Presentation on theme: "World War Two Home Front War Production Board (1942) Liberty Ships Payroll Withholding (1941) Office of Price Administration (1941) War Labor Disputes."— Presentation transcript:
World War Two Home Front War Production Board (1942) Liberty Ships Payroll Withholding (1941) Office of Price Administration (1941) War Labor Disputes Act (1943) Dr. Win-the-War (1943) Tuskegee Airmen Nisei Keynesian Economics Military Industrial Complex (1961) I. Mobilizing for War II. Wartime Challenges to the New Deal
FDR’s Objectives for 1942: 60,000 planes 45,000 tanks 20,000 antiaircraft guns 8 million tons of shipping
The War Production Board directed automobile factories to start producing tanks
Over 2,700 Liberty Ships were produced during the war
The Middle Class 1) The government lowered the amount of money exempt from income taxes. 2) The government adopted payroll withholding. 3) While 7 million Americans filed income tax returns in 1941, in 42 million did in 1944.
The Wealthy 1) Tax rates were made more progressive, the surtaxes rising to 94 percent. 2) F.D.R. proposed a “Super Tax” in 1942, that would confiscate all income over $67,000 a year. Only two to three thousand Americans would have been affected.
To Combat Inflation F.D.R. Created the Office of Price Administration in 1941
The OPA Imposed a general price freeze in April 1942
The OPA encouraged people to save to fight inflation
The Office of Price Administration also rationed goods in short supply, such as meat...
II. Wartime Challenges to the New Deal
Republicans Gains in seats in the House 9 seats in the Senate
The War Labor Disputes Act 1) The president had the authority to seize and operate any strike-bound plant deemed necessary to national security. 2) Established a mandatory 30-day cooling off period before any strike could be called. 3) Gave the National War Labor Board the authority to settle labor disputes for the duration of the war.
The public saw this as an expression of presidential power.
Dr. Win-the-War “Old Dr. New Deal... knew a great deal about internal medicine, but nothing about surgery. So he got his partner, who was an orthopedic surgeon, Dr. Win-the- War, to take care of this fellow who had been in this bad accident.”
“At the present time, obviously, the principal emphasis, the overwhelming emphasis should be on winning the war.” - F.D.R
Cost plus contracts benefited major corporation, which received the majority of government contracts.
African Americans in WWII About a million African Americans served in the military during WWII, however, most served in segregated units Double V campaign –African Americans were fighting for victory abroad and victory at home –Called for an end to racial discrimination on all levels
Tuskegee Airmen Flew more than 15,000 sorties, mostly bomber escort Destroyed over 1,000 German aircraft Never lost a bomber
Most civil rights abuses during WW II were against Japanese-Americans
Internment 120,000 Japanese Americans, 77,000 of whom were Nisei— native native born citizens of the United States–were interned during World War Two
Armed Military Police Escorting a Dangerous Japanese- American to a Relocation Camp
Dust Storm at Relocation Camp, Manzanar, California
John Maynard Keynes Advocated vast government spending—even deficit spending— in times of recession
Acceptance of Keynesian Economics
Government Involvement in the Economy: Where $175 Billion of War Contracts Went
The Military Industrial Complex “In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military industrial complex.” - Farewell Address, Jan. 17, 1961