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Case Study: The world wide distribution of lactose intolerance University of Kentucky: Andrew Bouwma Peter Mirabito Jeffrey Osborn Stanford University:

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Presentation on theme: "Case Study: The world wide distribution of lactose intolerance University of Kentucky: Andrew Bouwma Peter Mirabito Jeffrey Osborn Stanford University:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Case Study: The world wide distribution of lactose intolerance University of Kentucky: Andrew Bouwma Peter Mirabito Jeffrey Osborn Stanford University: Shyamala Malladi Patricia Seawell University of Miami: Douglas L. Crawford Marjorie F. Oleksiak Facilitators: Kimberly Tanner, San Francisco State Univ. Langdon Martin, Univ Wisconsin

2 Classroom Setting Sophomore Genetics Course Students have been introduced to Genes Molecular Mechanisms of Transcription Transcriptional Regulation Molecular Mechanisms of Translation Translational Regulation

3 Learning Goals –Measurable Outcome Students will understandStudents will be able to (1) the concept of a gene - Sketch a representation of a gene and label its parts (promoter, intron, exon, termination signal) - Relate Mendel’s inheritable traits to a gene (2) the mechanism of transcription - List, order and define the active players in transcription (or diagram) - contrast the structure of nuclear DNA and hnRNA with cytoplasmic mRNA (3) the regulation of transcription - how does exercise lead to larger muscle mass - predict which genes might be expressed under conditions of exercise or hypoxia (low blood oxygen) - how does eating more sugar lead to more absorption of sugars (4) the mechanism of translation - Generate a strip sequence that describes the process/mechanism of translation - Describe how some antibiotics kill bacteria (5) the regulation of translation - compare and contrast global vs mRNA specific regulation - imagine five ways that protein synthesis can be regulated (6) how genes affect phenotypes - explain how skin becomes darker when exposed to the sun - describe how DNA affects the production of hemoglobin - - explain why a person of northern European descent can drink milk, while a majority of the world population cannot (7) and engage in specific components of the scientific process. - read and interpret biogeographical maps - read and apply appropriate information from the primary literature to a scientific problem or question.

4 Learning Goal 6) Genotype  Phenotype 7) Engagement in the Scientific Process Outcomes: Interpret the biogeographical maps Read and apply appropriate information from the primary literature to address a scientific problem. Students will explain why specific populations maintain the ability to drink and digest milk through adulthood.

5 What do you think is the percentage of adults around the world who are lactose intolerant? A:0-20% B: 20-40% C: 40-60% D: 60-80% E:>80%

6 Lactose is milk sugar, a disaccharide in all mammalian milk Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest lactose, because of a lack of the required enzyme lactase in the digestive system.  Drinking milk without having an active lactase enzyme produces gastro-intestinal distress (e.g.,diarrhea).  It is estimated that 75% of adults worldwide show lactose intolerance. Lactose and Lactose Intolerance

7 Adult Worldwide Milk Intolerance due to the Inability to Digest Lactose Milk Intolerance Adapted from Native Americans Aboriginal Australians

8 Adult Worldwide Lactose Intolerance What do these data say about the worldwide distribution of the ability to drink and digest milk as an adult? Think & Write 1 minute Pair-Share 2 minutes Milk Intolerance

9 Predict What would you predict is the relationship between the world wide distribution of adult and infant lactose intolerance? A: Same B: Opposite C: Unrelated D: Same except for North America Milk Intolerance

10 Discuss Convince your neighbor and revote What is the relationship between the world wide distribution of adult and infant lactose intolerance? A: Same B: Opposite C: Unrelated D: same except for North America

11 What is the relationship between the world wide distribution of adult and infant lactose intolerance? Frequency of Lactose Intolerance in Infants >90% Tolerance Milk Intolerance

12 Brainstorm Given these data: 75% of adults worldwide cannot drink and digest milk Yet nearly all infants are able to digest milk Propose molecular mechanisms to explain why only a few populations have the ability to drink and digest milk throughout adulthood.

13 Choose a hypothesis The molecular mechanism that explains why only a few populations have the ability to drink and digest milk throughout adulthood includes variation in: A: the coding region of the lactase gene B: the regulatory region of the lactase gene C: transcription factors D: the post-translational modification of the enzyme lactase E: None of the above

14 For your final assessment Read the Genetics paper on “Lactose Intolerance” Write a short essay (250 words) to defend one hypothesis and refute one other > Paper will be posted on Blackboard. > Potential hypotheses will be posted. > Biogeographic map will be posted.

15 Diversity: Not using red-green map colors Population diversity Teaching methods addresses a diversity of learning styles Possible discussion of “Got Milk” Activity/AssessmentTopicTime ClickerThink about people you know who are lactose intolerant 1 minute Map InterpretationAnalysis of biogeographical data2 minutes Think and Write Pair-Shore How much diversity is there in lactose intolerance 3 minutes ClickerPredict infant milk intolerance1 minute ClickerDiscuss and revote2 minutes Brainstorm and writePropose molecular mechanisms to explain lactose intolerance 1 minute Clicker pre-assessmentVote on molecular mechanisms to explain lactose intolerance 1 minute Final assessmentDefend and refute hypothesesHomework


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