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World Regional Geography FIFTH EDITION World Regional Geography FIFTH EDITION CHAPTER 4 Europe Lydia Mihelic Pulsipher Alex Pulsipher © 2011 W. H. Freeman.

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Presentation on theme: "World Regional Geography FIFTH EDITION World Regional Geography FIFTH EDITION CHAPTER 4 Europe Lydia Mihelic Pulsipher Alex Pulsipher © 2011 W. H. Freeman."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Regional Geography FIFTH EDITION World Regional Geography FIFTH EDITION CHAPTER 4 Europe Lydia Mihelic Pulsipher Alex Pulsipher © 2011 W. H. Freeman and Company

2 H OUSEKEEPING I TEMS Any feedback on our two guest speakers from Thursday? Tonight there’s a lecture at 7 on sea level rise and its implications for the 21 st century in Building 356, Room 109 (the auditorium). Admission is free. In the folder, you’ll find information on International Development Week, which leads off with the keynote, “Global Water, Local Water,” next Monday from 5:30 to 7 in the Theatre. Today, we’ll finish Latin America and start in on Europe. Can I see Sarah after class?



5 P HYSICAL P ATTERNS Europe is a region of peninsulas upon peninsulas The entire European region is one giant peninsula extending off the Eurasian continent One result of all of these peninsulas is that much of Europe feels the climate-moderating effect of the large bodies of water that surround it

6 L ANDFORMS The basic pattern is mountains, uplands, and lowlands, all stretching roughly west to east in wide bands Europe’s largest mountain chain stretches west to east through the middle of the continent The Alps are the highest and most central part of this formation Europe lies on the westernmost extension of the Eurasian Plate

7 L ANDFORMS Extending northward from the central mountain zone is a band of low-lying hills and plateaus that is a transitional zone between the high mountains and lowlands The lowlands of the North European Plain is the most extensive landform in Europe The coastal zones of the North European Plain are densely populated

8 L ANDFORMS The rivers of Europe link its interior to the surrounding seas - The Rhine - The Danube The economic and environmental roles of the Danube River basin are getting increased attention

9 V EGETATION Nearly all of Europe’s original forests are gone to make way for farmland, pasture, towns, and cities Today, forests with very large and old trees exist only in scattered areas The dominant vegetation is crops and pasture grass Nonetheless, there is far less urban sprawl; cities tend to be compact and one can often see the countryside from the city itself

10 Siena in Tuscany. Source: /2010/10/siena-a-gem-of-a -tuscan-city.html


12 C LIMATE Europe has three main climate types: temperate midlatitude, Mediterranean, and humid continental The temperate midlatitude climate dominates in northwestern Europe A broad warm-water ocean current called the North Atlantic Drift brings large amounts of warm water to the coasts of Europe Farther to the south, the Mediterranean climate prevails (warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters) In eastern Europe the more extreme humid continental climate prevails

13 E NVIRONMENTAL I SSUES Europeans are now increasingly taking action on environmental issues at the local and global scales Europe’s air, seas, and rivers remain some of the most polluted in the world, and there is still a long way to go to meet the European Union’s stated environmental goals Nonetheless, Europe is in the vanguard of sustainability theory and practice, and the European Union encourages countries to raise their environmental and social standards and not lower them

14 E UROPE ’ S I MPACT ON THE B IOSPHERE This region continues to have a major impact on the biosphere through the air, water, and sea pollution it generates. However, for the most part, its per capita ecological footprint is considerably below that of North America Europe is itself especially vulnerable to a number of the potential effects of climate change, all of which will affect agriculture and industries such as tourism and trans- portation. It also saw a major heat wave in 2003 that killed thousands of people


16 E UROPE ’ S E NERGY R ESOURCES Europe’s main energy sources have shifted over the years from coal to petroleum and natural gas (also nuclear power in some countries) The 27 members of the European Union (EU27) get a large portion of their fuel supplies from Russia The EU27 depend on nuclear power for 30 percent of their total needs The European Union wishes to increase its use of renewable energy in order to reduce fuel imports and thereby increase energy security, and some countries are making extraordinary strides

17 A IR P OLLUTION Air pollution is particularly heavy over the North European Plain due to the region’s heavy industry, dense transportation routes, and large populations The highest level of air pollution is found in the former communist states of Central and North Europe Central Europe’s severe environmental problems developed in part because the Marxist-Leninist policies promoted by the Soviet Union and its allies emphasized industrialization at all costs and an ethic of humans dominating over nature

18 F RESHWATER AND S EAWATER P OLLUTION Sources of water pollution in Europe include: - Insufficiently treated sewage - Chemicals and silt in the runoff from agricultural plots and residential units - consumer packaging litter - petroleum residues - industrial effluent The Baltic, Mediterranean, and Black seas are nearly landlocked bodies of water that are prone to accumulating pollution Water exits the Mediterranean only after it has been in the sea for 80 years


20 T HE W IDE R EACH OF E UROPE ’ S E NVIRONMENTAL I MPACT Europeans consume one-fifth of the world’s imports and many of these goods have a high virtual water component Nearly all EU countries import more virtual water than they export This is the same with other nonrenewable resources imported from outside Europe The environmental impacts of Europe’s virtual water consumption should be counted along with Europe’s total impact on the biosphere


22 E UROPEAN L EADERSHIP IN R ESPONSE TO G LOBAL C LIMATE C HANGE Europe leads the world in response to global climate change Europe has been more willing than any other region to act on climate change, largely because it recognizes the economic sense in doing so Recent research suggests doing nothing about global warming would shrink the EU’s GDP by 20 percent

23 E UROPEAN L EADERSHIP IN R ESPONSE TO G LOBAL C LIMATE C HANGE Europe’s increasing concern about global warming may also be influenced by public alarm at recent abnormal weather The summer of 2003 broke all high-temperature records for Europe In 2002 and 2006, rainfall and snowfall in Central Europe reached record levels In the spring of 2006, rivers flooded for weeks

24 P ROGRESS IN G REEN B EHAVIOR Europeans use large amounts of resources and contribute about one-quarter of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions One European resident averages only one-half the energy consumption of the average North American resident These energy-saving practices are related in part to the high population densities and social customs of the region, but also to widespread explicit support for ecological principles Green (environmentally activist) political parties influence national policies in all European countries

25 P ROGRESS IN G REEN B UILDING There is no generally accepted definition of green building In the European Union, green building refers to the all-around sustainability of a building design Thus far Europe has outpaced the United States in green building through incorporation of renewable energy technologies and passivehaus techniques

26 C HANGES IN T RANSPORTATION Europeans have long favored fast rail networks for both passengers and cargo rather than private cars, trucks, and multilane highways Worry about the relationship between CO 2 emissions and climate change has created a noticeable trend toward less energy-efficient but more flexible motorized road transport Now rising fuel costs and CO 2 emissions are increasingly being considered in the design of multimodal transport that links high-speed rail to road, air, and water transport Parts of Europe have a strong cycling culture

27 Source: Google Images


29 H UMAN P ATTERNS O VER T IME Over the last 500 years, Europe has profoundly influenced how the world trades, fights, thinks, and governs itself Attempts to explain this influence are wide- ranging - One argument is that Europeans are somehow a superior breed of humans – popular in the 19 th century, but now discredited - Another is that Europe’s many bays, peninsulas, and navigable rivers have promoted commerce to a greater extent there than elsewhere - Some, such as geographers Jared Diamond ( Guns, Germs, and Steel ), argue that Europeans were just in the right place in the right time

30 S OURCES OF E UROPEAN C ULTURE Starting about 10,000 years ago, the practice of agriculture and animal husbandry gradually spread into Europe from Southwest and Central Asia Mining, metalworking, and mathematics also came to Europe from these places and from North Africa Economic innovations came from Muslim traders and bankers The Chinese contributed gunpowder and paper All of these innovations opened the way for a wider range of economic activity (most notably trade) in Europe

31 S OURCES OF E UROPEAN C ULTURE The first European civilizations were ancient Greece (800 to 86 B. C. E.) and Rome (100 B. C. E. to 450 C. E.) Both were located in southern Europe European traditions of science, art, and literature were heavily based on Greek ideas, which were themselves derived from yet earlier Egyptian and Southwest Asian sources

32 S OURCES OF E UROPEAN C ULTURE The Romans, after first borrowing heavily from Greek culture, also left important legacies in Europe Many Europeans today speak Romance languages which are largely derived from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire Rome was the origin of European laws that determine how individuals own, buy, and sell land These laws have been spread throughout the world by Europeans Roman practices used in colonizing new lands also shaped much of Europe

33 S OURCES OF E UROPEAN C ULTURE The influence of Islamic civilization on Europe is often overlooked During a period known as the Dark Ages, pre- Muslim and then Muslim scholars preserved learning from Rome and Greece and added new findings in mathematics and other disciplines The Arabs, Persians, and Turks all brought new technologies, food crops, architectural principles, and textiles to Europe during the Ottoman Empire

34 T HE I NEQUALITIES OF F EUDALISM As the Roman Empire declined, a social system known as feudalism evolved during the medieval period This system originated from the need to defend rural areas against local bandits and raiders The objective of feudalism was to have a sufficient number of heavily armed, professional fighting men, or knights, to defend a much larger group of serfs, who were legally bound to live on and cultivate plots of land for the knights

35 T HE I NEQUALITIES OF F EUDALISM Over time these knights became a wealthy class called the nobility. Some of the nobility had more prestige and power than others Some nobles gained so much power that they became centralized rulers (kings or monarchs). Their domains took the form of nation-states or empires Most serfs lived in poverty outside castle walls, and much like slaves, were legally barred from leaving the lands they cultivated for their protectors Wars were common and castles provided bulwark of protection as well as outposts for securing newly conquered territories


37 R OLE OF U RBANIZATION IN THE T RANSFORMATION OF E UROPE While rural life followed established feudal patterns, new political and economic institutions were developing in Europe’s towns and cities Thick walls provided defense against raiders, and commerce and crafts supplied livelihoods Located along trade routes, Europe’s urban areas were exposed to new ideas, technologies, and institutions. They also developed a measure of political autonomy and served as a refuge for escaped serfs Some institutions provided the foundations for Europe’s modern economy

38 R OLE OF U RBANIZATION IN THE T RANSFORMATION OF E UROPE Over time, Europe’s urban areas established a pace of social and technological change that left the feudal rural areas far behind A related outgrowth of urban Europe was a philosophy known as humanism, which emphasized the dignity and worth of the individual regardless of wealth or social status The liberating influences of European urban life transformed the practice of religion Ideas spread faster with the invention of the European version of the printing press, which enabled widespread literacy

39 E UROPEAN C OLONIALISM : A N A CCELERATION OF G LOBALIZATION Increased commerce and cultural exchange began a period of globalization that persists today Mercantilism : a strategy for increasing a country’s power and wealth by acquiring colonies and managing all aspects of their production, transport, and trade Mercantilism supported the Industrial Revolution in Europe. The development of Europe was literally underwritten by the exploitation of the colonies.

40 E UROPEAN C OLONIALISM : A N A CCELERATION OF G LOBALIZATION By the twentieth century, European colonial systems had strongly influenced nearly every part of the world The overseas empires of England, the Netherlands, and eventually France were the beginnings of the modern global economy



43 T HE I NDUSTRIAL R EVOLUTION Britain developed a small but growing trading empire in the Caribbean, North America, and South Asia This provided Britain with access to a wide range of raw materials Sugar, produced by British colonies in the Caribbean, was an especially important trade crop By the late eighteenth century, Britain was introducing mechanization into its industries

44 U RBANIZATION AND D EMOCRATIZATION Industrialization led to massive growth in urban areas in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Extremely low living standards in Europe’s cities created tremendous pressures for change in the political order Radical movements – such as socialism and anarchism – grew amongst the working classes After lengthy struggles, democracy was expanded to Europe’s huge and growing working class In addition, efforts were made to unify pseudo- entities such as Italy and Germany that were still divided into tiny principalities

45 U RBANIZATION AND D EMOCRATIZATION In 1789, the French Revolution led to the first major inclusion of common people in the political process in Europe The democratic expansion created by the French Revolution ultimately proved short-lived as elite- dominated governments soon regained control in France Nevertheless, the French Revolution provided crucial inspiration to later urban democratic political movements in many parts of the world

46 T HE I MPACT OF C OMMUNISM Popular discontent erupted periodically in the form of new revolutionary political movements Karl Marx framed the mounting social unrest in Europe’s cities as a struggle between socioeconomic classes Marx’s ideas inspired the creation of a revolutionary communist state in 1917

47 P OPULAR D EMOCRACY AND N ATIONALISM Political movements among workers were more successful at expanding democracy Innumerable struggles between labor and the authorities continued until eventually workers gained the right to unionize The development of democracy was also linked to the idea of nationalism, or allegiance to the state The creation of unified nation-states, such as France, often led to the suppression of minorities, such as the Bretons, a Celtic-speaking people living in Brittany

48 D EMOCRACY AND THE W ELFARE S TATE Public pressure for improved living standards moved most European governments toward becoming welfare states, partly to avoid more revolutionary outcomes In a welfare state governments accept responsibility for the well-being of their people, guaranteeing basic necessities All such states – even the best, such as in Scandinavian countries – have seen some erosion in recent years because of fiscal constraints and ideological shifts

49 T WO W ORLD W ARS AND T HEIR A FTERMATH Between 1914 and 1945, two horribly destructive world wars left Europe in ruins At least 20 million people died in World War I (1914–1918) and 70 million in World War II (1939–1945) During World War II, Germany’s Nazi government killed 15 million civilians Eleven million civilians died at the hands of the Nazis during the Holocaust, a massive execution of 6 million Jews and 5 million Roma (Gypsies)


51 T WO W ORLD W ARS AND T HEIR A FTERMATH After World War II ended in 1945, Germany was divided into two parts, East Germany and West Germany The line between East Germany and West Germany was part of what was called the iron curtain, a long, fortified border zone that separated western Europe from eastern Europe The eastern part of Europe was under Soviet domination, and west was largely subordinate to the U.S.

52 T HE C OLD W AR The division of Europe created a period of conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union known as the Cold War, which lasted from 1945 to 1991 The central issue was the competition between capitalism and communism It was global conflict and brought the world on more than one occasion to the brink of nuclear war

53 D ECOLONIZATION, D EMOCRATIZATION, AND C ONFLICT IN M ODERN E UROPE By the 1960s, most former European colonies had gained independence Despite democracy’s long history in Europe, it nearly disappeared during the two world wars Then post-war western Europe made remarkable progress in reorganizing itself around democratic principles and humanitarian ideals




57 C URRENT G EOGRAPHIC I SSUES Europe today is in a state of transition as a result of two major changes that occurred during the 1990s: The demise of the Soviet Union The rise of the European Union

58 T HE E UROPEAN U NION : A R ISING S UPERPOWER The original plan after the trauma of World War II was simply to work toward a level of economic and social integration that would make possible the free flow of goods and people across national borders Some Europeans believe that the European Union should become a global counterforce to the United States in political and military affairs


60 S TEPS IN C REATING THE E UROPEAN U NION The first major step in achieving economic unity took place in 1958 Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, France, Italy, and West Germany formed the European Economic Community (EEC) In 1992, the concept of the EEC was expanded to that of the European Union, which is concerned with more than just economic policy

61 S TEPS IN C REATING THE E UROPEAN U NION A united Germany facilitated the further expansion of the European Union into the former communist countries of Central Europe in 2004, then into southeast Europe when Romania and Bulgaria joined in 2007 Membership in the European Union became especially attractive to countries in Central Europe after the demise of the Soviet Union

62 S TEPS IN C REATING THE E UROPEAN U NION Standards for EU membership: - A country must achieve political stability and have a democratically elected government - Each country has to adjust its constitution to EU standards - Each must also have a functioning market economy that is open to investment by foreign- owned companies and that has well-controlled banks - Finally, farms and industries must comply with strict regulations governing the finest details of their products and the health of environments

63 S TEPS IN C REATING THE E UROPEAN U NION Switzerland, Norway, and Iceland have chosen not to join the European Union These three countries have long treasured their neutral role in world politics During the 2008–2009 recession, Iceland began discussions to enter the European Union, but was not immediately welcomed because of its financial troubles. These have since been resolved Turkey is the next most likely candidate to join the European Union

64 EU G OVERNING I NSTITUTIONS The European Union has one executive branch and two legislative bodies The European Commission acts like an executive branch of government Each of the 27 member states gets one commissioner, who is appointed for a 5-year term

65 EU G OVERNING I NSTITUTIONS The European Parliament is directly elected by EU citizens, with each country electing a proportion of seats based on its population The Parliament elects the president of the European Commission, who serves for 2½ years as a head of state and head of foreign policy Laws must be passed in Parliament by 55 percent of the member states

66 EU G OVERNING I NSTITUTIONS The Council of the European Union is similar to the U.S. Senate in that it is the more powerful of the two legislative bodies Its members are not elected but consist of one minister of government from each EU country Minister assigned to attend depends on the agenda: foreign affairs, agriculture, industry, the environment, etc. The Council of the European Union acts with Parliament to enact legislation

67 E CONOMIC I NTEGRATION AND A C OMMON C URRENCY European national economies were joined into a common market Companies in any EU country now have access to a much larger market and the potential for larger profits through economies of scale The EU economy now encompasses close to 492 million people Collectively, the EU countries are wealthy; their joint economy was almost $15 trillion in 2008

68 E CONOMIC I NTEGRATION AND A C OMMON C URRENCY The official currency of the European Union is the euro (€) Sixteen EU countries now use the euro Countries that use the euro have a greater voice in the creation of EU economic policies Depending on global financial conditions, either the euro or the U.S. dollar is the preferred currency of international trade and finance


70 T HE E UROPEAN U NION AND G LOBALIZATION The European Union is pursuing a number of strategies designed to ensure that it continues to be economically competitive A primary focus is on keeping exports a central component of national economies One strategy is to relocate factories from the wealthiest EU countries to the relatively poorer Other strategies include holding down domestic wages and emphasizing the quality of European exports

71 NATO AND THE R ISE OF THE E UROPEAN U NION AS A G LOBAL P EACEMAKER A new role for the European Union as a global peacemaker and peacekeeper is developing through the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) NATO originally included the United States, Canada, the countries of western Europe, and Turkey; it now includes almost all the EU countries as well With the United States preoccupied with Iraq, NATO assumed more of a role as a global peacekeeper

72 F OOD P RODUCTION AND THE E UROPEAN U NION Europeans prefer food from European farms to imported food They pay more for food than do people in the United States Most food is now produced on large mechanized farms that are efficient Romania has over one-quarter of the farms in the European Union

73 T HE C OMMON A GRICULTURAL P ROGRAM (CAP) The European Union established the Common Agricultural Program (CAP), meant to guarantee secure and safe food supplies at affordable prices The CAP aids farmers by placing tariffs on imported agricultural goods and by giving subsidies (payments to farmers) to underwrite their costs of production, this putting non- European farmers at a disadvantage

74 G ROWTH OF C ORPORATE A GRICULTURE AND F OOD M ARKETING As small family farms disappear, the trend is toward consolidating smaller farms into larger, more profitable operations These farms tend to employ very few laborers and use more machinery and chemical inputs The move toward corporate agriculture is strongest in Central Europe

75 E UROPE ’ S G ROWING S ERVICE E CONOMIES As industrial jobs have declined across the region, most Europeans have found jobs in the service economy Services such as the provision of health care, education, finance, tourism, and information technology are now the engine of Europe’s integrated economy A major component of Europe’s service economy is tourism

76 E UROPE ’ S G ROWING S ERVICE E CONOMIES Europe is the most popular tourist destination in the world One job in eight in the European Union is related to tourism Tourism generates 13.5 percent of the EU’s gross domestic product Service occupations increasingly involve the use of technology Europe leads the world in cell phone use



79 P OPULATION D ISTRIBUTION AND U RBANIZATION There are currently about 525 million Europeans 492 million live within the European Union Europe is one of the more densely occupied regions on earth Most of this population now lives in cities These cities are the focus of the modern European economy However, there is a healthy and viable rural culture

80 P OPULATION D ISTRIBUTION AND U RBANIZATION In West, North, and South Europe, more than 75 percent of the population lives in urban areas Even in Central Europe, the least urbanized part of the region, around 70 percent of people live in cities Nearly all the cities in Europe have expanded around their perimeters in concentric circles of apartment blocks Land is scarce and expensive in Europe, so only a small percentage of Europeans live in single- family homes


82 E UROPE ’ S A GING P OPULATION Europe’s population is aging as families are choosing to have fewer children and life expectancies are increasing Life expectancies now range close to 80 years in North, West, and South Europe Those 14 years and under declined from 27 percent to 15 percent, while those over 65 increased from 9 percent to 16 percent between 1960 and 2009 Overall, Europe is now close to a negative rate of natural increase

83 E UROPE ’ S A GING P OPULATION By 2000, twenty-five percent of Europeans were choosing to have no children at all The reasons for these trends are complex More and more women want professional careers 25 percent of Germans are choosing to remain unmarried well into their thirties Governments also make few provisions for working mothers beyond paid maternity leave


85 I MMIGRATION AND M IGRATION : N EEDS AND F EARS Until the mid-1950s, the net flow of migrants was out of Europe By the 1990s the net flow was into Europe In the 1990s, most of the European Union implemented the Schengen Accord, an agreement that allows free movement of people and goods across common borders The accord has facilitated trade, employment, tourism, and most controversially migration


87 A TTITUDES T OWARD I NTERNAL AND I NTERNATIONAL M IGRANTS AND C ITIZENSHIP Europeans have ambivalent attitudes toward migrants The internal flow of migration is mostly from Central Europe into North, West, and South Europe These Central European migrants are mostly treated fairly, although prejudices against the supposed backwardness of Central Europe are still evident

88 A TTITUDES T OWARD I NTERNAL AND I NTERNATIONAL M IGRANTS AND C ITIZENSHIP Immigrants from outside Europe, so-called international immigrants, meet with varying acceptance International immigrants often come legally and illegally from Europe’s former colonies and protectorates across the globe Many Turks and North Africans come legally as guest workers who are expected to stay for only a few years

89 A TTITUDES T OWARD I NTERNAL AND I NTERNATIONAL M IGRANTS AND C ITIZENSHIP Central and South Europe are the least tolerant of new immigrants North and West Europe, with higher incomes and generally more stable economies, are the most tolerant Cultural issues also influence attitudes toward immigrants

90 A TTITUDES T OWARD I NTERNAL AND I NTERNATIONAL M IGRANTS AND C ITIZENSHIP Across Europe, anti-immigration views, especially toward non-Europeans, are becoming more common Mainstream politicians increasingly support stricter controls In response, the European Union is increasing its efforts to curb illegal immigration from outside Europe while at the same time helping EU citizens to be more tolerant

91 A TTITUDES T OWARD I NTERNAL AND I NTERNATIONAL M IGRANTS AND C ITIZENSHIP Anti-foreigner sentiment has been a hindrance to acquiring citizenship across Europe In 2004, more than 650,000 became citizens of an EU country; the largest numbers were in Germany, France, and the UK Citizenship usually requires an extended period of legal residency, evidence of a good work record, and proficiency in the country’s main language


93 R ULES FOR A SSIMILATION : M USLIMS IN E UROPE In Europe, culture plays a larger role in defining differences between people than race and skin color Assimilation in Europe usually means giving up the home culture and adopting the ways of the new country Muslims, presently the focus of assimilation issues in the European Union, have lived in Europe in small pockets for well over 1000 years

94 R ULES FOR A SSIMILATION : M USLIMS IN E UROPE Muslims have largely assimilated thoroughly to, and identify with, their home countries Some have clung to traditional dress, gender roles, and religious values, while others have accepted and practice European culture There has been significant controversy in France over the banning of the wearing of chadors in public places There has also been targeted acts of violence against immigrants


96 C HANGING G ENDER R OLES Gender roles in Europe have changed significantly from the days when most women married young and worked in the home or on the family farm Increasing numbers of European women are working outside the home Nevertheless, European public opinion among both women and men largely holds that women are less able than men to perform the types of work typically done by men

97 C HANGING G ENDER R OLES Male advantages have a stronger hold in Central and South Europe today than they do in West and North Europe Working women usually face what is called a double day : they are expected to do most of the domestic work in the evening in addition to their job outside the home during the day Many EU policies encourage gender equality

98 C HANGING G ENDER R OLES Managers in the EU bureaucracy are increasingly female Well over half the university graduates in Europe are now women However, the political influence and economic well- being of European women lag behind those of European men In most European national parliaments, women make up less than a third of elected representatives Although change is clearly underway in the European Union, women generally serve only in the lower ranks of government

99 C HANGING G ENDER R OLES Because women are largely absent from policy- making positions, their progress has been slow on many fronts In 2006, female unemployment was higher than male unemployment in all but a few countries Throughout the European Union, women are paid less than men for equal work



102 S OCIAL W ELFARE S YSTEMS AND T HEIR O UTCOMES In nearly all European countries, tax-supported systems of social welfare or social protection (the EU term) provide all citizens with basic needs Europeans generally pay much higher taxes than North Americans, and in return they expect more in services The European Union has more doctors and hospital beds per citizen and better outcomes than the United States in terms of life expectancy and infant mortality

103 S OCIAL W ELFARE S YSTEMS AND T HEIR O UTCOMES Europeans do not agree on the goals of these welfare systems Some argue that Europe can no longer afford high taxes if it is to remain competitive in the global market Others maintain that Europe’s economic success and high standards of living are the direct result of the social contract The debate has been resolved differently in different parts of Europe

104 S OCIAL W ELFARE S YSTEMS AND T HEIR O UTCOMES European welfare systems can be classified into four basic categories: - Social democratic welfare systems - Conservative and modest welfare systems - Rudimentary welfare systems - Post-communist welfare systems



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