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Presentation on theme: "PART 3 AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS"— Presentation transcript:



3 Discussion time. Do cultural areas, as opposed to states and empires, better represent history? Cultural areas are those that share a common culture. Respect for geographical limitations not followed

4 2. How does change occur within societies?
Trading Migrations Invasions Why are people moving around? Impact? Change occurs because of internal developments and external influences.

5 3. How similar were the economic and trading practices that developed across cultures?
Monetary Systems Trade Routes Trade Practices How do they link up?

6 4.How does the environment impact human decision making?
How do states respond to environmental changes? Do they move or send out raiding parties? Are they able to respond quickly and successfully to environmental changes?

7 Review of History Within Civilizations 600 CE-1450
Classical Period collapses Long distance trade increases Caravans of Silk routes Multi-ethnic Indian Ocean sailors Trips across Sahara to West Africa Trade in Mediterranean Decentralization of Western Europe Expansion of trading empires of Middle East and China


9 Developments in Asia 3 Major dynasties Developed Golden Ages
Tang, Song, Ming Developed Golden Ages Influenced Korea Vietnam Cambodia

10 Tang(618-907 AD) Emperor Xuanzong
Bureaucratic system (merit, civil service exams) Military garrisons along trade routes and capital Xi’an Tribute system (territories sent ambassadors and gifts “kowtow”) Expanded into Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, Korea Golden Age age of Buddhism Footbinding woodblock printing Gunpowder Paper Money Magnetic compass Poetry tells of daily life Economy Paper money Letters of credit (flying cash) Increased trade and cultural diffusion Local warlords gained power and dynasty collapsed Uighurs (nomadic Turks brought in the stop rebellions but eventually became attackers)

11 Song (960-1279 AD) Song Taizu Similar rule as Tang
Used army and consolidated China Similar rule as Tang Capital in southern portion, Hangzhou Wealth base on powerful navy and International trade Golden Age Moveable type (increased literacy) Porcelain Gunpowder used for military Magnetic compass Watertight bulkheads Sternpost rudders for junks (merchant/battleships) Iron production increased Produced steel using water-driven-bellows to produce needed temp. Introduction of champa RICE from Vietnam=population increase (115 million in 1200) Peasant Rebellions and Mongols led to fall of dynasty Fast ripening rice increased agricultural technology iron plows, irrigation systems, manure as fertilizer, terrace farming

12 Ming 1368-1644 Zhu Yuanzhang Chengzu (son) Golden Age
Red turban rebellion against Mongols Ended corruption and reestablished an authoritarian gov’t bureaucracy using eunuchs Chengzu (son) Imperial Palace (Forbidden City) constructed in Beijing ( ) Golden Age Focused on Chinese culture Zheng He Sea expeditons led to increased trade Fortified Great Wall Expanded Canal System Eunuchs used since Sumerian times. Were prisoners of war, or punished for behavior

13 Religion Nestorianism Manicheans Zoroastrianism Islam Buddhism
Christianity w/difference based on holy trinity Manicheans Persian founder Mani used cosmology to explain conflict between light and dark, good or evil Zoroastrianism Persian Islam Buddhism Mahayana: nirvana can be attained through faith alone Chan/Zen: school of mahayana based on meditation and Dharma Confucianism Neo-Confucianism: Zhu Xi adapted Buddhist concepts to Confucian values. Expanded into Vietnam, Korea and Japan Doaism

14 Women Confucian=subordinate Under Tang: Footbinding
Empress Wu Zhoa took over after husband’s death. Considered fair-minded. Footbinding Strengthened Confucian ideas Wu was a favorite concubine, convinced emperor to execute wife over false report that she killed a daughter.

15 Hermit Kingdom Korea Vietnam North subdued by Tang South rebelled
Silla Dynasty Unified Korea Vassal state of Tang 7th century Adopted Confucian values Koryo Dynasty Copied chinese civil service exams Bureaucracy Slavery Choson/Yi Dynasty Established after Mongols left Hermit Kingdom 19th century term used for its closed door policy for foreigners Cultural bridge btwn. China and Japan North subdued by Tang South rebelled Both absorbed agricultural ideas, schools of thought, and irrigation techniques. Maintained indigenous religions Women more active in society

16 Japan 4 main islands: isolation Influenced by Korea and China
Yamato Clan 5th century First and only dynasty Direct descendent of Amaterasu Shinto sun goddess Prince Shotoku Taika Reforms Borrowed ideas on gov’t from Tang Rejected confucianism Grand Council of State –administrative districts Heian Period Fujiwara Family Ruled Japan 794 after Shotoku’s death Golden Age Lady Murasaki Tale of the Genji

17 Feudal Japan Developed same time as in Europe Kamakura Shogunate
1192 Yoritomo Minamoto Bakufu “Tent” system of gov’t Shogun chief general Daimyo (powerful land owners Samurai (warrior/nobility) Bushido (code of Behavior) Zen Buddhism Loyalty, courage, honor Women were not held in high esteem, could not learn chinese Kyoto Shogunate 1333 Ashikaga Onin War threatened unity Samurai gained immense respect-carry weapons and have last names

18 Europe Dark Ages (476 AD -800) End of Roman Rule in western Europe
Rise of Tribes (Franks, Saxons, vikings) learning/education Preserved by monks and muslims Based off of ancient writings decentralized government Owed alegiances no common language Latin for educated no unity

19 Europe 6th century

20 Middle Ages (800-1300) Feudalism fiefdom= system of loyalties
Manorialism-self sufficient estate Chivalry-code of conduct Church-most powerful institution political-economic-social organization controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. curb heresies Crusades Inquisition tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Holy Roman Empire Franks- close connections to the church provided an educated workforce for their bureaucracy. Charlemagne: Alcuin (educator) created school at Aechen for priests, controlled land through missi dominici (messengers) Battle against Basques: army ambushed by Basques killing Count Roland-Song of Roland battle was won and land became buffer zone between christians and muslims Monasteries: St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. provided schools for the children of the upper class. inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. monks  missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]

21 Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.
After Charlemagne’s death, nobles built a system to protect their lands and maintain order based on military and political relationships with prominent individuals which later became lords with the church’s approval.


23 Parts of a Medieval Castle

24 Carcassonne: A Medieval Castle

25 The Medieval Manor Serfs created agricultural surplus, not fully free or fully slave. Cultivated land produced goods in return for a small plot. Usually passed down to offspring as long as they fulfilled their obligations (work lords land for so many days a week, planting, harvesting and returning a portion of their own to the lord. This could include weaving, brewing, milling, sewing. Manor included land, crops, tools, animals, serfs to function. Lord acted judge of manor. Any goods not created at manor could be found at nearby monastery.

26 The Medieval Catholic Church
filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. monasticism: St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. provided schools for the children of the upper class. inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. monks  missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]

27 The Power of the Medieval Church
bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system. the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. tried to curb feudal warfare  only days a year for combat. curb heresies  crusades; Inquisition tithe  1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Peter’s Pence  1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].

28 Romanesque Architectural Style
Rounded Arches. Barrel vaults. Thick walls. Darker, simplistic interiors. Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.

29 A Medieval Monk’s Day

30 A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium

31 Illuminated Manuscripts

32 The Rise of European Monarchies: England
Saxons were brought over by the Romans/Britons as mercenaries early 5th century. They expanded their territory and controlled much of England until 1066. King Alfred conquered Danes in the north to unite England (Anglo-land), built fortresses to defend themselves against the Vikings.

33 William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeaux Tapestry

34 Magna Carta, 1215 King John I “Great Charter”
monarchs were not above the law. kings had to consult a council of advisors. kings could not tax arbitrarily.

35 Evolution of England’s Political System
Henry I: William’s son. set up a court system. Exchequer  dept. of royal finances. Henry II: established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom. grand jury. trial by jury.

36 The Beginnings of the British Parliament
Great Council: middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c. eventually called Parliament. by 1400, two chambers evolved: House of Lords = nobles & clergy. House of Commons = knights and burgesses. Great Council: middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c. eventually called Parliament. by 1400, two chambers evolved: House of Lords: nobles & clergy. House of Commons: knights and burgesses.

37 The Rise of European Monarchies: France
3 C’s Clovis, Charles Martel, Charlemagne Capetians 987 Hugh Capet selected after death of last Carolingian emperor. Controlled Normandy, Brittany, Burgundy, Aquitaine Established the Estates General (3 Estates) 1066 William of Normandy conquered England bringing territory with him. (Angevin Kingdom) –Hiundred Years’ War

38 Charlemagne: 742 to 814

39 Charlemagne’s Empire

40 Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800

41 The Carolingian Renaissance

42 Carolingian Miniscule

43 Treaty of Verdun 843 After Charlemagne’s death, invasions brought Carolingian empire to its end. Muslims from the Mediterranean, Magyars from Hungary, Vikings from the North between 9-11 centuries Vikings, Norse mariners invaded along the coastlines were motivated by population pressures in Scandinavia and resistance to Christianity. They assaulted monasteries, villages and cities throughout northern and southern Europe.

44 Holy Roman Empire 800 Charlemagne 1st HRE
Saxons convert or be killed Saxon King Widukind converted 785 962 Otto I proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Tensions between Pope and Emperor 1075 Investiture Contest Controversy Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV for attempting to name bishops 1122 Concordat of Worms Pope chooses spiritual leaders, Emperor chooses political leaders Voltaire “neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire” Secular German group of states 1176 Frederick Barbarossa Tried to enlarge empire through northern Italy : Frederick II King of Italy and German States Promoted arts and science Otto selected the Pope himself Sylvester II Henry IV pleaded with Pope and proclaimed that the Church had complete authority barefoot in the snow. Barbarossa Hohenstaufen ruler Frederick II mother was Queen of Sicily

45 Italy After Justinian: Controlled by Lombards
773 Charlemagne took over Italy Otto I combined Italy and Germany making HRE 10th Century rise of City-States Burghers rose in power Trade with Muslims Crusades Banking Centers Medici family Venice + Genoa important cities

46 Agricultural Revolution (after 900)
New inventions (harness for horses,3 field system, moldboard plow) More food =more people= more trade routes = fairs =towns Crusades-Holy Wars ( ) resulted in increased: Trade, cultural diffusion, knowledge Commercial Revolution(1500s) New business practices (checks, banks) Capital = $ exchanged instead of bartering end of feudalism Important trade cities (Venice, Hanseatic League)

47 Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade

48 Setting Out on Crusade

49 Christian Crusades: East and West

50 Hanseatic League founded by Saxon King Henry the Lion 1159
Trade/merchant associations

51 Medieval Guilds Guild Hall Commercial Monopoly: Controlled membership
apprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled prices Commercial Monopoly: Controlled membership apprentice  journeyman  master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled prices

52 Medieval Guilds: A Goldsmith’s Shop

53 Crest of a Cooper’s Guild

54 1348 Bubonic Plague Hundred Years’ War 1337-1453
trade declined church lost power 1/3 population died Hundred Years’ War War between France and Britain over land Thirty Years’ War Between German Princes and Holy Roman Empire over religion Treaty of Westphalia brought peace

55 Pieter Bruegel's "The Triumph of Death” mid 1500s

56 Hundred Years’ War


58 Europe-> Renaissance (1300-1650)
Rebirth of Classics Greek and Roman Golden Age Begins in Italy b/c of: Crusades urban centers wealthy merchants humanism= focus on human achievements not just religion Art focus=realism Artists: Michelangelo, da Vinci-most famous Writers: Machiavelli-The Prince (end justifies the means) rulers should do anything to gain and keep power. Johannes Gutenberg-printing press-#books increase, vernacular, spread of ideas.

59 Medieval Universities
Arose 11th century Bologna, Paris, Oxford 1st in Paris Students subject to Church (town vs gown) Granted charters Studied art, law, medicine, theology Received degree in levels Bachelor Master Doctorate Daily life equivalent to monastic life Scholasticism-applying logic to theocracy studied in 11th century by St. Anselm Peter Abelard had theories that went against Church pertaining to logic (God was constrained by logic)symbol of questioning intellect had an affair with Heloise(one of the most learned woman of her time) their letters are famouse and show her sense of medieval humanism. Thomas Aquinas most important scholastic theologian wrote Summa Theologica contains 5 ways of proving God’s existence, tried to harmonize Aristotle’s teaching with Christianity.

60 Oxford University

61 Late Medieval Town Dwellings

62 Byzantine Empire 395-1453 Extension of Roman Empire Constantinople
313 Christianity Accepted 330 Constantine converts (Greco-Roman heritage) Used Greek language Domes in architecture Constantinople capital of Eastern Empire Protected by water + walls Major trading power (Western Europe-Arab empire)

63 Justinian and Theodora (527-565)
Emperors Ruled with absolute authority Economy (monopolized Silk production taken from China) Coined money Justinian and Theodora ( ) Rivaled Islamic Baghdad code of laws Kept ancient Roman legal principles alive Hagia Sophia Flowering of arts, sciences and architecture Mosaic art Tried to reunite east +west failed due to plague Orthodox Christianity Secular rulers headed Church Disagreements on: Sacrament of communion, priests allowed to marry, use of vernacular in church, placement of icons, pope vs patriarch Iconoclastic controversy: Emperor tried to abolish all images, people reacted violently.

64 Fall of Byzantine Empire
Arab groups overran territory Turks migrated to Anatolia Osman built empire out of Byzantine territories Controlled Balkans 1453 Constantinople captured by Ottoman Turks Mehmud the Conqueror

65 Shaped developing cultures of Russia and Eastern Europe.
Byzantine Missionaries converted Russia and Slavic people Cyril and Methodious: alphabet 957 Queen Olga converted King Vladimir Converted and ordered thousands to be baptized in the Dnieper River Russian Orthodox Alligned w/Byzantine 1272 Fall to the Tartars=Mongols 1400s Ivan III expands territory + declared himself czar

66 Middle East Crossroads of the World (Europe, Africa, Asia)
Cultural diffusion-> Trade Preserved ancient writings of Greeks and Romans Islam

67 Rise of Islam Mid 600s Monotheistic Muslims Mohammad Qu’ran 5 Pillars
Jihad “to struggle” Accepts Abraham, Moses and Jesus 2 groups Shiite vs Sunni Sunni: “people who follow the Sunna (way of the prophet)” caliph should be good person Shiite/Shia: caliphite must go to a descendent

68 Empire grows as Religion Splits
632 Mohammad dies Capital Mecca First 4 Caliphs Abu Bakr –caliph-theocracy-caliphate Umar Uthan Ali –assassinated and son Hasan gives power over to Umayyads Since Abu is in charge of the religion any region that has muslims members becomes a caliphate, they answer to the caliph over the head of state. (Like the Pope and Christendom)

69 Umayyads Capital Damascus, Syria Sunni
Gold and silver coins standard monetary unit Expanded empire from northern Africa to Spain Conversion “encouraged” taxed if not Tried to go further into Europe from west and east. Official language of government Built Dome of the Rock Defeated by forces of Abu al-Abbas and replaced by Abbasid Dynasty around 750

70 Abbasid Dynasty Shiite Muslims Baghdad (capital) Trade increased Location prime for trade Defeated Tang Chinese 751 over trading post on Silk Road Pows carrying paper- Abbasids figured out how to make paper Introduced Credit Itemized receipts and bills Golden Age Production of steel (swords) Mohammad al-Razi published medical encyclopedia Algebra Libraries and universities Expanded into Levant (Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon) Sufis Islamic mystics/missionaries Made Islam adaptable for others led to conversions Carrying coins while caravanning was dangerous

71 Turks Seljuk Turks 1206-1526 Delhi Sultanate
Nomadic warriors from the central Asian Steppes Hired by Muslim leaders as mercenaries 1055 Captured Baghdad/Abbasssid Dynasty 1071 defeated took Anatolia (Turkey) from Byzantine Empire 1258 conquered by Hulegu (Kublai Khan’s brother) Many converted to Islam Delhi Sultanate Afghan turks Non-muslims taxed Destruction of Hindu temples Colleges founded Irrigation improved Destroyed by Mongols

72 Women and Islam Women = Property No divorce (husband can keep dowry)
No property Female infanticide QU’RAN ( ) Subservient, treated with more dignity, some legal rights, equal before Allah, divorce/return dowry, infanticide forbidden Men/4 wives, property passed through men, women= ½ in court, restriction on what they wore

73 Decline in Islamic Caliphates
Internal Rivalries Differences between Shi and Sunni sects Ethnic groups Turkish slaves/mamluks revolted set up capital in Samarra Iraq Shia group in northern Iran Sunni Seljuk Turks Destabalized central authority in Baghdad and cut tax revenues Mongol Invasions 1258 destroyed Baghdad ending Abbasid Dynasty Ottoman Turks Reunited Egypt, Syria and Arabia

74 The Mongols 1234 conquered lands throughout China
Ghengis Khan: Temujin ( ) 1234 conquered lands throughout China Empire spanned from Pacific Ocean to eastern Europe Karakorum-capital Steppe diplomacy “Submit and live. Resist and die.” 1st Pony Express + postal system Tax breaks for teachers + clerics Spilt into hordes (small independent empires)/4 regions Khanate of the Golden Horde (Tartars) Batu (grandson) controlled most of Russia Vasaal state Locals collected taxes Khanate of Changatai: Yuan dynasty ( ) Kublai Khan (grandson) Pax Mongolia: guarded trade routes (Silk Road) Foreigner emplolyed in bureaucracy, civil service not used Marco Polo Ilkhanate of Persia (Hulegu: Kublai’s brother) Persia-Baghdad: stopped in Syria by Egyptian forces Timur Lang (1370) Aka Tamerlane Ghengis Khan = role model Capital Samarkand Conquered parts of India The Mongols Roman army covered 25 miles per day-> Mongols 90 Bows launched from horseback up to 300 yards Army divide into units Spies scouted enemies before battles Every male served

75 Impact of Mongols Diffusers of culture
Assimilated with some conquered cultures Chinese were not allowed to Mongolize Increased world trade Protected Silk Road Welcomed missionaries + merchants By 1450 well into decline 1260 Mamluks (Egyptian slave dynasty) stopped Mongols from moving into Africa tried to invade Japan Kamikaze

76 West Africa Land of Gold Ghana (500s-1200) Mali (1230s-1433 CE)
Trans-Saharan Trade Commercial site Traded gold (from south) controlled and taxed in return for salt, ivory, slaves, horses, cloth Large army funded by tax on trade Merchants-Islam 1000 CE under assault from northen Berbers, eventually absorbed by Mali Mali (1230s-1433 CE) Sundiata (ruler + Epic story) Mansa Musa ( ) Devout Muslim: hajj = cultural diffussion Timbuktu: political capital,center for education, religion, culture After 1350 provinces broke away for independence

77 East Africa Indian Ocean trade Coast settled by Bantu
Swahili City-states emerged Governed by Kings-converted to Islam Mogadishu Kilwa Sofala Traded gold, slaves, ivory for pottery, glass and textiles from Persia, India and China. Zimbabwe (Changamire) Rose from Shona people (gold, glass beads, bronze+ iron) Great Zimbabwe

78 Great Zimbabwe

79 Travelers Ibn Battuta 1304-1369 Marco Polo 1253-1324 Rabban Sauma
Background Muslim Scholar from morocco Merchant from Venice Nestorian Christian priest from Mongol Empire in China Places Traveled Dar al-Islam, West Africa, India, Southeast Asia Silk Road Pilgrimage from Beijing to Jerusalem. Sent to France and England to meet with Pope and Kings on alliance against Muslims by Persian Mongol King Ilkhan Significance Demonstrated widespread of Islam. Government positions as a qadi or judge in lands travelled. Employed by Kublai Khan oversaw mercantile and domestic missions in empire Did not get support.

80 What else is going on? South America Oceania:
1000 Chimor/Chimu along Peruvian Coast Thriving agriculture Overrun by Incas late 1400s Oceania: Trade networks did not emerge due to distance. Long voyages introduced sweet potato to islands Agricultural and fishing socieites Islands differed in culture


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