Presentation on theme: "Cities in the Less Developed World"— Presentation transcript:
1Cities in the Less Developed World Dr. Rajiv ThakurGEO 365SP 2010
2Urban Population In more developed regions, In less developed regions, 952 million people, or 77% of the population (of 1.23 billion) will live in urban areas by 2015In less developed regions,2.9 billion people, or 48.7% of the population (of 5.97 billion) will live in urban areas by 2015Source: United Nations, Population Division (2004) World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 RevisionData Tables and HighlightsDownloadable data available in the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision Population Database.
3Fig. 15. 1:Map of world by Pct Urban Fig. 15.1:Map of world by Pct Urban. Great variations exist among the more Urbanized countries in the developed world and the less urbanized countries in the developing world
4Urbanization and Urban Growth Urbanization: share of population that live in urban areas. It could be a result of rural-to-urban migration, etc.Urban Growth: refers to the overall growth in the population that lives in cities.When national population grows, cities may grown even without the real shift/migration of people from rural to urban areas.Third world urbanization mostly comes from rural-urban migration
5Who’s Urban? The pct. of urban is loosely related to the GDP per capita. Figure 15.2, p. 427, Kaplan et. Al. 2008Developed country with high GDP / capita, LDCs with very low GDP / capita; Latin Amer. countries are highly urbanized, with 2/3rd popl. residing in cities, with the southern cone at 90%; Middle East ~ 85%;In 1950, < 1 in 6 in 3rd world lived in cities, in 2000, it is 1 in 2 lives in cities.
6Urbanization Rates by Region Figure 15.3 N. America, Europe & Japan are at saturation & hence not urbanizing any more.Asian and African regions are still urbanizing.In many developed countries, rate of urbanization are now declining, it dropped to 3.4% in 2000 compared to 5.2% in the 1950s. Why??Cities in developing countries are growing faster
71 Million or moreCities (not MSAs0 of 1 million or more population in 2015In China, 98 urban agglomerations are projected to have populations of 1 million or more by 2015In India, 50 (India’s urban growth and natural increase in Urban areas is relatively slower than that of China)In the US, 45 (continental USA has 49 MSAs>1m, 2000 Census)In Brazil, 21Source: United Nations, Population Division (2004) World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision, pp
8Largest Cities in 2015 (in millions) [as Projected by the UN World Urbanization Prospects: 2003 Revision, p. 261]Mega-Cities in More Developed RegionsTokyoNew York 19.7Los Angeles 12.9Osaka-Kobe 11.4Moscow 10.9ParisMega-Cities in Less Developed RegionsMumbai 22.6DelhiMexico City 20.6Sao Paulo 20.0Dhaka 17.9Jakarta 17.5LagosCalcutta 16.8Karachi 16.2Buenos Aires 14.6CairoShanghai 12.7Manila 12.6Rio de Janeiro 12.4Istanbul 11.3Beijing 11.1
9Causes of Urban Growth Demographic Factors Natural increase Migration Birth rate minus death rateMigrationNet migration = in-migration minus out-migrationRural-to-urban migration (significant in South of Sahara in Africa)For job opportunities outside the primary sectorFor education for childrenPrimacyPrimate city as a focus for investment and for inmigrationThe population of the largest city is more than twice the size of next largest city. Examples: Lagos (10 m) in Nigeria is 3 times larger that the next largest city of Kano; Mexico City (17 m) is far larger than Guadalaraja (1.6 m); etc.Primate cities also in developed nations: Seoul in S. Korea, 25% the country’s urban population and 20% of the country’s total population.
10Theories of Urbanization & Development Kaplan et al. pp Theories of Urbanization & Development Kaplan et al. pp and Pacione, ppTheories of development and underdevelopmentModernization Theory:Trickle-down of growth from large to smaller citiesThe developing countries are in a process of transition from preindustrial to industrial society, and are in the midst of a capitalist transformation: follows western industrial societyCultural changes are at work, the society will soon be ‘westernized’ and will achieve a modern/developed statusDependency Theory: colonizers and coloniesRole of Third World port cities in colonies to export natural resourcesNeocolonialism = same for formerWorld Systems Theory- WallersteinCore, semi-periphery, periphery
11Poverty: Always Lower in Urban Areas Figure 15.5
12World-System Theory Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein Core-Periphery Model Sociologist, historical social scientist and world system analystDraws fromMarxFernand BraudelCore-peripheryCore-Periphery ModelGlobally, uneven economic development and distribution of power.InterdependentCoreSemi-peripheryPeriphery
13Contemporary Economic Landscapes Identifying pattern Core and Periphery (World Systems Theory!)Immanuel Wallerstein (1984)Historical - Structural relationship!AttributesCoreDominant, active in world trade, rich, market type economy, primarily industrial, exporter of manufactured goods, control on capitalPeripherySecondary/passive, in world trade, maybe market type or subsistence type, external dependence, import led economy and borrower of capital
14Other characteristics CoreControls the most advanced technologiesHigh levels of productivityLow birth rate, low death rate, low infant mortality ratesPeripherySocio-economic inequalitiesHistorical experience of colonialismSemi-peripheryexploits peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by center regions.A mix of both sets of processes
18Characteristics Core Semi-Periphery Periphery Rich areas Diversified economiesHigh levels of technologyHigh wagesEconomic and political powerCountries between core and periphery statusCharacteristics of both core and peripheryPoorer areasNarrow range of productionLower level of technologyLower wagesLittle economic or political powerprimary activity, raw material extraction
19Dependency Theory Core-periphery relationship is problematic. Economic exploitation of peripheryCore growth is the result of exploitationCaused underdevelopmentPeriphery can only grow by separating from global capitalistic structureHow do you extend this idea within an Urban-Rural concept?Think about why did Southern part of Quebec province voted ‘For Separation’ while northern part voted against it?
20Development Theory & Urbanization Rostow’s stages of economic growthAssumes that poverty and lack of development are the problemsAlso assumes that poor countries need to emulate Western growth
21New International Division of Labor Factories of multinational corporations (MNCs) are located where urban infrastructure permits global connectionsOften in primate cities of Third World countriesCheap labor made possible by rural-to-urban migrationTechnology allows the separation of production from managementSatellites, computers, containers
22Vance’s Mercantile Model of Urban Development in Colonies Figure 15 Vance’s Mercantile Model of Urban Development in Colonies Figure Examples from India Most port cities connected by railways Iron, coal, gold, silver, Aluminum, zinc, etc. in interiors connected by railways initially. Most of today’s third world cities were established as port cities/urban centers during colonial era on roads, railways, etc that served as export/import centers to serve their colonizers Most development occurred after independence
26School Children walk to their shanty homes in Kenya They live 10 to a room Slums Housing on theapproach to Delhi by train
27POVERTY - INEQUALITY & GENDER Illiteracy, destitution, 100s of millionsKolkata – 700,00 homelessShantytowns / BusteesInformal Economic Sector (90% production by women )45 % of India’s population with Income < $1/day (UNDF)390 millions with Income < $1 per week
29Planet of Slums [The title of a book by Mike Davis, 2006] A slum is characterized by overcrowding, poor or informal housing, inadequate access to safe water and sanitation, and insecurity of tenure.Includes peripheral shantytowns as well as inner-city tenements“Bombay, with 10 to 12 million squatters and tenement-dwellers, is the global capital of slum-dwelling, followed by Mexico City and Dhaka (9 to 10 million each), and then Lagos, Cairo, Karachi, Kishasa-Brazzaville, Sao Paulo, Shanghai, and Delhi (6 to 8 million each).”Source: M. Davis, Planet of Slums. London: Verso, 2006, p. 23
3110 Most Populated MSAs in India (2009 Estimated Population Based on 2001 Census Count)
32Some Famous Slum Evictions Source: Mike Davis, Planet of Slums, p. 102 Year City Number evicted1976 Mumbai ,000Seoul ,000Lagos ,000Rangoon 1,000,000Beijing ,000Jakarta ,000Harare ,000
33Poverty at the Edges, not in the Center Figure 15.13
34Third World Slums and Squatter Settlements Slums form at edges of cities, not in the centerNo infrastructure is provided (water, utilities, sanitationPirated electricitySmall formal sector, so large numbers unemployed or, at best, in the informal sector“We prefer child labour. Children work faster, work longer hours and are more dependable; they also do not form unions or take time off for tea and cigarettes.” (Pacione, Box 26.3, p. 525)
35Where the Poor Live Source: Mike Davis, Planet of Slums, p. 31 Inner-city slums Peripheral slumsKarachi 34% 66%Khartoum 17% 83%Lusaka 34% 66%Mexico City 27% 73%Mumbai 20% 80%Rio de Janeiro 23% 77%
36Health Risks in Third World Cities Based on Pacione, Table 27. 1 (pp Contaminated waterInadequate disposal of human wastesWastewater and garbageInsects, pests (e.g. rats) and parasites in homesInadequate-sized houses, poor ventilation and overcrowdingChildren at risk from traffic, unsafe or contaminated sitesIndoor air pollutionHouse sites vulnerable to landslides or floodsNutritional deficienciesNo or inadequate health care and adviceNo emergency services
38Making a Living: Urban Livelihood Strategies in the Informal Sector Table 15.3
39The Informal Sector in African, Latin American, and Asian Cities Table 15.4 End!!
40Entrepreneurs in the Two Circuits There is a significant difference between entrepreneurs who have an education and who have contacts with markets elsewhere and, on the other hand, entrepreneurs who rely only on the local market and on passers-byEntrepreneurship or self-employment can be a sign of poverty, not of successE.g. street food vendors: “Profit is not the only thing. It is everything.” (Fass 1995, p. 1569)Sources: Fass, Murphy, Tambunan
41Illegal Housing in Third World Cities Based on Pacione, Table 25.4 More than 50% illegalAddis Ababa 85%Jakarta 62%Dar es Salaam 60%Bogata 59%Cairo 54%Ankara 51%30-50% of housing illegalKarachi 50%Lusaka 50%Mexico City 50%Manila 40%Delhi 40%Caracas 34%Lima 33%Sao Paulo 32%