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Imperialism and Entering the World Stage A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger.

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Presentation on theme: "Imperialism and Entering the World Stage A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger."— Presentation transcript:

1 Imperialism and Entering the World Stage A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger

2 Towards Empire  Expansion of 1890’s differed from previous American expansions:  Economics – Desire for new markets and raw materials  Military – Desire for naval bases and coaling stations  Ideological – Desire to bring Christianity, western- style culture, and democracy to other people  Isolationism declines, and internationalism rose because of the increase in technology.  Imperialism was not popular at the onset of the 1870’s, but would eventually come to the forefront of American Politics.

3 Reasons for Expansion  End of the Frontier – diminishing opportunities at home.  New Markets  Trade – Exports  1870 - $395 million  1890 - $858 million  1900 - $1.4 billion  Nationalism leads to Imperialism  Intellectuals based expansion on ideas from Charles Darwin – the fit would triumph.  Biogenic Law – German biologist Ernst Haeckel – Advanced Races would conquer and protect Primitive Races  Sense of Anglo – Saxon superiority and natural selection abound  Foreign Policy  Still based on Monroe Doctrine  William Henry Seward wanted to expand throughout the Western Hemisphere  Focus on Latin America and Hawaii

4 Hawaii and Samoa  Naval Bases and Hawaiian Sugar  McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the sugar production in Hawaii – gave American producers two-cents a pound on Hawaiian exports.  Queen Liliuokalani declared a new constitution to help her people and many natives were given rights.  American residents revolted and asked the U.S. for help – the marines were sent. 3 days later the Queen surrendered. Hawaii was annexed to the U.S.  Debates about the annexation – U.S. to “civilize and Christianize” the Hawaiians

5 War with Spain  Shaped all levels of American Society  Nationalism and Identity  North and South Reconciled after Civil War  Emerged as a world power  Created an Empire  Left some doubt…  Cuba was a remnant of Spain’s great empire – rebels fought against Spanish control  With the depression, a revolt broke out and many tried to sway American opinion to help the Cuban rebels.  Rebels used a hit and run, and scorched earth policy.  Spain tried to systematically wipe them out. When this did not work, Spain sent General Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau – he used “reconcentration” camps – thousands enter, 1/3 rd die


7 Yellow Journalism  Yellow Journalism – sensationalist reporting, named after the “Yellow Kid,” a popular comic strip that was used  William Randolph Hearst - Published the New York Journal  Joseph Pulitzer – Published the New York World  Both Supported the Cuban Rebels and used biased sources to sell more papers

8 Causes for War  American anger over the treatment of Cubans  The outrage over the de Lome Letter, a letter written by Enrique Dupuy, Spain’s minister to the United States.  The sinking of the Maine off of Havana Harbor – February 15, 1898  Blew up and killed 260 soldiers – Spain took the blame.  Teller Amendment – promise that the U.S. had no intention of annexing Cuba.


10 Mechanics of the War  The first time the United States fought as one after the Civil War…  North and South together with African American troops  Many Volunteers join because of Nationalism  Troops were poorly supplied, but the war did not last long…


12 Road to War…1898  The Philippines – the start of the war  Spain held the islands since 1500  The United States Navy was led by Commodore George Dewey  The United States had the advantage of modern technology, iron and steel hulls, and superior weapons.  Quickly overwhelmed the Spanish.  No American Casualties, 400 Spanish died

13 War in the Philippines  Dewey began to plan an attack on the capital of Manila  Aided by Emilio Aguinaldo – Leader of a rebel army of Filipino patriots  Helped Americans capture Manila  Spanish Forces in the Philippines surrendered on August 14, 1898.

14 The War moves to Cuba  The Rough Riders – Volunteer Calvary lead by Theodore Roosevelt. Composed of college athletes, cowboys, ranchers, and miners.  Battle of San Juan Hill  Battle of Santiago – U.S. Victory – July 3, 1898

15 Outcome  U.S. Victory – Annexation of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam.  The war cost the United States $250 Million and about 2,000 soldiers died, not from combat but from YELLOW FEVER.  Creation of an Imperialist United States and a presence on the World Stage.

16 Progressivism – A Review in Progress  Progressivism – movement started to address the problems created by industrialization.  Muckrakers – journalists who exposed the filth of society

17 Jacob Riis – “How the Other Half Lives”

18 Ida Tarbell – Attack on Standard Oil

19 Upton Sinclair – “The Jungle”

20 “Fighting Bob” La Follette  Housing Reforms  Tenement Act of 1901  Work reforms  Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire  Government Reforms  Robert La Follette  Wisconsin Idea :  policy to apply the expertise of the state's university to social legislation that benefited all the state's citizens  It led to classic programs such as regulation of utilities, workers' compensation, tax reform, and university extension services

21 T.R. – President Roosevelt  Bully Pulpit – a powerful platform to publicize important issues and seek support for his policies. HANDS ON POLITICS  Square Deal  Regulating Big Business and Promoting Responsibility  Preserving the Natural Resources  John Muir – Naturalist, leave Nature alone  Gifford Pinchot - Conservationist, use wisely

22 President Wilson  The New Freedom – platform that called for tariff reductions, banking reforms, and stronger anti-trust legislations.  Graduated Income tax – the more $$ you have, the more taxes you pay.  Federal Reserve Act – created a central fund from which banks could borrow to prevent collapse during a financial panic.  The 19th Amendment

23 Both  Reformers  Passed Progressive laws to help the U.S.  These limited big business  Gave rights to the workers  Both aided in civil rights, and both had controversial incidents  Brownsville Incident – Roosevelt signed papers discharging 167 falsely accused African American soldiers.  Wilson opposed federal anti-lynching laws, and allowed cabinet members to segregate their offices.

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