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Chapter 2 Chapter 2 The Internet: Gateway to a World of Resources

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1 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 The Internet: Gateway to a World of Resources
Our Digital World Chapter 2 The Internet: Gateway to a World of Resources Most of us use the Internet for a wide variety of activities every day. You might use it to learn, work, watch videos, or communicate with others. You can go online using several types of devices, such as computers, your cell phone, or even playing with your Xbox or other gaming gadget. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

2 This chapter will help you understand:
How the Internet and Web have changed the ways people interact with each other. Services, equipment, and software used to connect and browse the Internet. Browsing and searching online. Evaluating the accuracy of the content you find. Intellectual property and copyright laws. Various Internet services and applications. Chapter 2 covers several Internet-related topics, such as: Bullet 1: The dramatic ways that the Internet and Web have changed how we actually interact with each other. For example, the way we socialize has been revolutionized by social networking and sites like Twitter. Bullet 2: Another aspect of the Internet is understanding what services, equipment, and software you need to go online. If you’re connected to the Internet, you’ll learn how that connection works and what other types of connections are out there. Bullet 3: You’ll discover all about browsing and searching online. As students you probably have gone online to research school work, but knowing how to use a browser to search can also help you on the job or when looking for information to use in your personal life like medical advice or genealogy records. Bullet 4: In this chapter you’ll also review what kind of content is on the World Wide Web (there’s a lot!) and learn to evaluate the accuracy of the content, because not all the information out there is accurate or true. Bullet 5: Intellectual property and copyright laws are being challenged and reshaped by what’s going on online, and you’ll explore what that means to individuals, artists, and businesses. Bullet 6: Finally, we’ll take a look at various Internet services and applications that make up e-commerce, which involves any buying, selling, or swapping that goes on in online stores, or on auction and classified sites. We’ll also explore how people are communicating online. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Main Topics 2.1 The World Goes Online 2.2 What Are the Internet and Worldwide Web? 2.3 Joining the Digital World 2.4 Navigating and Searching the Web 2.5 The Vast Sea of Online Content 2.6 E-Commerce 2.7 Connecting in Cyberspace The main topics covered in Chapter 2 are: Bullet 1: The World Goes Online Bullet 2: What Are the Internet and Worldwide Web? Bullet 3: Joining the Digital World Bullet 4: Navigating and Searching the Web Bullet 5: The Vast Sea of Online Content Bullet 6: E-Commerce and Bullet 7: Connecting in Cyberspace Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Why Should You Care? 49% of public used the Internet to track the outbreak of H1N1 (swine) flu.* 55% of adults went online to follow the U.S. presidential campaign.** 80% of students surveyed “anticipate running into new technology they will have to adapt to and learn upon entering the workforce.” *(Pew Internet & American Life Project) **(Study by IBM) So, why should you care about knowing what the Internet is and how it works? Well, even if you never go online, like it or not, the Internet is actually reshaping the way our society functions. Kids and college students are using the Internet in record numbers, but it’s not just students using the Internet. Bullet 1: When disasters or pandemics like the H1N1 flu occur, people get much of their news online. Bullet 2: From politics, like the 2008 presidential election which drew more than half our population online, to uses of the Internet in job settings, the Internet is affecting how we view the world. Bullet 3: How do you anticipate that new technology will affect your work and personal lives? Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 2.1 The World Goes Online In a survey conducted by IBM’s Academic Initiative, of 1,613 college-enrolled undergraduates in the United States, 99% own a cell phone, 97% have a profile on a social networking site, and 93% own a laptop, proving that at least a large segment of our population lives a significant part of their lives online. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

6 What the Internet Makes Possible Today
Chapter 2 What the Internet Makes Possible Today Scientists share expensive equipment online. Doctors and pilots learn by using computer simulations. iPhones as boarding passes. An important aspect of the Internet is all the opportunity it brings and the really interesting ways people are using it. For example: Bullet 1: Today, scientists can make use of extremely expensive, specialized microscopes by accessing their functionality over the Internet. Bullet 2: Simulations can help people in many professions train for unique situations. Doctors are learning surgery through online cyberscalpel simulations, and airline pilots can practice landing a plane on water with web-based flight simulators. Bullet 3: And for the rest of us, there are the cool things we can do with our cell phones. Did you know that iPhones can act as electronic airline tickets—the airline sends you an or text message that contains a bar code. You just open the message and then scan your phone at the airport rather than handing over a paper boarding pass. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

7 What Does the Future Hold?
Chapter 2 What Does the Future Hold? The Internet in space as astronauts begin to Tweet. Collaborative s with rich multimedia content. Nanorobots transmitting data from within your body. The future of the Internet, which is going to be central to your future, will see: Bullet 1: Services reaching out into space with astronauts using Twitter to keep us posted on their activities. Bullet 2: People creating collaborative messages rich with video, graphics, and sound bytes, and Bullet 3: Medical advances that may enable your doctor to follow the progress of a diagnostic nanorobot working its way through your body on a computer screen hundreds of miles away. Have you heard or read about other exciting Internet uses being worked on that may appear in the future? Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

8 2.2 What Are the Internet and the Worldwide Web?
Chapter 2 2.2 What Are the Internet and the Worldwide Web? Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 What Is the Internet? The physical infrastructure that allows us to connect and store content. So, just what is the Internet, and how is it different from the Worldwide Web? The Internet is the world’s largest computer network—it’s a physical infrastructure that provides us with the ability to communicate with others around the world. The Internet is made up of servers and routers and cables—all the hardware that makes connecting and storing online content possible. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

10 The Infrastructure of the Internet
Chapter 2 The Infrastructure of the Internet This illustration gives you an example of how the Internet is structured. Say you go to the U.S. Senate’s website to find out the latest on healthcare reform. When you open a web page on that site, your computer essentially makes a request of a server where that web page resides. The request first travels through some kind of telecommunications connection, such as your cable service or your phone line. The request then travels through a series of hardware called routers, through your local Internet Service Provider’s computers, and possibly through a national ISP server, until it finally arrives at the server that hosts the Senate’s site. Once the request is received, the information, in the form of the web page content, is sent back to your Internet address and displayed on your phone or computer screen. Of course this entire process takes place in only seconds. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 What Is the Web? A system of content that resides on Internet servers. Web 2.0 involves interaction of users with content. Web 3.0 (Semantic Web) involves integrating data from various sources in a meaningful way. That content that appears on your screen is part of the Web. Bullet 1: The Web is a system of content that travels along the Internet’s infrastructure. Web pages, which make up entire websites, are stored on Internet servers and you navigate among them using a browser, like Internet Explorer. Bullet 2: We’re currently in the era of Web 2.0, which involved a shift from people merely getting information off the Web, to people providing content and interacting with each other. When you blog or contribute to a wiki, you’re adding content to the Web. When you are involved in a class discussion that takes place in a web conference or discussion forum, you’re interacting with others. Bullet 3: Web 3.0 is the next phase of the Web, also called the Semantic Web. Web 3.0 is just beginning with services like Google Squared, which is a search tool that integrates data from various sources. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

12 Computers in Your Career
Chapter 2 One development of Web 3.0 is Travel 3.0 intelligent agents. Agents search across multiple sites to gather travel information more efficiently. They “read” travel reviews to craft an itinerary. They “understand” consumer preferences and search accordingly. For example, say you have an interest in the travel and tourism industry. Bullet 1: You might encounter Travel 3.0 intelligent agents. Bullet 2: This technology goes out and searches for information about travel destinations from many sources, finding the best prices. Bullet 3: Also, these agents can “read” articles to match a customer’s interests with the right vacation spot. Bullet 4: It’s kind of like the price comparison sites you may have already used, but Web 3.0 will provide a much richer and more sophisticated service because the search tools will be more intelligent and even draw conclusions for you. Next slide Computers in Your Career © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Use care when sharing personal information online. You wouldn’t shout your home address and social security number from a street corner. Why would you post it online for the world to read? Playing It Safe Now the Internet with all its opportunity and information is great, but it does have its downside. The ability to share information of all types can put you at risk, because there are people out there who will misuse it. Bullet 1: That’s why you have to be careful what you share and with whom you share it. Bullet 2: If you have a Facebook page and it’s not private, for example, everything you write, which could include enough information to figure out where you live, where you work, how affluent you are, maybe even where you bank or who your friends are, is available to anybody in the world. It’s a good idea to be cautious about posting any personal information online. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Web-enabled Careers Not all jobs involving the Internet are high-tech. Web content writer/provider Internet law expert online trainer A variety of developer jobs include: programming an e-commerce shopping cart creating environments in virtual reality worlds Together the Internet and Web have created lots of new career paths and jobs, and they aren’t just for computer techies. Bullet 1: For example, writers and artists are flocking to the Web to sell content from articles to photos. Because of issues of ID theft and copyright, Internet law has become a career option. Online training tools give distance learning designers and teachers in both education and corporate training settings a great new medium for connecting with students. Bullet 2: One the other hand, if you’re more technical, you can focus your computer programming skills to create environments, such as online stores with sophisticated shopping carts and live customer support, or virtual worlds like Second Life, which contains whole new worlds where people can connect and learn. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Terms to know Internet Web (World Wide Web or WWW) web page website Web 2.0 Web 3.0 Semantic Web The section 2.2 terms to know are: Internet: The physical infrastructure that provides us with the ability to communicate with others across a network of computers. The Internet is made up of hardware such as servers, routers, switches, transmission lines, and towers that store and transmit vast amounts of data. Web (World Wide Web or WWW): A system that contains the body of content available as web pages that are stored on Internet servers. web page: A single document on the Web, which may contain text, images, interactive animations, games, music, and more. Several related web pages make up a website. website: A collection of related web pages. Web 2.0: An evolution of the Web, considered its second phase, associated with users not only reading content but interacting by writing content. Provides users with a means to collaborate—share, exchange ideas, and add or edit content. Web 3.0: The next (third) phase in online usage, also called the Semantic Web, which will make it possible for websites to “understand” the relationships between elements of web content. Semantic Web: Another term for Web 3.0. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Ask Yourself… While the Internet is the infrastructure on which content is delivered, the Web is what makes possible. a system of content. a set of servers that host online content. a system of sites. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

17 2.3 Joining the Digital World
Chapter 2 2.3 Joining the Digital World © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

18 Worldwide Internet Use
Chapter 2 Worldwide Internet Use In 2009 it’s estimated that 1.6 billion people (23.8 percent of the world’s population) went online*. That’s up from 16 million users in Asia had the highest number of Internet users: over 700 billion. North America came in third with 250 billion or so users.** However, relative to its population, North America had the highest percentage of users at 73.9 percent. *Nielsen Online and the International Telecommunication Union **InternetWorldStats.com © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Getting Online Types of Internet broadband connections include: DSL Cable Satellite Hardware to connect. Wired or wireless connections. You might connect to the Internet in a few different ways. Bullet 1: For example, you might use a DSL connection over your phone line, connect via your cable service, or use a satellite connection. All of these are broadband connections, meaning that they offer high bandwidth (or high speed) transmission so data can transfer quickly. Bullet 2: You’ll need some hardware connected to or built into your computer such as cables or a router. Bullet 3: Some connections use cables to connect your computer. Others are wireless. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

20 Connecting to the Internet
Chapter 2 Connecting to the Internet Connecting to the Internet involves hardware such as a modem, cable, or on a network or a router. Wireless methods of connecting are very popular today. WiMAX is a wireless connection that uses a satellite dish and microwaves. You might also use a wireless modem to connect to a cellular network. A WiFi (wireless fidelity) network uses radio signals you can tap into from hotspots in cafes, airports, and hotels. Mobile broadband sticks are portable modems that use 3G (standing for third generation) technology to connect with a provider such as T-Mobile for a monthly fee. Wireless access points allow both wired and wireless devices to communicate. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

21 Internet Service Providers
Chapter 2 Internet Service Providers An Internet Service Provider (ISP) allows you to access the Internet. ISPs include phone companies, cable and satellite companies, and local providers. Bullet 1: You’ll need an Internet Service Provider or ISP such as your phone or cable company, whose technology you use to connect with the Internet for a fee. ISPs typically provide you with one or more accounts, news or other information services, and security features such as antivirus protection for your account. Bullet 2: ISPs, which might be your phone, satellite, or cable provider, should also offer software and a router to help you make your connection, whether that router is rented to you or you buy it up front. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Browsers Used to navigate online content. Translate content. Display text, graphics, and multimedia content. Examples include Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, and Safari. You may have used a browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox, but what do browsers actually do? Bullet 1: They allow you to navigate around the Web, moving from web page to web page and from website to website. Bullet 2: Browsers translate the content on web pages, typically created using HTML. Bullet 3: Using a browser you can display a variety of content such as text, graphics, videos, or animations. You can also use browsers to upload content to the Web and download content or software programs from the Web. Bullet 4: Examples of browsers include Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, and Google Chrome. Mobile devices use special browsers that help them display web content on those little screens. Opera Mini is one example of a mobile browser you can download to most cell phones. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

23 Browser Features: Mozilla Firefox
Chapter 2 Browser Features: Mozilla Firefox Other features of browsers include the ability to store your browsing history and retain bookmarks (sometimes called favorites) so you can quickly jump back to favorite sites. Most browsers today also offer some security as you travel online, with filters to avoid certain types of sites or advisor features that alert you to potentially dangerous sites. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Terms to Know Internet Service Provider (ISP) browser download upload The section 2.3 terms to know are: Internet service provider (ISP): A company that lets you use its technology to connect to the Internet for a fee, typically charged monthly. browser: An application used to view pages and content on the Web and to navigate among pages. download: To transmit data, such as a digitized text file, sound, or picture from a remote site to one’s own computer via a network, such as the Internet. If you are receiving content from the Internet, you are downloading. upload: To transmit data, such as a digitized text file, sound, or picture from one’s own computer to a remote site via a network, such as the Internet. If you are sending content to the Internet, you are uploading. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Ask Yourself… What are three kinds of broadband connection? DSL, cable, and satellite DSL, mobile, and dial-up fiber-optic, DSL modem, and WiMax ISP, Wi-Fi, and router © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

26 2.4 Navigating and Searching the Web
Chapter 2 2.4 Navigating and Searching the Web © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

27 Getting around the Internet
Chapter 2 Getting around the Internet Internet Protocol (IP): series of numbers that uniquely identifies an Internet location. Uniform Resource Locator (URL): text address entered in a browser to go to a website. URL is cross-referenced to an IP address. The Internet is filled with content from millions of websites, so knowing how to find what you need is an important life skill. Here’s how it’s all organized. Bullet 1: Internet Protocol numbers provide a system for identifying each Internet location uniquely. Every IP contains four groups of numbers divided by periods. An organization called ICANN keeps track of all the IP numbers in the world. Bullet 2: But remembering these sets of numbers isn’t a practical way for people to remember how to get to a website, so the uniform resource locator, also called a URL or web address, provides names for sites separated with slashes and periods, such as http//www.amazon.com. Bullet 3: The URL is cross-referenced to the IP address, so when you type it into your browser, it knows to go to that unique location. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Parts of a URL Let’s dissect a URL to see what its different pieces mean. First, there’s a protocol or standard for identifying information being transmitted. http, which stands for hypertext transfer protocol, and ftp, which stands for file transfer protocol, are two examples. The next piece of the URL equation is a secondary identifier used by some sites to identify what kind of site you’re contacting. www identifies a site on the World Wide Web, but with some sites use of it is optional. Next comes the domain name, which usually closely resembles the organization’s name or initials as in this example for EMC Paradigm’s website. Finally, a top-level domain identifier, such as .com, .edu, or .org, gives you a clue to the type of organization you’re visiting. Edu indicates an educational institution, gov indicates government, org indicates a non-profit, and so on. Your URL will be translated into the IP address. For the URL shown for EMCP, the final destination is the server at IP address © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

29 Navigating among Web Pages
Chapter 2 Navigating among Web Pages Hyperlinks identify a Web destination. Hyperlinks can be embedded in any graphical object or text. You can type a URL into your browser to go to a page, but another way of navigating around Web documents is hyperlinks. Bullet 1: Hyperlinks essentially identify a destination on the Web and provide a way to jump from one web document to another by simply clicking on the link. Bullet 2: Any item on a web page can contain a hyperlink—a picture, text (called hypertext), a video, or audio. Navigation bars on websites are sets of hyperlinks that help you move among the various pages on the site. Each page on a website has its own unique URL. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Parts of a Web Page In this illustration you can see how Amazon.com’s home page is organized. Note the navigation bar with links to other pages along the left side. Also, organizations typically embed a hyperlink to the site’s home page in their logo—click it, and you jump to the home page. You can see the site URL typed into the browser’s address field. Also, there are hyperlinks on the page; a hypertext link will usually be blue and underlined to help you spot it. Once you’ve clicked on a link (called following the link), if you return to the previous page, you’ll see that the hypertext has changed color, typically to purple to indicate links you’ve already followed. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Search Engines Search engines are websites in which you enter search terms (keywords) to find Web content. Examples: Google, Yahoo!, Ask, or Bing. Search directories catalog results. Metasearch engines search across various sites at the same time. If you know what you need but don’t know which site contains it, you can’t just enter a URL into your browser to get there. That’s where search engines come in. Bullet 1: Search engine sites are where you go to enter a search term to find matching keywords on websites. Bullet 2: Popular search engines include Google, Yahoo!, and Bing. Bullet 3: A search directory is a type of search engine site that catalogs pages into categories, such as finance or shopping. Search engines are theoretically free, funded by you clicking on advertisement links or by selling information about your search habits to other companies. Bullet 4: Some search engines like Metacrawler are metasearch engines that allow you to search for content across various sites, and some allow you to choose what pieces of content to return. For example, you might ask for a list of online stores that offer free shipping and you’d get a table back showing the stores and their shipping policies. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Search Tips Understand keywords and keyword phrases. Learn to narrow your search for better results. Exclude certain results. Use specialized search engines. Good searching technique comes with practice, but there are few things to keep in mind. Bullet 1: First, come up with good keywords or key phrases that help you get the results you need. If you want to find information about golden retrievers, don’t enter “dogs” into your search engine, or “golden retriever dogs puppies breeders.” The first is too little and the second has too many words. Bullet 2: Entering “golden retriever” might be a good middle ground, but if you really want to narrow your search, and if what you really want is golden retriever breeders, not golden retriever breed descriptions or stores that sell sweatshirts with pictures of golden retrievers on them, you might add the term “breeder” to your search phrase. Bullet 3: It’s also possible to exclude certain types of search results. For example, if you don’t want educational sites included in the results you could use advanced search techniques in your browser to exclude sites ending in .edu. Bullet 4: Some specialized search sites such as Mapquest for maps and BizRate for comparing online store prices, let you find specific types of information. In addition, many search engines let you specify the type of content you want in your results, such as video, audio, or pictures. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Most people don’t realize how much information about them exists online. Resume Blog entries on a publicly viewable page Schools, employers, friends, or the government placed your information online Do a web search of your name to see what’s online about you. Playing It Safe Bullet 1: As you browse around the Internet and Web, join sites, make purchases, post blogs, and so on, you may not think about how much information is piling up out there. Companies wanting to sell to you or crooks wanting to steal your identity can troll the Internet and compile all that information to get a pretty complete profile of you. Try searching for your name and see what kind of information you or others such as schools or employers have put up there about you. Bullet 2: Just as you can search for information, others can search for information about you. You might be surprised by how much information is out there, and it’s a good way to practice your search skills. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Plug-ins and Players Some websites may require a plug-in or player to display content. Plug-ins and players are free. Bullet 1: Have you ever gone to a website and had a message appear stating that the site requires a player or plug-in to use it? For example, to play streaming video you may need a player such as QuickTime, or to play animations you may be asked to download Adobe Flash. Bullet 2: These are free to download, though it’s probably safest to go to the manufacturer’s site and download the file rather than clicking on a link to download, which could also download a virus. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Plug-ins and Players Name Purpose Adobe Reader Read and print PDF files Adobe Flash Player Play animations Quicktime Play MP3 music, animations, and video files RealPlayer Play streaming audio and video files Shockwave Play interactive games and various multimedia files online Windows Media Player Play streaming audio, video, animations and multimedia presentations on the Web You are probably familiar with the most common plug-ins. Which ones do you use? Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Download plug-ins and players from the source. Avoid spyware. Playing It Safe Bullet 1: If a window appears on a website telling you to install a plug-in, it’s better to go to the plug-in maker’s site and download it from there than to click a link in a pop-up window. Bullet 2: Using these links sometimes downloads spyware (a type of malicious software) to your computer. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Terms to Know Internet protocol (IP) uniform resource locator (URL) web address domain name top-level domain (TLD) hyperlink hypertext home page search engine search directory keywords metasearch engine plug-in player streaming video The section 2.4 terms to know are: Internet Protocol (or IP) address: A series of numbers that uniquely identifies a location on the Internet. An IP address consists of four groups of numbers separated by a period, for example: uniform resource locator (or URL): A naming system used to designate unique website addresses that you enter into a browser to navigate to a particular site; also called web address. web address: Another name for URL. domain name: An identifier for a group of servers (the domain) hosting a particular website. top-level domain (or TLD): The suffix (the period and the letters that follow) of a domain name. hyperlink: Describes a destination within a web document and can be added to text or a graphical object such as a company logo. Used for navigation. Generally, clicking on a hyperlink sends the user to the specified web document. hypertext: Text that represents a hyperlink. Used for navigation. Generally, clicking on hypertext sends the user to the specified web document. home page: The main page of a website or the page a browser first lands on when you specify a universal resource locator (or URL). search engine: A website that catalogs web pages into topics. search directory: A site that allows you to locate web content within categories. keywords: Words or phrases that you include in search text to look for content using a search engine. metasearch engine: A type of search engine that can search for keywords across several websites at the same time. plug-in: A freely downloadable program that adds functionality to your browser. player: A freely downloadable program that enables you to view or hear various types of online multimedia content. streaming video: Video that is delivered to your computer as a constant stream of content, usually requiring a media player. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Ask Yourself… Search engines search for content. What do search directories also do? download results to your hard drive provide a catalog of sites by topic sort results alphabetically only deliver the top ten results © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

39 2.5 The Vast Sea of Online Content
Chapter 2 2.5 The Vast Sea of Online Content © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

40 Judging the Quality of Online Content
Chapter 2 Judging the Quality of Online Content Who, what, when? Who published the content? What is the quality of the content? When was it published? A Netcraft Secure Server survey in 2009 tracked an increase of 6 million new websites in a single month. That’s a lot of websites and a lot of content, and as you can imagine, not all of that content is accurate or current. In fact, a lot of information posted to the Web is left up there for many years. Bullet 1: To try to understand the quality and reliability of online content consider Who, What, and When. Bullet 2: who published it and what that person or organization’s credentials are, Bullet 3: how well written or researched it is, Bullet 4: and how up-to-date it is. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

41 The Three W’s of Online Content
Chapter 2 The Three W’s of Online Content For example, on this webpage the source is NASA, which is probably pretty authoritative when it comes to information about spaceflight, and the “what” which is the topic of this page. The date tells you how recently the information was published. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

42 Copyright and Intellectual Property
Chapter 2 Copyright and Intellectual Property It’s illegal to copy intellectual or copyrighted property. Ease of copying and pasting content online leads to violations. Peer-to-peer file sharing issues. Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Intellectual property is defined by the World Intellectual Property Organization as “the creations of the mind; inventions, literary and artistic works; and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.” Bullet 1: Most intellectual property is copyrighted, and it’s against the law to copy or distribute intellectual property unless you can get permission from the owner or creator. Bullet 2: Because it’s so simple to copy and paste and download content contained online, people break these laws routinely without thinking about it. They assume anything online is free for the taking, but that’s not so. As the field of Internet law grows, it will be interesting to see how copyright law is enforced relative to the Internet. Bullet 3: One type of online service is called peer-to-peer file sharing. Millions of people use these sites to share music, videos, and other files by downloading them from each other’s hard drives. Obtaining these files from online sources that may charge a small fee is a safer and more law-abiding practice. Bullet 4: The Digital Millennium Copyright Act is a recent piece of legislation that addresses intellectual property online, though some worry that it goes too far and could threaten online sharing and creativity. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 The Invisible Web Invisible Web (Deep Web) includes hidden or uncataloged databases. Most search engines can’t find this content. The content you easily find with most search engines is just the tip of the iceberg. There’s much more content that simply can’t be found using standard search tool. Bullet 1: This content is referred to as the Invisible Web or Deep Web. Bullet 2: Search engine companies are trying to solve this dilemma, to unlock all that information for the general public. Meanwhile, you might add the term “database” to your search terms to find some of this content, or visit specialized directories such as the Librarians’ Internet Index. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

44 Computers in Your Career
Chapter 2 Research Online research resources: online encyclopedias, survey results, online professional journals. Many careers rely on using the Internet for research: Librarians Government policy analysts Economists Insurance risk analysts Human resource workers Purchasing agents, and others A great many jobs today involve using the Internet to research information, so it could be an invaluable skill to acquire. Bullet 1: There are so many research resources online it’s hard to name them all: libraries, professional journals, encyclopedias, dictionaries, statistics, and more. Bullet 2: Who uses these resources? Librarians perform research to find editions of books or get information for library customers. Economists search for data on buying and housing trends. People who work in the human resources department may use the Internet to search for information about prospective employees or average salaries for particular types of jobs. If you think about the kind of work you want to do, can you come up with ways that online research might help you succeed? Next slide Computers in Your Career © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Terms to Know copyright intellectual property peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing deep Web invisible Web crawler data integration The section 2.5 terms to know are: copyright: Legal ownership of a work or symbol. intellectual property: Creations of the mind; inventions, literary and artistic works; and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. peer-to-peer (or P2P) file sharing program: A program that allows people to share music, video, and other types of files by downloading them from each other’s hard drives, rather than from a central location on the Internet. deep Web: Databases and other content on the Web that aren’t cataloged by most search engines. A typical search engine won’t return links to these databases or documents when you enter a search keyword. Also called the invisible Web. crawler: An intelligent agent that follows a trail of hyperlinks to locate online data. data integration: combining data from several online sources into one search result. In the context of online search, cross referencing various sources of data and including those references in the results. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Ask Yourself… What makes copyright infringement so easy online? the ease with which you can copy and paste content the lack of copyright laws the lack of an online police force None of the above © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 2.6 E-Commerce © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 What Is E-commerce? Buying, selling, or bidding online. Three kinds: Business-to-Business (B2B) Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) Bullet 1: If you’ve ever bought anything online, you’ve participated in e-commerce. This involves any business transaction completed online such as buying a downloadable song or shoes, or selling your camera in an online classified or auction site. Bullet 2: The three main kinds of e-commerce are B2B, B2C, and C2C. These distinctions essentially follow how money flows between businesses and individual consumers like you and me in an online transaction. B2B are online transactions that occur between businesses—one business selling to another business. B2C are online transactions that occur between a consumer, like you, and a business. When you place an order online at Amazon or Barnes and Noble, you are engaging in B2C ecommerce. C2C are online transactions between consumers—other people just like you, trying to buy or sell merchandise. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

49 The B2C E-commerce Process
Chapter 2 The B2C E-commerce Process Take a look at the B2C shopping process in this illustration, a process you may have performed many times. Here a consumer goes to an online store such as She searches the site, locates an item, and places it in the virtual shopping cart. By entering shipping and payment information, the customer can place an order. She gets a confirmation of the order in her inbox once the store has verified her payment information over a secure server, so nobody else can access her financial information. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Classified and Auction Sites Never pay by check or debit card. Never let the buyer come to your home. Playing It Safe If you use online classified or auction sites, you are engaging in C2C ecommerce. You can do so safely, but it’s good to follow a few simple rules. Bullet 1: Never pay by sending a check to sellers, because they will then have your bank account information. Instead, use a third-party payment service such as PayPal. Using a credit card provides some protection as your liability is limited if your account information is misused. Bullet 2: Don’t let a buyer come to your house to view what you’re selling (unless you’re selling your house or something you can’t transport). Try to meet in a public place to let the buyer inspect the product. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 E-commerce Online entrepreneurs start their own eBay store or website. Affiliates or associates get a small fee for sending online browsers to a partner site. Supplement regular job or as a main source of income. Want to become an e-commerce entrepreneur? Bullet 1: You might consider starting your own eBay store or a website about your area of interest or expertise. There are low or no-cost options for hosting your Web page. Bullet 2: Once you’ve set up your eBay store or have your own website, you can become an affiliate or associate of another site and get a small fee every time somebody clicks a link to go to your partner’s site. Bullet 3: Whether you use an e-commerce site to build up a full time income or to supplement your income from another job, it can be an interesting and rewarding venture. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

52 The Future of Online Advertising
Chapter 2 The Future of Online Advertising What would be the consequence of the collapse of the Internet’s advertising business model? Would Internet users be willing to pay for content that had been free? What are the best ways to make money from content, aside from advertising? Eric Clemons, professor of Operations and Information Management at the Wharton School, believes the Internet will “shatter” advertising, and that Internet advertising will eventually fail. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Terms to Know e-commerce business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce The section 2.6 terms to know are: e-commerce: The transaction of business over the Internet. business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce: A product, service, or payment between an online business and individual consumers. business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce: A product, service, or payment between two online businesses. consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce: A product, service, or payment between two online consumers. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Ask Yourself… Which is an example of a C2C e-commerce site? Amazon Microsoft Craig’s List U.S. Steel © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

55 2.7 Connecting in Cyberspace
Chapter 2 2.7 Connecting in Cyberspace © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Ways to Connect Online to send and receive messages and attached files. Voice-over Internet Protocol (VoIP) to make phone calls over the Internet. Web conferencing to hold meetings and collaborate online. Bullet 1: Today , which began in 1971, is the preferred way to communicate for many people. In fact, working people send an average of 38 s a day and receive 93, according to Techcrunchies.com. You can send, receive, and forward messages, add attached files, and manage your s in folders. An client such as Outlook allows you to manage multiple accounts and contacts. People are also using their mobile phones to access and use their accounts. An address is a unique identifier consisting of your user name, the domain name for your service, and a domain suffix, such as Bullet 2: People are also using the Internet to make phone calls in record numbers. By 2012 it’s estimated that more than 196 million people will place calls using Voice-over Internet Protocol technology. Services such as Skype allow you to place phone calls using your Internet connection and even use a Webcam so you and the person you’re calling can see each other during the call. Bullet 3: Finally, web-conferencing technologies allow folks to hold meetings or join online learning or working environments to collaborate in many creative ways. Web conferences are essentially Internet phone calls with Webcam images that adds a dimension of collaboration using online whiteboards or the ability to display and markup documents. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 can deliver viruses to your computer. Phishing involves that delivers financial scams. Playing It Safe Bullet 1: is a wonderful communications tool, but it is also used to deliver a variety of threats such as viruses and financial scams. Bullet 2: Use caution when downloading file attachments. Read unsolicited s carefully to understand the sender’s intent. Phishing s pretend to come from a reputable source, but the goal is to have you click a link or send a reply that leads you to reveal information such as account numbers that allow the sender to steal your money or identity. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Terms to Know program client address Voice-over Internet Protocol (VoIP) web conferencing Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) format Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) Post Office Protocol, Version 3 (POP3) The section 2.7 terms to know are: A message that is shared over the Internet. Short for electronic mail. program: A program that allows you to create and send messages, add attachments to messages, receive and reply to messages, store contact information, and mange messages in folders. client: A program stored on your local computer that is used to manage multiple accounts and contacts when you connect to your service. address: A unique identifier for an sender or recipient comprised of user name, domain name of the service, and domain suffix. Voice over Internet Protocol (or VoIP): A transmission technology that allows you to make voice calls over the Internet using a service such as Skype. web conferencing: A combination of technologies that allow you to hold meetings online with voice, video, images, and various collaborative tools such as virtual whiteboards. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (or MIME) format: A format for messages that are sent over the Internet. MIME permits text, graphics, audio, and video. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): A communications protocol installed on the ISP’s or online service’s mail server that determines how each message is to be routed through the Internet and then sends the message. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP): A communications protocol that receives from a mail server and delivers it to the proper mailbox. Has replaced POP on some servers. Messages will not be deleted from the server until requested by the recipient. Post Office Protocol, Version 3 (or POP3): A communications protocol that receives from a mail server and delivers it to the proper mailbox. By default, messages are deleted from the server when the recipient retrieves his or her mail unless the user changes the settings. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Ask Yourself… When was the first sent? 1985 1990 1961 1971 © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 2 Our Digital World Most of us use the Internet for a wide variety of activities every day. You might use it to learn, work, watch videos, and communicate with others. You can go online using several types of devices, such as computers, your cell phone, or even playing with your Xbox or other gaming gadget. End of Show © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.


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