Presentation on theme: "The Formation of a Bipolar World The wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union deteriorated quickly after World War II. Competition."— Presentation transcript:
The Formation of a Bipolar World The wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union deteriorated quickly after World War II. Competition for control of Europe combined with earlier competing ideologies of communism and capitalism acted as catalysts to drive the two superpowers apart. It split Europe into separate spheres, then became global with the Korean War.
The Formation of a Bipolar World The Cold War in Europe Eastern Europe Forced to align themselves with the USSR following WWII Became communist under the watchful eye of the Soviets Western Europe Capitalist and democratic Aligned themselves with the United States Berlin Germany divided into East and West West thrived while East struggled Berlin divided as well… The Berlin Wall NATO and The Warsaw Pact NATO - Non Communist Western countries The Warsaw Pact – Communist Eastern countries Both built up huge stores of nuclear and conventional weapons.
The Formation of a Bipolar World Confrontation in Korea Following WWII, Korea was divided along the 38 th Parallel. North Korea - pro-Communist South Korea - pro American 1950 – North Korea invaded South Korea in an attempt to unite Korea under one Communist Regime.
The Formation of a Bipolar World Confrontations in Korea and Cuba U.S enter the war on the side of South Korea…. TRUMAN DOCTRINE… Provided air, sea, and ground support
The Formation of Bipolar World After initial success, Chinese communist forces halted the U.N. forces and the war resulted in a two- year stalemate along the 38 th parallel. THE RESULT Korea remained divided along the 38 th parallel. NOTHING CHANGED, but Communism was contained.
The Formation of a Bipolar World Confrontations in Korea and Cuba Domino Theory – If one Asian country would fall to communism, then others would fall in a domino like effect.
The Formation of a Bipolar World Confrontations with Korea and Cuba April 17, 1961 The Plan: Cuban refugees trained by the CIA would invade Cuba and overthrow Fidel Castro. The Result: TOTAL DISASTER!!! U.S. looks ignorant and incompetent…
The Formation of a Bipolar World Confrontations with Korea and Cuba October 16, Spy plane photos revealed Soviet missile bases being built in Cuba. Cuban Missile Crisis followed- A stand off between the S.U. and U.S. that nearly led to nuclear war.
The Formation of a Bipolar World Confrontations with Korea and Cuba Kennedy’s Options: Negotiate with Khrushchev. Invade Cuba. Blockade Cuba. Bomb the missile sites.
The Formation of a Bipolar World Kennedy’s decision: Naval Quarantine Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles and Kennedy removed the blockade. Kennedy removed missiles from Turkey.
The Formation of a Bipolar World Cold War Societies Soviet and U.S. societies were extremely different from one another U.S. societies – U.S. had wonderful, modern new appliances and a fairly high standard of living. Soviet societies – Little in home technology and lower standard of living. Stages like the Olympics became peak points of competition and opportunities to prove superiority Despite the intense competition, both countries were continually tempered by the threat of mutual destruction.
The Formation of a Bipolar World Cold War Societies Sputnik – Soviet satellite that was the first artificial satellite ever sent into space. Confirmed American fears of Soviet technological superiority. U.S. starts NASA. U-2 Incident –American U- 2 spy plane was shot down over Russia. Intensified the Cold War conflict.
Challenges to the Superpower Hegemony In most Soviet satellites, rebels and dissidents were crushed The People’s Republic of China, however, stood up to the USSR and managed to maintain its own Marxist state independently. Both powers suffered setbacks when they took on Vietnam and Afghanistan.
Challenges to Superpower Hegemony Defiance, Dissent, and Intervention in Europe After Stalin’s death, the new premier Nikita Khrushchev began a process of de-Stalinization, which ended the rule of terror and attempted to erase Stalin’s name and image from Soviet society. Liberalized the government and soviet society.
Challenges to Superpower Hegemony The People’s Republic of China After Japan’s defeat in 1945, China broke into a state of Civil War Nationalists vs. Communists Communists victorious under Mao Zedong formed the People’s Republic of China People’s Republic of China Enacted major social reforms including banning child marriages, foot binding, and granting women access to divorce. Collectivized agriculture Formed close relationship with Russia, but by 1964 China had industrialized and their relationship with Russia had deteriorated Also successfully tested nuclear weapons.
Challenges to Superpower Hegemony Détente and the Decline of Superpower Influence Détente – Reduction of hostilities between the U.S. and Soviet Union that began in the late 60s. Vietnam War North Vietnam – Communist South Vietnam – Non-Communist Viet Cong – Pro communist South Vietnamese U.S. comes to aid of South Vietnam Guerilla warfare and jungle war proved difficult and in 1973 the U.S. withdrew. South Vietnam fell to communism 2 years later Afghanistan Pro- Soviet coup in 1978 made Afghanistan a communist nation New government instituted reforms that led to intense backlash Soviet forces aided the government against the mujahideen (Islamic Holy Warriors) U.S. aides mujahideen Soviet eventually withdrew after 9 years, and civil war erupted with the Taliban eventually coming to power in 1996
Challenges to Superpower Hegemony Détente and the Decline of Superpower Influence Countercultural movement and youth revolution Young individuals in all parts of the world criticized the Cold War and traditional societal practices Particularly intense opposition to in U.S. in response to the Vietnam War Rock and Roll and music played an important part in the protest movements.
The End of the Cold War Revolutions in Eastern and Central Europe By 1989, most of the former Soviet countries of central and eastern Europe had succumbed to revolutions which threw off communism and Soviet rule The Collapse of the Soviet Union In the midst of economic collapse and revolution, Mikhail Gorbachev fell from favor and by 1991 lost power. Rule fell to Boris Yeltsin who dismantled the Communist Party and pushed Russia toward a market economy. By December 1991, the Soviet Union was no more. Toward and Uncertain future The world had been used to the power struggle between the U.S.A. and Soviet Union, and the fall of the Soviet Union meant a shift in power that is still working itself out today. China, North Korea, etc…