority population of the wider area

13 G REECE DURING THE 1 ST W ORLD W AR Treaty of Sevres (1920 AD)  Accomplishment of the “Great Idea”: o Western & Eastern Thrace ( EXCEPT the area close to Constantinople) & the Aegean Islands given to Greece by Turkey o Promise of Italy to give the Dodecanese, except Rhodes & Kastellorizo o Temporary Greek military occupation of a zone around Smyrna, with dense & vivid Greek population – Referendum after 5 year about its possible union with Greece Treaty of Serves was never actually fully applied…

14 P OLITICAL S CENERY IN G REECE & T URKEY Ottoman Empire in its decline  International attempt of all the interested countries to gain areas or privileges Sultan & many Ottoman areas & parts of infrastructure under close control of the European Forces Sense of humiliation in the Turkish nation 1908 AD: Young Turk (= Turkish nationalist reform party) Revolution, promising at first freedom & equality to all citizens of the Empire, but later purging the (most powerful) minorities (e.g. Armenian Genocide)

15 P OLITICAL S CENERY IN G REECE & T URKEY June 1919: Congress of Erzurum (Minor Asia), organized by Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk)  Formation of Turkish National Congress 1920 AD: Dethronement of the Sultan  Kemal as President of the Turkish state Since the summer of 1918 AD: Request for an independent Pontiac or Ponto-Armenian state  January of 1920 AD: Institution of the Ponto- Armenian Federation  Almost immediate dissolution of the state by the Young Turks

16 P OLITICAL S CENERY IN G REECE & T URKEY Greek claims for: Northern Epirus, Thrace, Western coastline of Minor Asia, Aegean Islands (except Dodecanese), where there was vivid Greek population Military contribution of the Greek Army to the war between the European Forces & the Russian Communists in Ukraine Persecution of the Greek minority in Russia – Russian dislike against Greece

17 P OLITICAL S CENERY IN G REECE & T URKEY Attitude of the European Forces: o Exploitation of areas in Minor Asia (already) o Wish of Great Britain & France to limit the Italian privileges in the area o Russian absence of the political scenery, because of its inner problems Greek occupation in the area of Smyrna (  Treaty of Sevres – 1920 AD)

18 T HE W AR IN M INOR A SIA Enthusiasm of the local Greek minority Political games among the European Forces Secret agreement between Kemal & the Russians Advance of the Greek Army further than the agreed borders of Smyrna’s area (up to Afyonkarahisar), under the influence of the “Great Idea” & the encouragement of the European Forces - Violent actions against the Turkish population & Turkish reprisals

19 T HE W AR IN M INOR A SIA 1920 AD: Unexpected defeat of Venizelos in the elections, due to the constant war & the abuse of political power by members of his party Return of King Constantinos 1 st  More political conflicts - Political & military mistakes  Problems in further organization of the army in Minor Asia Counter-attack of Kemal’s forces August of 1922 AD: Dissolution of the Greek miitary lines  Rout of the Greek Army

20 T HE W AR IN M INOR A SIA August – September of 1922 AD: o Great Fire of Smyrna o Devastation of Armenian & Greek villages & persecution & slaughter of their population o Capture of all the young men & dispatch to the Labor Battalions in the inland (functioning since 1918)

21 T HE W AR IN M INOR A SIA More than 1.000.000 (Greek) refugees to Greece from Minor Asia, Eastern Thrace & Pontus New more federal political & social ideas Enforcement of the Greek manpower with capable & hard working people Influence on the Greek cultural life BUT Financial disability of the state to satisfy the refugees’ needs Often hostility & exploitation of the refugees by the locals

22 T HE W AR IN M INOR A SIA September of 1922 AD: Coup of N. Plastiras Final expulsion of King Konstantinos 1 st  George 2 nd (new King) November of 1922 AD: Trial & execution of the Six (= politicians & officers, who were thought to be responsible for the tragedy in Minor Asia Situation in Greece: o Military defeat o Political schism o International isolation o Threat of the neighbor countries o Serious financial problems o Need of relief for 1.000.000 refugees

23 T HE W AR IN M INOR A SIA July of 1923 AD: Treaty of Lausanne, according to which: o Western Thrace & the Aegean Islands (except the - Italian – Dodecanese) given to Greece o Imbros & Tenedos & Eastern Thrace given to Turkey o Exchange of population between Greece & Turkey – Exception of the Greeks in Constantinople, Imbros & Tenedos & the Muslims in Western Thrace 1930 AD: Restoration of international name & affairs by Venizelos

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