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The World In Spatial Terms

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1 The World In Spatial Terms
6th Grade UBD - Unit 1 - The World In Spatial Terms The World In Spatial Terms

2 Preview Defining Geography- Geography, the study of physical features and living things on Earth’s surface, is useful for a variety of purposes. Locating Places and Navigating- There are a variety of geographic concepts and tools that help people locate places and navigate between them.

3 Reach Into Your Background
Geographers study all these changes to the planet, and more. Why would people be interested in studying the physical changes to our world? What questions do you think a geographer would ask about these changes? (5 minutes)

4 Partner Activity Work with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)

5 Key Ideas- Geography Geography deals with the location and distribution of physical features and living things on Earth’s surface and how they relate to each other. Geographers try to find patterns in Earth’s physical features and the ways people interact with the environment. Geographers classify places with similar characteristics as regions.

6 Key Term Geography – The study of Earth’s surfaces and the processes that shape it, the connections between people and their environment.

7 The Five Themes Of Geography
Location Place Human-Environment Interaction Movement Regions

8 Location Where are we? Absolute Location Relative Location
A latitude and longitude (global location) or a street address (local location). Described by landmarks, time, direction or distance. From one place to another.

9 Place What is it like there, what kind of place is it?
Human Characteristics Physical Characteristics What are the main languages, customs, and beliefs. How many people live, work, and visit a place. Landforms (mountains, rivers, etc.), climate, vegetation, wildlife, soil, etc.

10 Human-Environment Interaction
How do humans and the environment affect each other? We depend on it. People depend on the Tennessee River for water and transportation. We modify it. People modify our environment by heating and cooling buildings for comfort. We adapt to it. We adapt to the environment by wearing clothing suitable for summer (shorts) and winter (coats), rain and shine.

11 Movement How are people, goods, ideas moved from place to place?
Human Movement Trucks, Trains, Planes Information Movement Phones, computer ( ), mail Idea Movement How do fads move from place to place? TV, Radio, Magazines

12 Regions How are Regions similar to and different from other places?
Formal Regions Regions defined by governmental or administrative boundaries (States, Countries, Cities) Regions defined by similar characteristics (Corn Belt, Rocky Mountain region, Chinatown). Functional Regions Regions defined by a function (newspaper service area, cell phone coverage area).

13 Remembering the Five Themes
If you can’t remember what they are just ask MR. HELP! M – Movement R – Regions HE – Human Environment Interaction L – Location P – Place

14 Independent Activity Describe you and your family using the Five Themes of Geography. Make sure you use every theme. (8 minutes)

15 Defining Geography Geography is the study of the location and distribution of physical features and living things on Earth’s surface and how they relate to each other. Geographers try to understand not only where things are located but also why they are located there. To do this they use the Five Themes of Geography.

16 Key Term Location- The position of anything on Earth's surface.

17 Defining Geography Geographers see the world in spatial terms. In other words, they organize their work by focusing on spatial areas, or places. This sets them apart from other scholars, such as historians, who focus on time periods.

18 Defining Geography Geographers look for both similarities and differences among various places on Earth. This helps them group places into regions—nearby areas that share common characteristics.

19 Key Term Region- An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.

20 Defining Geography Geographers try to find patterns in Earth’s physical features and how people relate to them. For example, a geographer might study the rivers in a country and find out that some rivers flood more than others, or that flooding happens at predictable times.

21 Defining Geography To acquire, process, and report information, geographers use a variety of tools, including maps and measuring instruments. Also, geographers often construct mental maps. Mental maps help geographers to organize and place value on information.

22 Key Term Mental Map- A map in a person’s mind that contains his or her knowledge of an area or people.

23 Physical Geography Physical geography is one of the main branches of geography. It involves the study of Earth’s natural features, including water, landforms, vegetation, and climate. Physical geographers are curious about how these features are interrelated.

24 Physical Geography Physical geographers also analyze how physical features interact with plant and animal life to create ecosystems. An ecosystem consists of all the living and nonliving things in an area and how they relate to and depend on each other.

25 Key Term Physical Geography- A kind of geography, the analysis of Earth's natural phenomena, such as climate, soil, plants, animals, landscape, and the locations of all of those things.

26 Human Geography Human geography involves studying human activities as they relate to Earth. This branch of geography analyzes how people interact with the environment, including how they adapt to—and also change—the surrounding land.

27 Human Geography Human geography also includes studying patterns of human settlement, movement, and cultural development. In addition, it covers the ways people organize their governments and economies to use and distribute resources.

28 Modifying and Adapting to the Environment
Human geographers often examine how people modify the environment. They also study issues like the growth of cities and the effects on air and water quality. Geographers also analyze how people adapt to the environment to better cope with it.

29 Key Term Human Geography- A kind of geography, the analysis of human population, its cultures, and activities, it's effect on the physical world.

30 Human and Physical Geography
Video- Human and Physical Geography

31 Patterns of Human Settlement
Human geographers also look at where people settle and what causes them to move. People are not distributed evenly across Earth’s surface. Some areas are much more heavily populated than others.

32 Patterns of Human Settlement
Human migration, or movement from one place to another, is another subject of study for human geographers. They look at where people are moving and why.

33 Patterns of Human Settlement
Geographers also look at cultural patterns. They want to know how culture varies from place to place? Do people of the same religion and ethnic background cluster together? In what ways might a community change as people of different religions and ethnic backgrounds move in?

34 The Relevance of Geography
People everywhere have to meet their needs for food and water, for shelter, and for an organized society. People have to decide how best to use the available natural resources and how to manage conflict over resource use.

35 The Relevance of Geography
Geographers study the ways people create governments and economic systems to meet their needs. Geography will also play a role in shaping the future. If we want Earth to continue supporting future generations, we must think carefully about how to use our natural resources and manage issues such as climate change.

36 Environmental Factors
Video- Environmental Factors

37 Key Ideas- Locating Places and Navigating
Absolute location is the exact place on Earth where something exists. Relative location is the general position of where something is located in relation to other things. Earth can be divided into four hemispheres: the Eastern, Western, Northern, and Southern hemispheres. There are four cardinal directions: north, south, east, and west. The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses signals from satellites to calculate the location of a person or vehicle.

38 Location, Location, Location
Absolute location is the exact spot on Earth where something exists. Absolute location is usually expressed according to a system of imaginary numbered lines that crisscross the globe.

39 Location, Location, Location
Relative location is the general position of where something is in relation to other things. For example, the United States can be described as being south of Canada and north of Mexico.

40 Location, Location, Location
Relative location may not be as specific as absolute location, but it can still be valuable information. To pinpoint absolute location, geographers use a grid system of various imaginary lines that divide the globe into different sections.

41 Location, Location, Location
A continent is a huge landmass. There are seven continents in the world: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Europe, Australia, and Antarctica. 

42 Basic Map Components Most maps have basic map components that help you interpret the contents of the map: a legend or key, a scale, and a directional indicator.

43 Basic Map Components This was not always the case. Hundreds of years ago, people knew very little about the land and water beyond their own homes. Their maps showed only the areas they traveled.

44 Basic Map Components As people explored the Earth, they collected information about the shapes and sizes of islands, continents, and bodies of water. Mapmakers wanted to present this information accurately. The best way was to put it on a globe, a round ball like the Earth itself. The only difference would be the scale.

45 Basic Map Components But there is a problem with globes. Try putting a globe in your pocket every morning. A globe just cannot be complete enough to be useful and at the same time be small enough to be convenient. People therefore, invented flat maps.

46 Key Term Compass Rose– A map feature that usually shows the four cardinal directions.

47 Key Term Globe– A round model of Earth that shows the continents and oceans in their true shapes.

48 Key Term Legend– The legend, or key, tells the user about the symbols used on the map.

49 Key Term Longitude– The series of imaginary lines that run north and south from one pole to the other.

50 Key Term Latitude– The series of imaginary lines that circle Earth parallel to the Equator; used to measure distance north or south of the Equator.

51 Latitude and Longitude
Video- Latitude and Longitude

52 Key Term Scale– A scale tells the user the size of a map in relation to the size of the real world by giving the ratio between distances on the map and actual distances on the Earth.

53 Reading Handout- Maps and Math

54 Geographic Technology
If you compare modern maps with those drawn hundreds of years ago, you will see far more detail and accuracy nowadays. This is because geographers have made huge improvements in the tools they use to gather and analyze information.

55 Geographic Technology
Many people now use electronic devices that use the Global Positioning System (GPS) to navigate over land or water. A GPS receiver takes in radio signals from space satellites and uses these signals to calculate the location of the GPS user.

56 Geographic Technology
GPS receivers can identify where someone is according to latitude, longitude, and altitude (the height above sea level). These devices can even tell the time of day and give directions aloud.

57 Key Term Altitude– The height above sea level.

58 Geographic Technology
New communications technology has also changed the way people get from place to place by making maps more accessible than ever before.

59 GPS-Global Positioning System
Video- GPS-Global Positioning System

60 Independent Activity What has been the “muddiest” point so far in this lesson? That is, what topic remains the least clear to you? (4 minutes)

61 Partner Activity Work with a neighbor and compare your muddiest point with theirs. Compare what things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)

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