Presentation on theme: "AP WORLD HISTORY PART 3 AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS 600-1500."— Presentation transcript:
AP WORLD HISTORY PART 3 AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS 600-1500
TRADE DISCUSS WHAT YOU ALREADY KNOW! 5 W’S IMPORTANCE!
Discussion time. 1.Do cultural areas, as opposed to states and empires, better represent history? – Cultural areas are those that share a common culture. – Respect for geographical limitations not followed
2. How does change occur within societies? Trading Migrations Invasions Why are people moving around? Impact? Change occurs because of internal developments and external influences.
3. How similar were the economic and trading practices that developed across cultures? Monetary Systems Trade Routes Trade Practices How do they link up?
4.How does the environment impact human decision making? How do states respond to environmental changes? Do they move or send out raiding parties? Are they able to respond quickly and successfully to environmental changes?
Review of History Within Civilizations 600 CE-1450 Classical Period collapses Long distance trade increases – Caravans of Silk routes – Multi-ethnic Indian Ocean sailors – Trips across Sahara to West Africa – Trade in Mediterranean Decentralization of Western Europe Expansion of trading empires of Middle East and China
Developments in Asia 3 Major dynasties – Tang, Song, Ming Developed Golden Ages Influenced – Korea – Vietnam – Cambodia
Tang(618-907 AD) Emperor Xuanzong – Bureaucratic system (merit, civil service exams) – Military garrisons along trade routes and capital Xi’an – Tribute system (territories sent ambassadors and gifts “kowtow”) Expanded into Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, Korea Golden Age – age of Buddhism – Footbinding – woodblock printing – Gunpowder – Paper Money – Magnetic compass – Poetry tells of daily life Economy – Paper money – Letters of credit (flying cash) Increased trade and cultural diffusion Local warlords gained power and dynasty collapsed – Uighurs (nomadic Turks brought in the stop rebellions but eventually became attackers)
Song (960-1279 AD) Song Taizu – Used army and consolidated China Similar rule as Tang Capital in southern portion, Hangzhou Wealth base on powerful navy and International trade Golden Age – Moveable type (increased literacy) – Porcelain – Gunpowder used for military – Magnetic compass – Watertight bulkheads – Sternpost rudders for junks (merchant/battleships) – Iron production increased – Produced steel using water-driven-bellows to produce needed temp. – Introduction of champa RICE from Vietnam=population increase (115 million in 1200) Peasant Rebellions and Mongols led to fall of dynasty
Ming 1368-1644 Zhu Yuanzhang – Red turban rebellion against Mongols – Ended corruption and reestablished an authoritarian gov’t bureaucracy using eunuchs Chengzu (son) – Imperial Palace (Forbidden City) constructed in Beijing (1406-1421) Golden Age – Focused on Chinese culture – Zheng He Sea expeditons led to increased trade Fortified Great Wall Expanded Canal System
Religion Nestorianism – Christianity w/difference based on holy trinity Manicheans – Persian founder Mani used cosmology to explain conflict between light and dark, good or evil Zoroastrianism – Persian Islam Buddhism – Mahayana: nirvana can be attained through faith alone – Chan/Zen: school of mahayana based on meditation and Dharma Confucianism – Neo-Confucianism: Zhu Xi adapted Buddhist concepts to Confucian values. Expanded into Vietnam, Korea and Japan Doaism
Women Confucian=subordinate Under Tang: – Empress Wu Zhoa took over after husband’s death. – Considered fair-minded. Footbinding – Strengthened Confucian ideas
Korea Silla Dynasty – 668-935 – Unified Korea – Vassal state of Tang 7 th century – Adopted Confucian values Koryo Dynasty – 935-1392 – Copied chinese civil service exams – Bureaucracy – Slavery Choson/Yi Dynasty – 1392-1910 – Established after Mongols left Hermit Kingdom 19 th century term used for its closed door policy for foreigners Cultural bridge btwn. China and Japan Vietnam North subdued by Tang South rebelled Both absorbed agricultural ideas, schools of thought, and irrigation techniques. Maintained indigenous religions Women more active in society
Japan 4 main islands: isolation Influenced by Korea and China Yamato Clan – 5 th century – First and only dynasty – Direct descendent of Amaterasu Shinto sun goddess – Prince Shotoku Taika Reforms – Borrowed ideas on gov’t from Tang – Rejected confucianism – Grand Council of State –administrative districts – Heian Period Fujiwara Family Ruled Japan 794 after Shotoku’s death Golden Age – Lady Murasaki Tale of the Genji
Feudal Japan Developed same time as in Europe Kamakura Shogunate – 1192 Yoritomo Minamoto – Bakufu “Tent” system of gov’t – Shogun chief general – Daimyo (powerful land owners – Samurai (warrior/nobility) – Bushido (code of Behavior) Zen Buddhism Loyalty, courage, honor Women were not held in high esteem, could not learn chinese Kyoto Shogunate – 1333 Ashikaga – Onin War 1467-1477 threatened unity – Samurai gained immense respect-carry weapons and have last names
Europe Dark Ages (476 AD -800) – End of Roman Rule in western Europe – Rise of Tribes (Franks, Saxons, vikings) – learning/education Preserved by monks and muslims Based off of ancient writings – decentralized government Owed alegiances – no common language Latin for educated – no unity
Middle Ages (800-1300) Feudalism – fiefdom= system of loyalties – Manorialism-self sufficient estate – Chivalry-code of conduct Church-most powerful institution – political-economic-social organization –controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. –tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. –curb heresies Crusades Inquisition – tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. –Holy Roman Empire
Feudalism Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.
The Medieval Catholic Church filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. monasticism: St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. provided schools for the children of the upper class. inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. monks missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
The Power of the Medieval Church bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system. the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. curb heresies crusades; Inquisition tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Peter’s Pence 1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].
Romanesque Architectural Style e Rounded Arches. e Barrel vaults. e Thick walls. e Darker, simplistic interiors. e Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.
The Rise of European Monarchies: England Saxons were brought over by the Romans/Britons as mercenaries early 5 th century. They expanded their territory and controlled much of England until 1066.
William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeaux Tapestry
Magna Carta, 1215 King John I King John I “Great Charter” monarchs were not above the law. kings had to consult a council of advisors. kings could not tax arbitrarily.
Evolution of England’s Political System Evolution of England’s Political System Henry I: William’s son. set up a court system. Exchequer dept. of royal finances. Henry II: established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom. grand jury. trial by jury.
The Beginnings of the British Parliament Great Council: o middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c. o eventually called Parliament. o by 1400, two chambers evolved: o House of Lords = nobles & clergy. o House of Commons = knights and burgesses. Great Council: middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c. eventually called Parliament. by 1400, two chambers evolved: House of Lords: nobles & clergy. House of Commons: knights and burgesses.
The Rise of European Monarchies: France 3 C’s – Clovis, Charles Martel, Charlemagne Capetians – 987 Hugh Capet selected after death of last Carolingian emperor. – Controlled Normandy, Brittany, Burgundy, Aquitaine – Established the Estates General (3 Estates) – 1066 William of Normandy conquered England bringing territory with him. (Angevin Kingdom) – Hiundred Years’ War
Holy Roman Empire 800 Charlemagne 1 st HRE – Saxons convert or be killed – Saxon King Widukind converted 785 962 Otto I proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Tensions between Pope and Emperor 1075 Investiture Contest Controversy – Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV for attempting to name bishops 1122 Concordat of Worms – Pope chooses spiritual leaders, Emperor chooses political leaders Voltaire “neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire” – Secular German group of states 1176 Frederick Barbarossa – Tried to enlarge empire through northern Italy 1220-1250: Frederick II – King of Italy and German States – Promoted arts and science
Italy After Justinian: Controlled by Lombards 773 Charlemagne took over Italy Otto I combined Italy and Germany making HRE 10 th Century rise of City-States – Burghers rose in power Trade with Muslims Crusades Banking Centers Medici family Venice + Genoa important cities
Agricultural Revolution (after 900) – New inventions (harness for horses,3 field system, moldboard plow) – More food =more people= more trade routes = fairs =towns Crusades-Holy Wars (1095- 1270) resulted in increased: – Trade, cultural diffusion, knowledge Commercial Revolution(1500s) – New business practices (checks, banks) – Capital = $ exchanged instead of bartering – end of feudalism – Important trade cities (Venice, Hanseatic League)
Medieval Guilds Commercial Monopoly: o C ontrolled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman o Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. o Controlled prices Guild HallGuild Hall Commercial Monopoly: C ontrolled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled prices
1348 Bubonic Plague – trade declined – church lost power – 1/3 population died Hundred Years’ War 1337-1453 – War between France and Britain over land Thirty Years’ War 1618-1648 – Between German Princes and Holy Roman Empire over religion – Treaty of Westphalia brought peace
Europe-> Renaissance (1300-1650) Rebirth of Classics – Greek and Roman – Golden Age Begins in Italy b/c of: – Crusades – urban centers – wealthy merchants – humanism= focus on human achievements not just religion – Art focus=realism – Artists: Michelangelo, da Vinci-most famous – Writers: Machiavelli-The Prince (end justifies the means) rulers should do anything to gain and keep power. Johannes Gutenberg-printing press-#books increase, vernacular, spread of ideas.
Medieval Universities Arose 11 th century – Bologna, Paris, Oxford 1 st in Paris Students subject to Church (town vs gown) Granted charters Studied art, law, medicine, theology – Received degree in levels Bachelor Master Doctorate – Daily life equivalent to monastic life
Byzantine Empire 395-1453 Extension of Roman Empire – 313 Christianity Accepted – 330 Constantine converts – (Greco-Roman heritage) Used Greek language Domes in architecture Constantinople – capital of Eastern Empire – Protected by water + walls – Major trading power (Western Europe-Arab empire)
Emperors – Ruled with absolute authority Economy (monopolized Silk production taken from China) – Coined money Justinian and Theodora (527-565) – Rivaled Islamic Baghdad – code of laws Kept ancient Roman legal principles alive – Hagia Sophia Flowering of arts, sciences and architecture Mosaic art – Tried to reunite east +west failed due to plague Orthodox Christianity – Secular rulers headed Church – Disagreements on: Sacrament of communion, priests allowed to marry, use of vernacular in church, placement of icons, pope vs patriarch
Fall of Byzantine Empire Arab groups overran territory – Turks migrated to Anatolia – Osman built empire out of Byzantine territories Controlled Balkans 1453 Constantinople captured by Ottoman Turks – Mehmud the Conqueror
Shaped developing cultures of Russia and Eastern Europe. Byzantine Missionaries converted Russia and Slavic people – Cyril and Methodious: alphabet 957 Queen Olga converted King Vladimir – Converted and ordered thousands to be baptized in the Dnieper River Russian Orthodox – Alligned w/Byzantine 1272 Fall to the Tartars=Mongols – 1400s Ivan III expands territory + declared himself czar
Middle East Crossroads of the World (Europe, Africa, Asia) Cultural diffusion-> Trade Preserved ancient writings of Greeks and Romans Islam
Rise of Islam Mid 600s Monotheistic Muslims Mohammad Qu’ran 5 Pillars Jihad “to struggle” Accepts Abraham, Moses and Jesus 2 groups – Shiite vs Sunni Sunni: “people who follow the Sunna (way of the prophet)” caliph should be good person Shiite/Shia: caliphite must go to a descendent
Empire grows as Religion Splits 632 Mohammad dies Capital Mecca First 4 Caliphs – Abu Bakr –caliph-theocracy-caliphate – Umar – Uthan – Ali –assassinated and son Hasan gives power over to Umayyads
Umayyads – Capital Damascus, Syria – Sunni – Gold and silver coins standard monetary unit – Expanded empire from northern Africa to Spain Conversion “encouraged” taxed if not – Tried to go further into Europe from west and east. – Official language of government – Built Dome of the Rock – Defeated by forces of Abu al-Abbas and replaced by Abbasid Dynasty around 750
Abbasid Dynasty 750-1258 – Shiite Muslims – Baghdad (capital) – Trade increased Location prime for trade Defeated Tang Chinese 751 over trading post on Silk Road – Pows carrying paper- Abbasids figured out how to make paper Introduced Credit Itemized receipts and bills – Golden Age Production of steel (swords) Mohammad al-Razi published medical encyclopedia Algebra Libraries and universities – Expanded into Levant (Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon) – Sufis Islamic mystics/missionaries Made Islam adaptable for others led to conversions
Turks Seljuk Turks – Nomadic warriors from the central Asian Steppes – Hired by Muslim leaders as mercenaries – 1055 Captured Baghdad/Abbasssid Dynasty – 1071 defeated took Anatolia (Turkey) from Byzantine Empire – 1258 conquered by Hulegu (Kublai Khan’s brother) Many converted to Islam 1206-1526 Delhi Sultanate – Afghan turks – Non-muslims taxed – Destruction of Hindu temples – Colleges founded – Irrigation improved – Destroyed by Mongols
Women and Islam Women = Property – No divorce (husband can keep dowry) – No property – Female infanticide – QU’RAN (651-652) Subservient, treated with more dignity, some legal rights, equal before Allah, divorce/return dowry, infanticide forbidden Men/4 wives, property passed through men, women= ½ in court, restriction on what they wore
Decline in Islamic Caliphates Internal Rivalries – Differences between Shi and Sunni sects – Ethnic groups Turkish slaves/mamluks revolted set up capital in Samarra Iraq Shia group in northern Iran Sunni Seljuk Turks – Destabalized central authority in Baghdad and cut tax revenues Mongol Invasions – 1258 destroyed Baghdad ending Abbasid Dynasty Ottoman Turks – Reunited Egypt, Syria and Arabia
The Mongols Ghengis Khan: Temujin (1167-1227) – 1234 conquered lands throughout China Empire spanned from Pacific Ocean to eastern Europe Karakorum-capital Steppe diplomacy “Submit and live. Resist and die.” – 1 st Pony Express + postal system – Tax breaks for teachers + clerics – Spilt into hordes (small independent empires)/4 regions Khanate of the Golden Horde (Tartars) Batu (grandson) controlled most of Russia – Vasaal state – Locals collected taxes Khanate of Changatai: Yuan dynasty (1279-1368) Kublai Khan (grandson) – Pax Mongolia: guarded trade routes (Silk Road) – Foreigner emplolyed in bureaucracy, civil service not used – Marco Polo Ilkhanate of Persia (Hulegu: Kublai’s brother) – Persia-Baghdad: stopped in Syria by Egyptian forces Timur Lang (1370) – Aka Tamerlane – Ghengis Khan = role model – Capital Samarkand – Conquered parts of India
Impact of Mongols Diffusers of culture – Assimilated with some conquered cultures – Chinese were not allowed to Mongolize – Increased world trade Protected Silk Road Welcomed missionaries + merchants – By 1450 well into decline 1260 Mamluks (Egyptian slave dynasty) stopped Mongols from moving into Africa 1274 + 1281 tried to invade Japan – Kamikaze
West Africa – Land of Gold – Ghana (500s-1200) Trans-Saharan Trade Commercial site Traded gold (from south) controlled and taxed in return for salt, ivory, slaves, horses, cloth Large army funded by tax on trade Merchants-Islam 1000 CE under assault from northen Berbers, eventually absorbed by Mali – Mali (1230s-1433 CE) Sundiata (ruler + Epic story) Mansa Musa (1312-1337) – Devout Muslim: hajj = cultural diffussion – Timbuktu: political capital,center for education, religion, culture After 1350 provinces broke away for independence
East Africa Indian Ocean trade Coast settled by Bantu Swahili City-states emerged – Governed by Kings-converted to Islam – Mogadishu – Kilwa – Sofala Traded gold, slaves, ivory for pottery, glass and textiles from Persia, India and China. 1100-1450 Zimbabwe (Changamire) – Rose from Shona people (gold, glass beads, bronze+ iron) – Great Zimbabwe
Travelers Ibn Battuta 1304-1369 Marco Polo 1253-1324 Rabban Sauma 1225-1294 BackgroundMuslim Scholar from morocco Merchant from VeniceNestorian Christian priest from Mongol Empire in China Places TraveledDar al-Islam, West Africa, India, Southeast Asia Silk RoadPilgrimage from Beijing to Jerusalem. Sent to France and England to meet with Pope and Kings on alliance against Muslims by Persian Mongol King Ilkhan SignificanceDemonstrated widespread of Islam. Government positions as a qadi or judge in lands travelled. Employed by Kublai Khan oversaw mercantile and domestic missions in empire Did not get support.
What else is going on? South America – 1000 Chimor/Chimu along Peruvian Coast Thriving agriculture Overrun by Incas late 1400s Oceania: Trade networks did not emerge due to distance. Long voyages introduced sweet potato to islands Agricultural and fishing socieites Islands differed in culture