4 Causes of World War I 3. Militarism Arms races between nations Built up to intimidate other nationsRussian army had over 1,000,000Germany and France had 900,000 each
5 Conditions on the Front in WWI New Weapons UtilizedMachine GunsPoison gas (Mustard Gas)TanksAirplanes (Dog Fighting)Trench Warfare“No Man’s Land”Disease and influenza
6 Effects of World War I Treaty of Versailles -Establishment of League of Nations-German reparationsMandate System –British and French
7 WWI - End of Empires Hapsburg Dynasty (Germany & Austria) Romanov’s (Russian Czars)Ottoman Empire(Middle East)Family of Czar Nicholas II –last of the Romanov Rulers of Russia
8 The Russian Revolution 1917—Workers revolt against the Czar --Bolsheviks take over Russia and begin a socialist system under Vladimir Lenin. Allied countries (Great Britain, France, Japan and the United States) send troops to support anti-communist forces, but communist forces eventually prevail.
9 The Soviet UnionLenin establishes the Soviet Union (USSR)
10 The Rise of Joseph Stalin 1924—Lenin dies– Several leaders struggle for power including Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin.Eventually, Stalin seizes power and becomes a dictator over USSR—imposing a totalitarian state.He begins a Five Year Plan to increase industrialization and collectivize agriculture in the Soviet Union.
11 The Red ScareAfter the Russian Revolution, fear of a similar revolution in the United States by communists from Russia led to a period known as the Red Scare.Attempted assassinations of Attorney General Mitchell Palmer and John D. Rockefeller led to the Palmer Raids—in which suspected communists were arrested and more than 500 immigrants deported.This led to increase fear of immigrants and restrictions on immigration were passed by Congress.
12 New Leaders EmergeIn Italy, a new fascist government emerged in 1922 under Benito Mussolini. He rose to power using propaganda, brutality, and intimidation—promoting an ultra-nationalist Italy and himself as Il Duce (“the Leader”).
13 Fascism in GermanyIn 1921, Adolf Hitler took control of the National Socialist German Worker’s Party—better known as the Nazis.He became chancellor of Germany in 1933 and eventually claimed the title Fuhrer (guide of Germany) and established himself as dictator over the Third Reich.
14 Leadership in JapanJapanese Emperor Hirohito began his reign in Japan in He did not exercise absolute control over the government.Instead, an army general, Hideki Tojo, assumed the role of Japan’s premier –leading it through World War II.
15 Authoritarian Government and Totalitarianism Authoritarian Government is ruled by a single person or party interested in political power.Totalitarianism is a government which seeks to control not only political power, but the economy, culture, and social life.These governments often use terror and fear--utilizing propaganda and controlling access to information such as the press and education. (Examples: Italy, Germany, & USSR)
16 Aggression in Asia 1931—Japan Invades Manchuria Japan leaves the League of NationsBy 1938, Japan has control of major cities along Chinese coast
17 German ExpansionHitler begins rebuilding German military and marches troops into the Rhineland (lost in WWI)Germany annexes Austria and claims parts of the SudetenlandGreat Britain and France pursue policy of appeasement—rather than challenge Hitler’s aggressionIn 1939, Hitler invades PolandBritain and France declare war on Germany—thus beginning World War II
18 The HolocaustHitler’s policy of Nazi racism targeted Jewish people and fed on European anti-semitismHitler viewed Jews as a national enemy and began implementing his Final Solution—elimination of Jewish people by sending them to concentration camps as slave laborers and then executing them in gas chambersThe extermination of nearly 6 million Jews, as well as Gypsies, Slavs, and other people deemed undesirable came to be known as the Holocaust
19 World War II --1940 April, 1940--Germany Invades Denmark and Norway May, 1940 – Germany takes control of Belgium, Netherlands, and FranceJuly-October, 1940 – Battle of Britain, German planes bomb Britain in “blitzkriegs” (night air raids).British Royal Air Force help fight off German air assault and prevent invasion.
20 Axis Powers1940,Germany, Italy and Japan form an alliance known as the Axis Powers
21 US Neutrality before World War II 1935— Neutrality Act passed by Congress to stay out of European conflictsU.S. imposes embargo on Japan after its invasion of ChinaMarch, 1941– Congress passesLend-Lease Act to allow President Roosevelt to send aid to Great Britain
22 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor Dec. 7th 1941—Japan launches surprise attack on U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
23 U.S. joins Allies in World War II After Pearl Harbor, the U.S. declares war on Japan and joins Allies (Great Britain, USSR, and French resistance) against the Axis Powers
24 Domestic Wartime Policies of US Roosevelt establishes War Production Board –redirecting production of civilian consumer goods to war materialsRevenue for funding the war was generated through withholding income tax from paychecks and selling war bondsThe Government began rationing of resources—such as tires and food items
25 Women join domestic war effort Many women filled industrial jobs that had been held by men who were sent overseasA popular symbol of these women was Rosie the Riveter
26 Suspicion of Germans, Italians and Japanese in U.S. Since the U.S. was at war with these countries, suspicion of citizens with origins in Germany, Italy and Japan led to their removal to remote internment camps.
27 Allied Powers meet at Tehran In 1943, leaders of the three major Allied Powers (Churchill—Britain, Roosevelt--US, Stalin-- USSR)met in the Tehran Conference to discuss plans for defeating Germany
28 D-DayAt Tehran, the leaders planned an amphibious invasion of Normandy (occupied by Nazis) named Operation Overlord –headed by supreme allied commander Dwight D. Eisenhower
29 The Yalta ConferenceRoosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met in February, 1945 at the Yalta Conference to discuss plans of dividing up Europe anticipating the defeat of GermanyGermany was divided and most of Eastern Europe was controlled by the Soviet Union
30 The Potsdam Conference The Allied leaders met after the defeat of Germany in July,1945 at the Potsdam Conference to discuss plans for defeating Japan and its unconditional surrenderPresident Truman (who succeeded Roosevelt after his death) learned of the successful tests of the Atomic bomb while at the conference
31 The Atomic BombLed by Robert Oppenheimer, the Manhattan Project successfully produced two Atomic bombs at Los Alamos, New Mexico (called Fat Man and Little Boy)On August 6th, 1945 a B-29 bomber called the Enola Gay dropped the first Atomic bomb on Hiroshima, JapanThree days later, a second bomb exploded over NagasakiJapan surrendered on August 14th, 1945—thus ending World War II and beginning the Atomic Age