Presentation on theme: "Kaplan’s Theory of Indexicals"— Presentation transcript:
1Kaplan’s Theory of Indexicals Introduction to PragmaticsElizabeth CoppockFall 2010
2IndexicalsIndexical: A word whose referent is dependent on the context of use, which provides a rule which determines the referent in terms of certain aspects of the context. (Kaplan 1977, Demonstratives, p. 490) Examples: I, my, you, that, this, here, now, tomorrow, yesterday, actual, present
3DemonstrativesDemonstrative: An indexical that requires an associated demonstration. Examples: this, that Cf. Fillmore’s gestural uses of deictic terms.
4Pure IndexicalPure indexical: An indexical for which no demonstration is required. Example: I, now, here, tomorrow. (Although here has a demonstrative use: “In two weeks, I will be here [pointing]”)
5Two obvious principles The referent of a pure indexical depends on the context, and the referent of a demonstrative depends on the associated demonstration.Indexicals, pure and demonstrative alike, are directly referential.
6Directly referentialAn expression is directly referential if its referent, once determined, is taken as fixed for all possible circumstances.(Like Kripke’s rigid designators)Proper names (John) are directly referentialDefinite descriptions (the man) are not
7Alternative World 2Said by me today (in the US):“The president is a Democrat”The actual worldfalseAlternative World 1truetrue
8Alternative World 5Said by me today:“The president is a Democrat”Alternative World 3trueAlternative World 4truefalse
9Alternative World 2Said by me today:“Barack Obama is a Democrat”The actual worldtrueAlternative World 1truetrue
10Alternative World 5Said by me today:“Barack Obama is a Democrat”Alternative World 3trueAlternative World 4truetrue
11Alternative World 2Said by Barack Obama today:“I am a Democrat”The actual worldtrueAlternative World 1truetrue
12Alternative World 5Said by Barack Obama today:“I am a Democrat”Alternative World 3trueAlternative World 4truetrue
13Conclusion“Barack Obama” designates the same individual in every possible world; it is directly referential.“The president” can designate different individuals in different possible worlds.When Barack Obama says “I”, he means “Barack Obama”. “I” is directly referential too.
14(Complication)There are so-called descriptive uses of indexicals. Says a prisoner on death row (Nunberg): I am traditionally allowed a last meal. [“I” – a person on death row.] But nevermind that. Ignore this slide.
15Recall: Directly referential An expression is directly referential if its referent, once determined, is taken as fixed for all possible circumstances. Kaplan continues: This does not mean it could not have been used to designate a different object; in a different context, it might have. But regardless of the circumstance of evaluation, it picks out the same object.
16Context vs. Circumstance Context of utterance: Who is speaking to whom, where, when, what they’re gesturing to, etc. Circumstance of evaluation: A possible world at which the truth of the utterance might be evaluated.
17Alternative World 5“I am a Democrat”Actual WorldContext:Speaker=Obama: trueSpeaker=McCain: trueContext:Speaker=Obama: trueSpeaker=McCain: false
18Direct ReferenceThe word “I”, uttered by Barack Obama (or whoever), picks out the same individual in every possible world.You don’t have to look to see what properties the object has in the world in order to decide what it refers to.Unlike definite descriptions, whose referent depends on who is the president.The only thing that can affect what “I” refers to is who the speaker is.
19Indexicals and Descriptive Content Descriptions like “the president” and “a president” do have descriptive content: they describe the discourse referent as a president.Proper names have no descriptive content. (What’s in a name?...)Do indexicals have descriptive content?Sure. “I” describes the referent as being the speaker.But “the descriptive meaning of a directly referential term is no part of the propositional content” (p. 497)
20Content vs. CharacterCharacter: The aspect of meaning that two utterances of the same sentence share across different contexts of utterance. Content: The proposition expressed by an utterance, with the referents of all of the indexicals resolved.
21Same or different meaning? May 11, 2010:May 12, 2010:I am turning 30 today.I am turning 30 today.
22Same or different meaning? May 11, 2010:May 12, 2010:I am turning 30 today.I turned 30 yesterday.
23Same character, different content May 11, 2010:May 12, 2010:I am turning 30 today.I am turning 30 today.
24Same content, different character May 11, 2010:May 12, 2010:I am turning 30 today.I turned 30 yesterday.
25Indexicals and Descriptive Content “Indexicals have descriptive meaning, but this meaning is relevant only to determining a referent in a context of use and not to determining a relevant individual in a circumstance of evaluation.” I.e., the descriptive meaning is part of the character, but not the content.
26Imagine if it were otherwise! Suppose “I do not exist” is true in a circumstance of evaluation if and only if the speaker (assuming there is one) of the circumstance does not exist in the circumstance. Nonsense! If that were the correct analysis, what I said could not be true. From which it follows that: It is impossible that I do not exist.
27ImpossibilitySomething that is possible is true in at least one possible world.Something that is impossible is false at every possible world.Something that is necessary is true at every possible world.
28Alternative World 8The actual worldAlternative World 7
29“I am here now”Kaplan calls this a logical truth meaning that whenever it is uttered, it is true.But it is never a necessary truth because the circumstances could be otherwise.