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Cities in the Less Developed World

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1 Cities in the Less Developed World
Dr. Rajiv Thakur GEO 365 SP 2010

2 Urban Population In more developed regions, In less developed regions,
952 million people, or 77% of the population (of 1.23 billion) will live in urban areas by 2015 In less developed regions, 2.9 billion people, or 48.7% of the population (of 5.97 billion) will live in urban areas by 2015 Source: United Nations, Population Division (2004) World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision Data Tables and Highlights Downloadable data available in the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision Population Database.

3 Fig. 15. 1:Map of world by Pct Urban
Fig. 15.1:Map of world by Pct Urban. Great variations exist among the more Urbanized countries in the developed world and the less urbanized countries in the developing world

4 Urbanization and Urban Growth
Urbanization: share of population that live in urban areas. It could be a result of rural-to-urban migration, etc. Urban Growth: refers to the overall growth in the population that lives in cities. When national population grows, cities may grown even without the real shift/migration of people from rural to urban areas. Third world urbanization mostly comes from rural-urban migration

5 Who’s Urban? The pct. of urban is loosely related to the GDP per capita.
Figure 15.2, p. 427, Kaplan et. Al. 2008 Developed country with high GDP / capita, LDCs with very low GDP / capita; Latin Amer. countries are highly urbanized, with 2/3rd popl. residing in cities, with the southern cone at 90%; Middle East ~ 85%; In 1950, < 1 in 6 in 3rd world lived in cities, in 2000, it is 1 in 2 lives in cities.

6 Urbanization Rates by Region Figure 15.3
N. America, Europe & Japan are at saturation & hence not urbanizing any more. Asian and African regions are still urbanizing. In many developed countries, rate of urbanization are now declining, it dropped to 3.4% in 2000 compared to 5.2% in the 1950s. Why?? Cities in developing countries are growing faster

7 1 Million or more Cities (not MSAs0 of 1 million or more population in 2015 In China, 98 urban agglomerations are projected to have populations of 1 million or more by 2015 In India, 50 (India’s urban growth and natural increase in Urban areas is relatively slower than that of China) In the US, 45 (continental USA has 49 MSAs>1m, 2000 Census) In Brazil, 21 Source: United Nations, Population Division (2004) World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision, pp

8 Largest Cities in 2015 (in millions) [as Projected by the UN World Urbanization Prospects: 2003 Revision, p. 261] Mega-Cities in More Developed Regions Tokyo New York 19.7 Los Angeles 12.9 Osaka-Kobe 11.4 Moscow 10.9 Paris Mega-Cities in Less Developed Regions Mumbai 22.6 Delhi Mexico City 20.6 Sao Paulo 20.0 Dhaka 17.9 Jakarta 17.5 Lagos Calcutta 16.8 Karachi 16.2 Buenos Aires 14.6 Cairo Shanghai 12.7 Manila 12.6 Rio de Janeiro 12.4 Istanbul 11.3 Beijing 11.1

9 Causes of Urban Growth Demographic Factors Natural increase Migration
Birth rate minus death rate Migration Net migration = in-migration minus out-migration Rural-to-urban migration (significant in South of Sahara in Africa) For job opportunities outside the primary sector For education for children Primacy Primate city as a focus for investment and for inmigration The population of the largest city is more than twice the size of next largest city. Examples: Lagos (10 m) in Nigeria is 3 times larger that the next largest city of Kano; Mexico City (17 m) is far larger than Guadalaraja (1.6 m); etc. Primate cities also in developed nations: Seoul in S. Korea, 25% the country’s urban population and 20% of the country’s total population.

10 Theories of Urbanization & Development Kaplan et al. pp
Theories of Urbanization & Development Kaplan et al. pp and Pacione, pp Theories of development and underdevelopment Modernization Theory: Trickle-down of growth from large to smaller cities The developing countries are in a process of transition from preindustrial to industrial society, and are in the midst of a capitalist transformation: follows western industrial society Cultural changes are at work, the society will soon be ‘westernized’ and will achieve a modern/developed status Dependency Theory: colonizers and colonies Role of Third World port cities in colonies to export natural resources Neocolonialism = same for former World Systems Theory- Wallerstein Core, semi-periphery, periphery

11 Poverty: Always Lower in Urban Areas Figure 15.5

12 World-System Theory Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein Core-Periphery Model
Sociologist, historical social scientist and world system analyst Draws from Marx Fernand Braudel Core-periphery Core-Periphery Model Globally, uneven economic development and distribution of power. Interdependent Core Semi-periphery Periphery

13 Contemporary Economic Landscapes Identifying pattern
Core and Periphery (World Systems Theory!) Immanuel Wallerstein (1984) Historical - Structural relationship! Attributes Core Dominant, active in world trade, rich, market type economy, primarily industrial, exporter of manufactured goods, control on capital Periphery Secondary/passive, in world trade, maybe market type or subsistence type, external dependence, import led economy and borrower of capital

14 Other characteristics
Core Controls the most advanced technologies High levels of productivity Low birth rate, low death rate, low infant mortality rates Periphery Socio-economic inequalities Historical experience of colonialism Semi-periphery exploits peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by center regions. A mix of both sets of processes




18 Characteristics Core Semi-Periphery Periphery Rich areas
Diversified economies High levels of technology High wages Economic and political power Countries between core and periphery status Characteristics of both core and periphery Poorer areas Narrow range of production Lower level of technology Lower wages Little economic or political power primary activity, raw material extraction

19 Dependency Theory Core-periphery relationship is problematic.
Economic exploitation of periphery Core growth is the result of exploitation Caused underdevelopment Periphery can only grow by separating from global capitalistic structure How do you extend this idea within an Urban-Rural concept? Think about why did Southern part of Quebec province voted ‘For Separation’ while northern part voted against it?

20 Development Theory & Urbanization
Rostow’s stages of economic growth Assumes that poverty and lack of development are the problems Also assumes that poor countries need to emulate Western growth

21 New International Division of Labor
Factories of multinational corporations (MNCs) are located where urban infrastructure permits global connections Often in primate cities of Third World countries Cheap labor made possible by rural-to-urban migration Technology allows the separation of production from management Satellites, computers, containers

22 Vance’s Mercantile Model of Urban Development in Colonies Figure 15
Vance’s Mercantile Model of Urban Development in Colonies Figure Examples from India Most port cities connected by railways Iron, coal, gold, silver, Aluminum, zinc, etc. in interiors connected by railways initially. Most of today’s third world cities were established as port cities/urban centers during colonial era on roads, railways, etc that served as export/import centers to serve their colonizers Most development occurred after independence

23 Railway Zones

24 Characteristics of Third World Cities: Slums formed from overcrowding of low paid folks
Slum opposite of Bandra Railway Station, Mumbai, India

25 Slum in Kolkata, India Favela, Mexico City

26 School Children walk to their shanty homes in Kenya They live 10 to a room
Slums Housing on the approach to Delhi by train

Illiteracy, destitution, 100s of millions Kolkata – 700,00 homeless Shantytowns / Bustees Informal Economic Sector (90% production by women ) 45 % of India’s population with Income < $1/day (UNDF) 390 millions with Income < $1 per week

28 Indicators of Health/Poverty in South Asia

29 Planet of Slums [The title of a book by Mike Davis, 2006]
A slum is characterized by overcrowding, poor or informal housing, inadequate access to safe water and sanitation, and insecurity of tenure. Includes peripheral shantytowns as well as inner-city tenements “Bombay, with 10 to 12 million squatters and tenement-dwellers, is the global capital of slum-dwelling, followed by Mexico City and Dhaka (9 to 10 million each), and then Lagos, Cairo, Karachi, Kishasa-Brazzaville, Sao Paulo, Shanghai, and Delhi (6 to 8 million each).” Source: M. Davis, Planet of Slums. London: Verso, 2006, p. 23

30 Mumbai Skyscrapers

31 10 Most Populated MSAs in India (2009 Estimated Population Based on 2001 Census Count)

32 Some Famous Slum Evictions Source: Mike Davis, Planet of Slums, p. 102
Year City Number evicted 1976 Mumbai ,000 Seoul ,000 Lagos ,000 Rangoon 1,000,000 Beijing ,000 Jakarta ,000 Harare ,000

33 Poverty at the Edges, not in the Center Figure 15.13

34 Third World Slums and Squatter Settlements
Slums form at edges of cities, not in the center No infrastructure is provided (water, utilities, sanitation Pirated electricity Small formal sector, so large numbers unemployed or, at best, in the informal sector “We prefer child labour. Children work faster, work longer hours and are more dependable; they also do not form unions or take time off for tea and cigarettes.” (Pacione, Box 26.3, p. 525)

35 Where the Poor Live Source: Mike Davis, Planet of Slums, p. 31
Inner-city slums Peripheral slums Karachi 34% 66% Khartoum 17% 83% Lusaka 34% 66% Mexico City 27% 73% Mumbai 20% 80% Rio de Janeiro 23% 77%

36 Health Risks in Third World Cities Based on Pacione, Table 27. 1 (pp
Contaminated water Inadequate disposal of human wastes Wastewater and garbage Insects, pests (e.g. rats) and parasites in homes Inadequate-sized houses, poor ventilation and overcrowding Children at risk from traffic, unsafe or contaminated sites Indoor air pollution House sites vulnerable to landslides or floods Nutritional deficiencies No or inadequate health care and advice No emergency services

37 Few Services in Third World Cities Table 15.2

38 Making a Living: Urban Livelihood Strategies in the Informal Sector Table 15.3

39 The Informal Sector in African, Latin American, and Asian Cities Table 15.4 End!!

40 Entrepreneurs in the Two Circuits
There is a significant difference between entrepreneurs who have an education and who have contacts with markets elsewhere and, on the other hand, entrepreneurs who rely only on the local market and on passers-by Entrepreneurship or self-employment can be a sign of poverty, not of success E.g. street food vendors: “Profit is not the only thing. It is everything.” (Fass 1995, p. 1569) Sources: Fass, Murphy, Tambunan

41 Illegal Housing in Third World Cities Based on Pacione, Table 25.4
More than 50% illegal Addis Ababa 85% Jakarta 62% Dar es Salaam 60% Bogata 59% Cairo 54% Ankara 51% 30-50% of housing illegal Karachi 50% Lusaka 50% Mexico City 50% Manila 40% Delhi 40% Caracas 34% Lima 33% Sao Paulo 32%

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