Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 34: The Origins of World War II"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 34: The Origins of World War II Could WWII been prevented?
2Europe After World War I World War I caused the deaths of millions and the destruction of numerous cities and farms. The European economy was in ruins.The Treaty of Versailles left many European nations unhappy.France thought the treaty was too easy on Germany.Italy had been on the winning side of the war but was ignored during the peace talks. They had hoped to gain territory.Germany was most affected by the Treaty of Versailles.Germany gave up control of some of its land, including some important industrial areas and signed the hated “war guilt clause”German was forced to pay reparations to other countries, which led to a period of severe inflation.The Weimar Republic (the German government after World War I) was not a strong government.It faced opposition from the Communists and others.The German military was greatly reduced in size and power.
3Dictators and Militarists Rise to Power European struggles and dissatisfaction during the postwar years had a major effect on European politics.Leaders emerged who promised a return to greatnessThey reflected the people’s bitterness and anger.This was very appealing to unhappy Europeans and many were willing to give up basic freedoms in return for future glory.HEAD FOR THE GATE FOR FREEDOM! FORWARD! OUT OF THE SWAMP! A STRONG HAND AT THE HELM!
4Josef Stalin in the U.S.S.R. U.S.S.R. = Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (there are 15 of them)The Communists (led by Lenin) overthrew Czar Nicholas II in 1917Stalin comes to power in 1924 and establishes a totalitarian dictatorshipTwo interrelated economic goalsIncrease agricultural production and modernize industry5 Year Plans forced farmers on to collective farmsResistance to his plans = prison camps or deathTo strengthen control, his secret police rounded up and killed millions (The Great Purge)Those who remained would be loyal to him and the Communist Party
5Mussolini Establishes a Fascist Dictatorship in Italy Fascism based on…extreme nationalismopposition to communism and democracymilitary values and the use of violenceIn 1922, Mussolini and his “Black Shirts” take control and hope to revive the glory of ancient RomeIl Duce (the Leader) bans labor unions, opposing political parties and censors the press
6Hitler Leads the Rise of Nazism in Germany A form of fascismBelief that the Aryan race was superior to all others and sought to “purify” GermanyMein Kampf (My Struggle)Book written while in prison for trying to overthrow the government in BavariaAryan race was locked in a struggle with other inferior racesGermans needed lebensraum or living space by conquering territory and expanding the German empireDer Fuhrer becomes president and chancellor of Germany in 1933 and establishes the Third ReichLaws are passed targeting Jews and other “undesirables”Begins rebuilding Germany’s military
7Francisco Franco Comes to Power In Spain The Spanish Civil War( ) was a revolt against the Spanish government (known as Republicans)The Nationalists (rebels) received aid from Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany.The Republicans received aid from the Soviet Union, as well as from the International Brigades, a great number of volunteers who came from other European countries and the United States.The rebel victory began a dictatorship which lasted until Franco's death in 1975
8Guernica by Pablo Picasso In 1937, German planes, aiding Franco in the Spanish Civil War, bombed and destroyed Guernica. The indiscriminate killing of women and children aroused world opinion. The bombing of Guernica became a symbol of fascist brutality.
9The Military Takes Control of the Government in Japan Pre World War I, Japan industrializes with the help of a strong military to gain natural resourcesAfter WWI, Japan is a member of the League of Nations and signs the Kellogg-Briand Pact (what did that do, remember?)Worldwide depression renews militarismExtreme nationalism and a need for raw materials (like oil) put Japan on the path toward warPrime Minister Hideki Tojo continued to develop the military
11Military Aggression is Met with a Weak Response in Asia FDR announces the “Good Neighbor Policy” to win back support from Latin AmericaThe U.S. would “respect the rights of others”FDR hoped other nations would, too (they did not)Japan takes control of Manchuria in northern ChinaThe League ordered Japan to leave (they did not)Soon Japan occupied all of China’s major cities and withdrew from the weak League of NationsFDR speaks out against the “epidemic of world lawlessness” in his Quarantine Speech hoping to get Japan to stop expanding (they did not)
12Military Aggression is Met with a Weak Response in Europe Hitler begins rebuilding the German military against the orders of the Treaty of VersaillesHitler reoccupies the Rhineland against the orders of the Treaty of VersaillesHitler annexes Austria (the anschluss)Hitler wants to take the Sudetenland which was taken from Germany after WWIIn the Munich Pact, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain appeases Hitler and gives it to himHitler then takes the rest of Czechoslovakia
13“Peace in our time” (Neville Chamberlain) never came to be
15Meanwhile… Mussolini was expanding into Ethiopia The League of Nations imposed weak economic sanctions to get Italy to leave (they did not)In May, the Rome-Berlin Axis is formed by Hitler and Mussolini in a treaty of friendshipBoth help Franco in SpainIn the U.S. it’s all about neutrality“no arms, ammunition or weapons of war” to nations in conflictNo one wanted to repeat WWI
16Hitler Plunges Europe into War Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister in Great BritainAlong with France, no more German territorial demands would be toleratedAugust, 1939: Hitler signs a Non-Aggression Pact with StalinNeither would attack the otherDivide PolandSeptember, 1939: Hitler invades PolandBlitzkrieg (lightning war) tacticsGreat Britain and France declare war on Germany
18Hitler turns his attention to the West France mobilizes along the Maginot Line and in the Low Countries (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg)
19British forces cross the English Channel to help The “phony war” begins then ends in April 1940 with German surprise attacks in northern and western Europe338,000 British troops have to evacuate at DunkirkJune 1940 Paris falls to the Nazis while Italy declares war on Great Britain and France, too (they form the Axis Powers)A French “puppet government” is formed in Vichy
20Britain Stands Alone The Blitz The R.A.F saved the day Began with the bombing of London for 57 consecutive nightsBy the end of May 1941, over 43,000 civilians, half of them in London, had been killed by bombing and more than a million houses were destroyed or damaged in London aloneThe R.A.F saved the dayBy the Spring of 1941, Hitler realizes he cannot knock out Great Britain
21Americans Move Away from Isolationism Japan joins Germany and Italy in an alliance of mutual supportThe Tripartite Pact signed in September 1940Now who would have to fight a two front war?Selective Service and Training Act (1940)1st peacetime draft in American historyLend-Lease to Great Britain (lend, not sell, arms)Atlantic Charter (FDR and Churchill)Promise not to use war to expand territoryReaffirm a belief in self-governmentMerchant ships arm themselves and sail to Britain
22“Yesterday, December 7th, a date which will live in infamy…” - F.D.R. Japan had tried to establish a “new order in East Asia”The U.S. responded with aid to Japan’s enemies, blocking exports (oil), freezing Japanese assets in U.S. banksAt Pearl Harbor, 300 Japanese bombers and fighter planes sank or damaged 18 American ships and 300 aircraft2400 Americans killed, 1200 wounded
25CHAPTER 35: The Impact of World War II on Americans What kinds of opportunities and hardships did the war create for Americans at home and abroad?
26Organizing the American Economy for War The War Production BoardThe goal: make America the “arsenal of democracy” with conversions of industryAutomakers would now make airplanes and tanksOther workers would retrain workers for wartime tasksG.D.P. (gross domestic product) rises rapidlyThe National War Labor Board mediates disputes between union leaders and business ownersGovernment spending rises to new levelsTaxes account for 45% (“withholding” is introduced)War bonds help in financing the war
27Price controls are needed (Office of Price Administration) People were back to work earning moneyGoods were scarce because of the war effortToo much money chasing too few goods = inflationRationing was necessaryGasoline, tires, sugar, foodAmericans received coupon books to limit consumptionUniversity of North Carolina websiteWar funding comes from taxes and borrowing (bonds) just like WWI
28American G.I.’s (government issue) Go To War 1,500,000 troops by Pearl HarborEager volunteers joined the draftees to fightImmigrants wanted to show they were truly Americans8 weeks of intense training then combatFear, loneliness, homesickness, boredom once deployedPhysical, emotional and mental wounds surface during and afterAn appreciation for American ideals after viewing the abuses of the European dictators, pride and loyalty, too
29The Internment of Japanese-Americans Were they loyal? Sabotage? Did their spies cause Pearl Harbor?“Enemy Aliens” (Germans, Italians, Japanese immigrants) had to register with the government and carry identificationThe Japanese-Americans did not have political power and were potentially more easily recognizedExecutive Order (February 1942) goes into effect and even native born Japanese-Americans are sent to internment camps inland
30100,000 were forced to relocate into guarded “barracks” Korematsu v. U.S.Fred Korematsu as a native born citizen who disobeyed the law and appealed it all the way to the Supreme CourtThe Court upheld the decision on the grounds that a group’s civil rights can be set aside in time of war100,000 were forced to relocate into guarded “barracks”442nd Regimental Combat team was an all-Japanese unit
31Women and World War II (“Rosie the Riveter”) New opportunities because of the demand for workersStill faced hostility in male- dominated businessesWere expected to complete their “domestic” dutiesWAC (Women’s Army Corps)WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service – Navy)
32African-Americans and WWII The Double V Campaign: Victory for democracy at home and abroadBlack G.I.’s were segregated and were not permitted in combat (at first)Tuskegee Airmenthere were many people who thought that black men lacked intelligence, skill, courage and patriotism.Bomber escorts and direct combatThe only fighter group to never lose a bomber to enemy planes
33African-Americans and WWII At the same time Executive Order 9066 inters Japanese-Americans, Executive Order 8802 outlaws discrimination against African-Americans in the defense industryA.Philip Randolph had threatened a march on Washington if black civil rights were not protectedThe Great Migration continued to northern industrial citiesBlacks may have escaped the South but not racismThe National Urban League fought for equal opportunities in housing and employmentThe Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) confronted discrimination with nonviolent resistance
34Jewish Americans and WWII Nazi persecution of Jews in Germany began in 1933 as soon as Hitler rose to powerKristallnacht (“night of broken glass”) occurred in 1938 when mobs burned Jewish synagogues and businesses90 Jews were killed and 30,000 were sent to concentration campsThe 1924 National Origins Act restricted immigration into the U.S. (remember the nativism and lack of tolerance during the 1920’s?)Anti-Semitism (anti-Jewish sentiment) led to a lack of support for European JewsThe War Refugee Board was created in 1944 to finally help Jewish refugees
35Mexican Americans and WWII Discrimination had barred many Mexicans from better jobs in the United StatesDuring the war, laborers were neededThe bracero program allowed short term work contracts to be filled by Mexicans in the farms and on the railroadsJune 1943: Zoot suit riotsZoot suits were associated with Mexican teenagers (pachucos) and gangs who roamed barrios (neighborhoods) in Los AngelesMobs of sailors and marines sought out Mexicans and others wearing a zoot suit and beat themAnother example of racial prejudice and intolerance
36CHAPTER 36: Fighting World War II What military strategies did the United States and its allies pursue to defeat the Axis Powers in World War II?
37The Situation in Europe in December 1941 Europe or the Pacific, first? (“Europe First”)Germany had attacked the USSR and was pushing toward Moscow and the oil-rich Caucacus RegionHitler needed oil and needed to keep oil out of Allied handsIrwin Rommel (“The Desert Fox” of the Afrika Korps) would help him control N. AfricaMilitary rule by the Nazis was harsh in Europe
38The Situation in Europe in December 1941 The “final solution” to the “Jewish question” was underwayJews were crowded into ghettos (small sections of cities) that could be guardedStarvation and disease killed thousandsOthers were sent to concentration camps and executed with poison gas
39The War in Europe Where to attack first? In North Africa and move into Italy?In France and stage forces in Great Britain?In the USSR and help our new ally, the Soviets?November 1942 the US invades northern AfricaLed by Generals Bradley and Patton, Axis resistance collapses by May 1943Italy surrenders in September but Germans there fight fiercely to keep the US outThe USSR fights alone and turns the tide at Stalingrad200,000 Germans and 1 million Soviets dieGeography, climate and population doom the Nazis
40The War in EuropeMeanwhile the American pilots rely on precision bombing of Axis targets while the British pilots rely on saturation bombingThe decision was made NOT to bomb Auschwitz (the largest concentration camp) or othersThey were afraid of killing Jews being heldJune 6, 1944: D-DayThe Allies invade Normandy, France and begin the push east into GermanyMeanwhile the Soviets push west and liberate the camps where the true horrors of the holocaust are discovered.Genocide = the systematic killing of a racial, political or cultural group
41The War in Europe Comes to an End The Battle of the Bulge (December 1944)Hitler makes one last counteroffensive in Belgium where the line bends but does not breakApril, 1945With the Soviets near Berlin, Hitler commits suicideFDR dies and Harry Truman becomes presidentMay 8, 1945: VE Day (Victory in Europe)
42The War in the PacificPearl Harbor destroyed the Pacific fleet and that allowed Japan to further consolidate power in the PacificIn March 1942, MacArthur and Filipino fighters left the Philippines after defeat by the Japanese (“I shall return!”)7000 American prisoners die on the 63 mile “Bataan Death March” at the hands of the JapaneseJapan controlled all of the Chinese coast but in the Battle of the Coral Sea the American navy led by Admiral Chester Nimitz defeated the Japanese navy (May 1942) and the Japanese did not expand into AustraliaMeanwhile, James Doolittle and the American Air Force were bombing Tokyo
43The War in the PacificThe “Europe First” strategy hurt American commanders in the PacificThe policy of island-hopping (leapfrogging) is adoptedOne by one, the American navy and marines would liberate Japanese-held islands moving us closer to mainland JapanSometimes an island could be skipped, isolating it from others leading to eventual surrender when supplies ran outAt the Battle of Midway (June 1942) the Japanese went on the offensive to eliminate the American navy and failedThe Japanese never fully recovered and moved to a defensive stand for the rest of the war
45The War in the PacificMacArthur does return to the Philippines in October 1944Iwo Jima and Okinawa would bring the U.S. even closer to Japan for invasionNearly all of Japan’s 22,000 soldiers die defending Iwo Jima and 6800 Americans die in taking the islandAt Okinawa, bloody combat claimed the lives of 12,000 Americans and 100,000 JapaneseKamikaze pilots become a new concern
47The Manhattan ProjectGerman American scientist Albert Einstein made FDR aware of the destructive power of nuclear bombsBy the summer of 1945, the top secret “Manhattan Project” produced an atomic weaponDoes the U.S. use it or not?Perhaps 500,000 Americans die if Japan is invadedMany Japanese civilians would die in the aftermathThe Japanese would not accept unconditional surrender and they showed their determination to fight at Iwo Jima, Okinawa and with kamikaze pilots
48August 6, 1945The Enola Gay drops the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima80,000 people dieAugust 9, 1945A second bomb is dropped on Nagasaki40,000 people dieIt is estimated a total of 250,000 died as a result of the blast or by burns, radiation poisoning or cancerAugust 14, 1945: V-J Day