Presentation on theme: "PART 3 AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS"— Presentation transcript:
1PART 3 AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS 600-1500 AP WORLD HISTORYPART 3AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS
2TRADEDISCUSS WHAT YOU ALREADY KNOW!5 W’SIMPORTANCE!
3Discussion time.Do cultural areas, as opposed to states and empires, better represent history?Cultural areas are those that share a common culture.Respect for geographical limitations not followed
42. How does change occur within societies? TradingMigrationsInvasionsWhy are people moving around?Impact?Change occurs because of internal developments and external influences.
53. How similar were the economic and trading practices that developed across cultures? Monetary SystemsTrade RoutesTrade PracticesHow do they link up?
64.How does the environment impact human decision making? How do states respond to environmental changes?Do they move or send out raiding parties?Are they able to respond quickly and successfully to environmental changes?
7Review of History Within Civilizations 600 CE-1450 Classical Period collapsesLong distance trade increasesCaravans of Silk routesMulti-ethnic Indian Ocean sailorsTrips across Sahara to West AfricaTrade in MediterraneanDecentralization of Western EuropeExpansion of trading empires of Middle East and China
9Developments in Asia 3 Major dynasties Developed Golden Ages Tang, Song, MingDeveloped Golden AgesInfluencedKoreaVietnamCambodia
10Tang(618-907 AD) Emperor Xuanzong Bureaucratic system (merit, civil service exams)Military garrisons along trade routes and capital Xi’anTribute system (territories sent ambassadors and gifts “kowtow”)Expanded into Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, KoreaGolden Ageage of BuddhismFootbindingwoodblock printingGunpowderPaper MoneyMagnetic compassPoetry tells of daily lifeEconomyPaper moneyLetters of credit (flying cash)Increased trade and cultural diffusionLocal warlords gained power and dynasty collapsedUighurs (nomadic Turks brought in the stop rebellions but eventually became attackers)
11Song (960-1279 AD) Song Taizu Similar rule as Tang Used army and consolidated ChinaSimilar rule as TangCapital in southern portion, HangzhouWealth base on powerful navy and International tradeGolden AgeMoveable type (increased literacy)PorcelainGunpowder used for militaryMagnetic compassWatertight bulkheadsSternpost rudders for junks (merchant/battleships)Iron production increasedProduced steel using water-driven-bellows to produce needed temp.Introduction of champa RICE from Vietnam=population increase (115 million in 1200)Peasant Rebellions and Mongols led to fall of dynastyFast ripening rice increased agricultural technology iron plows, irrigation systems, manure as fertilizer, terrace farming
12Ming 1368-1644 Zhu Yuanzhang Chengzu (son) Golden Age Red turban rebellion against MongolsEnded corruption and reestablished an authoritarian gov’t bureaucracy using eunuchsChengzu (son)Imperial Palace (Forbidden City) constructed in Beijing ( )Golden AgeFocused on Chinese cultureZheng HeSea expeditons led to increased tradeFortified Great WallExpanded Canal SystemEunuchs used since Sumerian times. Were prisoners of war, or punished for behavior
13Religion Nestorianism Manicheans Zoroastrianism Islam Buddhism Christianity w/difference based on holy trinityManicheansPersian founder Mani used cosmology to explain conflict between light and dark, good or evilZoroastrianismPersianIslamBuddhismMahayana: nirvana can be attained through faith aloneChan/Zen: school of mahayana based on meditation and DharmaConfucianismNeo-Confucianism: Zhu Xi adapted Buddhist concepts to Confucian values. Expanded into Vietnam, Korea and JapanDoaism
14Women Confucian=subordinate Under Tang: Footbinding Empress Wu Zhoa took over after husband’s death.Considered fair-minded.FootbindingStrengthened Confucian ideasWu was a favorite concubine, convinced emperor to execute wife over false report that she killed a daughter.
15Hermit Kingdom Korea Vietnam North subdued by Tang South rebelled Silla DynastyUnified KoreaVassal state of Tang 7th centuryAdopted Confucian valuesKoryo DynastyCopied chinese civil service examsBureaucracySlaveryChoson/Yi DynastyEstablished after Mongols leftHermit Kingdom19th century term used for its closed door policy for foreignersCultural bridge btwn. China and JapanNorth subdued by TangSouth rebelledBoth absorbed agricultural ideas, schools of thought, and irrigation techniques.Maintained indigenous religionsWomen more active in society
16Japan 4 main islands: isolation Influenced by Korea and China Yamato Clan5th centuryFirst and only dynastyDirect descendent of Amaterasu Shinto sun goddessPrince ShotokuTaika ReformsBorrowed ideas on gov’t from TangRejected confucianismGrand Council of State –administrative districtsHeian PeriodFujiwara FamilyRuled Japan 794 after Shotoku’s deathGolden AgeLady Murasaki Tale of the Genji
17Feudal Japan Developed same time as in Europe Kamakura Shogunate 1192 Yoritomo MinamotoBakufu “Tent” system of gov’tShogun chief generalDaimyo (powerful land ownersSamurai (warrior/nobility)Bushido (code of Behavior)Zen BuddhismLoyalty, courage, honorWomen were not held in high esteem, could not learn chineseKyoto Shogunate1333 AshikagaOnin War threatened unitySamurai gained immense respect-carry weapons and have last names
18Europe Dark Ages (476 AD -800) End of Roman Rule in western Europe Rise of Tribes (Franks, Saxons, vikings)learning/educationPreserved by monks and muslimsBased off of ancient writingsdecentralized governmentOwed alegiancesno common languageLatin for educatedno unity
20Middle Ages (800-1300) Feudalism fiefdom= system of loyalties Manorialism-self sufficient estateChivalry-code of conductChurch-most powerful institutionpolitical-economic-social organizationcontrolled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe.tried to curb feudal warfareonly 40 days a year for combat.curb heresiesCrusadesInquisitiontithe1/10 tax on your assets given to the church.Holy Roman EmpireFranks- close connections to the church provided an educated workforce for their bureaucracy.Charlemagne: Alcuin (educator) created school at Aechen for priests, controlled land through missi dominici (messengers)Battle against Basques: army ambushed by Basques killing Count Roland-Song of Roland battle was won and land became buffer zone between christians and muslimsMonasteries: St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience.provided schools for the children of the upper class.inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts.monks missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
21Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service. After Charlemagne’s death, nobles built a system to protect their lands and maintain order based on military and political relationships with prominent individuals which later became lords with the church’s approval.
25The Medieval ManorSerfs created agricultural surplus, not fully free or fully slave. Cultivated land produced goods in return for a small plot. Usually passed down to offspring as long as they fulfilled their obligations (work lords land for so many days a week, planting, harvesting and returning a portion of their own to the lord. This could include weaving, brewing, milling, sewing.Manor included land, crops, tools, animals, serfs to function. Lord acted judge of manor. Any goods not created at manor could be found at nearby monastery.
26The Medieval Catholic Church filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world.monasticism:St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience.provided schools for the children of the upper class.inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war.libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts.monks missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
27The Power of the Medieval Church bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system.the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe.tried to curb feudal warfare only days a year for combat.curb heresies crusades; Inquisitiontithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church.Peter’s Pence 1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].
28Romanesque Architectural Style Rounded Arches.Barrel vaults.Thick walls.Darker, simplistic interiors.Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.
32The Rise of European Monarchies: England Saxons were brought over by the Romans/Britons as mercenaries early 5th century.They expanded their territory and controlled much of England until 1066.King Alfred conquered Danes in the north to unite England (Anglo-land), built fortresses to defend themselves against the Vikings.
33William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeaux Tapestry
34Magna Carta, 1215 King John I “Great Charter” monarchs were not above the law.kings had to consult a council of advisors.kings could not tax arbitrarily.
35Evolution of England’s Political System Henry I:William’s son.set up a court system.Exchequer dept. of royal finances.Henry II:established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom.grand jury.trial by jury.
36The Beginnings of the British Parliament Great Council:middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c.eventually called Parliament.by 1400, two chambers evolved:House of Lords = nobles & clergy.House of Commons = knights and burgesses.Great Council:middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c.eventually called Parliament.by 1400, two chambers evolved:House of Lords: nobles & clergy.House of Commons: knights and burgesses.
37The Rise of European Monarchies: France 3 C’sClovis, Charles Martel, CharlemagneCapetians987 Hugh Capet selected after death of last Carolingian emperor.Controlled Normandy, Brittany, Burgundy, AquitaineEstablished the Estates General (3 Estates)1066 William of Normandy conquered England bringing territory with him. (Angevin Kingdom) –Hiundred Years’ War
43Treaty of Verdun 843After Charlemagne’s death, invasions brought Carolingian empire to its end. Muslims from the Mediterranean, Magyars from Hungary, Vikings from the North between 9-11 centuriesVikings, Norse mariners invaded along the coastlines were motivated by population pressures in Scandinavia and resistance to Christianity. They assaulted monasteries, villages and cities throughout northern and southern Europe.
44Holy Roman Empire 800 Charlemagne 1st HRE Saxons convert or be killedSaxon King Widukind converted 785962 Otto I proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor by PopeTensions between Pope and Emperor1075 Investiture Contest ControversyPope Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV for attempting to name bishops1122 Concordat of WormsPope chooses spiritual leaders, Emperor chooses political leadersVoltaire “neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire”Secular German group of states1176 Frederick BarbarossaTried to enlarge empire through northern Italy: Frederick IIKing of Italy and German StatesPromoted arts and scienceOtto selected the Pope himself Sylvester IIHenry IV pleaded with Pope and proclaimed that the Church had complete authority barefoot in the snow.Barbarossa Hohenstaufen rulerFrederick II mother was Queen of Sicily
45Italy After Justinian: Controlled by Lombards 773 Charlemagne took over ItalyOtto I combined Italy and Germany making HRE10th Century rise of City-StatesBurghers rose in powerTrade with MuslimsCrusadesBanking CentersMedici familyVenice + Genoa important cities
46Agricultural Revolution (after 900) New inventions (harness for horses,3 field system, moldboard plow)More food =more people= more trade routes = fairs =townsCrusades-Holy Wars ( ) resulted in increased:Trade, cultural diffusion, knowledgeCommercial Revolution(1500s)New business practices (checks, banks)Capital = $ exchanged instead of barteringend of feudalismImportant trade cities (Venice, Hanseatic League)
541348 Bubonic Plague Hundred Years’ War 1337-1453 trade declinedchurch lost power1/3 population diedHundred Years’ WarWar between France and Britain over landThirty Years’ WarBetween German Princes and Holy Roman Empire over religionTreaty of Westphalia brought peace
55Pieter Bruegel's "The Triumph of Death” mid 1500s
58Europe-> Renaissance (1300-1650) Rebirth of ClassicsGreek and RomanGolden AgeBegins in Italy b/c of:Crusadesurban centerswealthy merchantshumanism= focus on human achievements not just religionArt focus=realismArtists:Michelangelo, da Vinci-most famousWriters:Machiavelli-The Prince (end justifies the means) rulers should do anything to gain and keep power.Johannes Gutenberg-printing press-#books increase, vernacular, spread of ideas.
59Medieval Universities Arose 11th centuryBologna, Paris, Oxford1st in ParisStudents subject to Church (town vs gown)Granted chartersStudied art, law, medicine, theologyReceived degree in levelsBachelorMasterDoctorateDaily life equivalent to monastic lifeScholasticism-applying logic to theocracy studied in 11th century by St. AnselmPeter Abelard had theories that went against Church pertaining to logic (God was constrained by logic)symbol of questioning intellect had an affair with Heloise(one of the most learned woman of her time) their letters are famouse and show her sense of medieval humanism.Thomas Aquinas most important scholastic theologian wrote Summa Theologica contains 5 ways of proving God’s existence, tried to harmonize Aristotle’s teaching with Christianity.
62Byzantine Empire 395-1453 Extension of Roman Empire Constantinople 313 Christianity Accepted330 Constantine converts(Greco-Roman heritage)Used Greek languageDomes in architectureConstantinoplecapital of Eastern EmpireProtected by water + wallsMajor trading power (Western Europe-Arab empire)
63Justinian and Theodora (527-565) EmperorsRuled with absolute authorityEconomy (monopolized Silk production taken from China)Coined moneyJustinian and Theodora ( )Rivaled Islamic Baghdadcode of lawsKept ancient Roman legal principles aliveHagia SophiaFlowering of arts, sciences and architectureMosaic artTried to reunite east +west failed due to plagueOrthodox ChristianitySecular rulers headed ChurchDisagreements on:Sacrament of communion, priests allowed to marry, use of vernacular in church, placement of icons, pope vs patriarchIconoclastic controversy: Emperor tried to abolish all images, people reacted violently.
64Fall of Byzantine Empire Arab groups overran territoryTurks migrated to AnatoliaOsmanbuilt empire out of Byzantine territoriesControlled Balkans1453 Constantinople captured by Ottoman TurksMehmud the Conqueror
65Shaped developing cultures of Russia and Eastern Europe. Byzantine Missionaries converted Russia and Slavic peopleCyril and Methodious: alphabet957 Queen Olga convertedKing VladimirConverted and ordered thousands to be baptized in the Dnieper RiverRussian OrthodoxAlligned w/Byzantine1272 Fall to the Tartars=Mongols1400s Ivan III expands territory + declared himself czar
66Middle East Crossroads of the World (Europe, Africa, Asia) Cultural diffusion-> TradePreserved ancient writings of Greeks and RomansIslam
67Rise of Islam Mid 600s Monotheistic Muslims Mohammad Qu’ran 5 Pillars Jihad “to struggle”Accepts Abraham, Moses and Jesus2 groupsShiite vs SunniSunni: “people who follow the Sunna (way of the prophet)” caliph should be good personShiite/Shia: caliphite must go to a descendent
68Empire grows as Religion Splits 632 Mohammad diesCapital MeccaFirst 4 CaliphsAbu Bakr –caliph-theocracy-caliphateUmarUthanAli –assassinated and son Hasan gives power over to UmayyadsSince Abu is in charge of the religion any region that has muslims members becomes a caliphate, they answer to the caliph over the head of state. (Like the Pope and Christendom)
69Umayyads Capital Damascus, Syria Sunni Gold and silver coins standard monetary unitExpanded empire from northern Africa to SpainConversion “encouraged” taxed if notTried to go further into Europe from west and east.Official language of governmentBuilt Dome of the RockDefeated by forces of Abu al-Abbas and replaced by Abbasid Dynasty around 750
70Abbasid DynastyShiite MuslimsBaghdad (capital)Trade increasedLocation prime for tradeDefeated Tang Chinese 751 over trading post on Silk RoadPows carrying paper- Abbasids figured out how to make paperIntroduced CreditItemized receipts and billsGolden AgeProduction of steel (swords)Mohammad al-Razi published medical encyclopediaAlgebraLibraries and universitiesExpanded into Levant (Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon)SufisIslamic mystics/missionariesMade Islam adaptable for others led to conversionsCarrying coins while caravanning was dangerous
71Turks Seljuk Turks 1206-1526 Delhi Sultanate Nomadic warriors from the central Asian SteppesHired by Muslim leaders as mercenaries1055 Captured Baghdad/Abbasssid Dynasty1071 defeated took Anatolia (Turkey) from Byzantine Empire1258 conquered by Hulegu (Kublai Khan’s brother)Many converted to IslamDelhi SultanateAfghan turksNon-muslims taxedDestruction of Hindu templesColleges foundedIrrigation improvedDestroyed by Mongols
72Women and Islam Women = Property No divorce (husband can keep dowry) No propertyFemale infanticideQU’RAN ( )Subservient, treated with more dignity, some legal rights, equal before Allah, divorce/return dowry, infanticide forbiddenMen/4 wives, property passed through men, women= ½ in court, restriction on what they wore
73Decline in Islamic Caliphates Internal RivalriesDifferences between Shi and Sunni sectsEthnic groupsTurkish slaves/mamluks revolted set up capital in Samarra IraqShia group in northern IranSunni Seljuk TurksDestabalized central authority in Baghdad and cut tax revenuesMongol Invasions1258 destroyed Baghdad ending Abbasid DynastyOttoman TurksReunited Egypt, Syria and Arabia
74The Mongols 1234 conquered lands throughout China Ghengis Khan: Temujin ( )1234 conquered lands throughout ChinaEmpire spanned from Pacific Ocean to eastern EuropeKarakorum-capitalSteppe diplomacy“Submit and live. Resist and die.”1st Pony Express + postal systemTax breaks for teachers + clericsSpilt into hordes (small independent empires)/4 regionsKhanate of the Golden Horde (Tartars)Batu (grandson) controlled most of RussiaVasaal stateLocals collected taxesKhanate of Changatai: Yuan dynasty ( )Kublai Khan (grandson)Pax Mongolia: guarded trade routes (Silk Road)Foreigner emplolyed in bureaucracy, civil service not usedMarco PoloIlkhanate of Persia (Hulegu: Kublai’s brother)Persia-Baghdad: stopped in Syria by Egyptian forcesTimur Lang (1370)Aka TamerlaneGhengis Khan = role modelCapital SamarkandConquered parts of IndiaThe MongolsRoman army covered 25 miles per day-> Mongols 90Bows launched from horseback up to 300 yardsArmy divide into unitsSpies scouted enemies before battlesEvery male served
75Impact of Mongols Diffusers of culture Assimilated with some conquered culturesChinese were not allowed to MongolizeIncreased world tradeProtected Silk RoadWelcomed missionaries + merchantsBy 1450 well into decline1260 Mamluks (Egyptian slave dynasty) stopped Mongols from moving into Africatried to invade JapanKamikaze
76West Africa Land of Gold Ghana (500s-1200) Mali (1230s-1433 CE) Trans-Saharan TradeCommercial siteTraded gold (from south) controlled and taxed in return for salt, ivory, slaves, horses, clothLarge army funded by tax on tradeMerchants-Islam1000 CE under assault from northen Berbers, eventually absorbed by MaliMali (1230s-1433 CE)Sundiata (ruler + Epic story)Mansa Musa ( )Devout Muslim: hajj = cultural diffussionTimbuktu: political capital,center for education, religion, cultureAfter 1350 provinces broke away for independence
77East Africa Indian Ocean trade Coast settled by Bantu Swahili City-states emergedGoverned by Kings-converted to IslamMogadishuKilwaSofalaTraded gold, slaves, ivory for pottery, glass and textiles from Persia, India and China.Zimbabwe (Changamire)Rose from Shona people (gold, glass beads, bronze+ iron)Great Zimbabwe
79Travelers Ibn Battuta 1304-1369 Marco Polo 1253-1324 Rabban Sauma BackgroundMuslim Scholar from moroccoMerchant from VeniceNestorian Christian priest from Mongol Empire in ChinaPlaces TraveledDar al-Islam, West Africa, India, Southeast AsiaSilk RoadPilgrimage from Beijing to Jerusalem.Sent to France and England to meet with Pope and Kings on alliance against Muslims by Persian Mongol King IlkhanSignificanceDemonstrated widespread of Islam.Government positions as a qadi or judge in lands travelled.Employed by Kublai Khan oversaw mercantile and domestic missions in empireDid not get support.
80What else is going on? South America Oceania: 1000 Chimor/Chimu along Peruvian CoastThriving agricultureOverrun by Incas late 1400sOceania:Trade networks did not emerge due to distance.Long voyages introduced sweet potato to islandsAgricultural and fishing socieitesIslands differed in culture