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Slavery and the Formation of the Atlantic World Readings: Readings: Smith, et al., 570-577, 732-750, 766-767, 819-820.

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Presentation on theme: "Slavery and the Formation of the Atlantic World Readings: Readings: Smith, et al., 570-577, 732-750, 766-767, 819-820."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slavery and the Formation of the Atlantic World Readings: Readings: Smith, et al., 570-577, 732-750, 766-767, 819-820

2 Slavery and the Making of an Atlantic Economy Coastal Africans so wealthy from slave trade, can keep Europeans out Do allow Europeans to establish forts along coast Slaves collected at prisons in these forts for overseas voyage Portugal, Spain, England, France, the Dutch all have forts

3 Elmina Fort

4 Atlantic Slave Trade 18 th Century Alone: 400,000 slaves imported into North America 400,000 slaves imported into North America 1 million slaves imported into Spanish America 1 million slaves imported into Spanish America More than 1 million slaves imported into the Caribbean, including the French Caribbean (Saint Domingue, Guadeloupe, Martinique) More than 1 million slaves imported into the Caribbean, including the French Caribbean (Saint Domingue, Guadeloupe, Martinique) More than 3 million slaves imported into Brazil More than 3 million slaves imported into Brazil

5 Impact of Slavery Europeans became very wealthy from slave trade alone Europeans became very wealthy from slave trade alone Africans became enchained Africans became enchained Many Africans die before arrival and many more very sick Many Africans die before arrival and many more very sick The attitude towards slaves was worse than animals The attitude towards slaves was worse than animals Dead/rebellious slaves thrown overboard—slavers collect insurance Dead/rebellious slaves thrown overboard—slavers collect insurance

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7 Across the Ocean Used for Agricultural Labor on plantations – sugar, rum, cotton, coffee, tobacco, indigo, cacao (chocolate) Used also in mining (gold, silver, diamonds) Produced 1/3 of the Value of European commerce

8 Saint Domingue (Haiti) Saint Domingue (Haiti) was maybe the worst Saint Domingue (Haiti) was maybe the worst Mostly produced sugar; tobacco also important Mostly produced sugar; tobacco also important It was cheaper to work the slaves to death and buy new ones than to take care of them It was cheaper to work the slaves to death and buy new ones than to take care of them Main form of resistance: creation of maroon societies Main form of resistance: creation of maroon societies It had heavy African influence It had heavy African influence

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10 Society in Saint Domingue Much race mingling Much race mingling Much emancipation on the death of slave owner: Much emancipation on the death of slave owner: Rise of free wealthy landowning Mulattos: Rise of free wealthy landowning Mulattos: General George Dumas-freed slave, father of Alexandre General George Dumas-freed slave, father of Alexandre Wanted preservation of slavery Wanted preservation of slavery Wanted to be treated as equals of white planters Wanted to be treated as equals of white planters Whites, especially poor whites, hated them Whites, especially poor whites, hated them

11 Brazil Similar to Saint Domingue 17 th C: Main crop sugar, cashasa 18 th C: gold, diamonds 19 th C: coffee Worked slaves to death Early Slave revolt where the slaves refused to eat. Many new Africans Constant revolts--quilimbos Much race mixing Slavery abolished in 1888.

12 Engenho – Site of Sugar Production

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16 Prayer of St. Francis – Bahian Chuches dedicated to Saint Francis? Lord, make me an instrument of your peace, Where there is hatred, let me sow love; where there is injury, pardon; where there is doubt, faith; where there is despair, hope; where there is darkness, light; where there is sadness, joy; Lord, make me an instrument of your peace, Where there is hatred, let me sow love; where there is injury, pardon; where there is doubt, faith; where there is despair, hope; where there is darkness, light; where there is sadness, joy; How did Portuguese Christians reconcile their religion with their treatment of slaves? How did Portuguese Christians reconcile their religion with their treatment of slaves?

17 Portuguese in the World Economy-Items found in 18 th C Shipwreck Near Bahia

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20 United States—the South Big crop—tobacco—”the sot weed” – later cotton Big crop—tobacco—”the sot weed” – later cotton Rice – introduced by Africans Rice – introduced by Africans Encouraged slave breeding so there was less direct African influence-few slave imports after the 18 th century Encouraged slave breeding so there was less direct African influence-few slave imports after the 18 th century Compared to Saint Domingue and Brazil, Compared to Saint Domingue and Brazil, Slave birth rates relatively high Slave birth rates relatively high Slave death rates relatively low Slave death rates relatively low

21 Was Slavery “Better” in the U.S.? Extreme open antipathy to race- mixing Anti-mescegination laws But ….

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23 Impact of Slavery in the Americas Ecology: Rice introduced from Africa Medicinal/healing plants Economy: Plantation economy – new crops Language: Pidgeon creole

24 Religious Impact in the Americas Saint Domingue/Haiti: Vudon Saint Domingue/Haiti: Vudon Cuba, Spanish America: Cuba, Spanish America: Santeria Santeria Brazil: Brazil: Macumba, Condomble, Islam, Catholicism (African Church – Bahia) Macumba, Condomble, Islam, Catholicism (African Church – Bahia) U.S. South: U.S. South: Methodist Episcopal Church, Gospel Churches Methodist Episcopal Church, Gospel Churches

25 Religious Syncretism in Brazil Creation of new hybrid beliefs joining African, Christian, and perhaps some native religion Slaves from West Africans identified their deities (orixãs) with Christian saints Yemaja – spirit of the seas associated with the Virgin Mary

26 Xango – God of Thunder

27 African Influences in the Americas Dance: Capoeira, Samba (Brazil), Tango (Argentina), Salsa, Merengue Music: Reggae Much American “folk” music Blues Jazz Rock Hip Hop World Music

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30 Slavery and Racism Renaissance paintings include Africans as equals. Renaissance paintings include Africans as equals. Race became linked with color in the Americas. Race became linked with color in the Americas.

31 How Europeans justified slavery? The Bible Curse of the “Sons of Ham,” Noah’s son – descendants to be slaves of his brothers The Bible Curse of the “Sons of Ham,” Noah’s son – descendants to be slaves of his brothers Economy/ Property Economy/ Property “Civilizing” Mission “Civilizing” Mission Growing Racism Growing Racism

32 Forces to end slavery Abolitionist Movements Abolitionist Movements Slave Revolts Slave Revolts Quakers Quakers Some Enlightenment Thinkers Some Enlightenment Thinkers Economically unprofitable? Economically unprofitable? Wars Wars

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