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World Religions ACE Camp 2014 at Lincoln College Taught by Mike Sorice.

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1 World Religions ACE Camp 2014 at Lincoln College Taught by Mike Sorice

2 Introduction – About Me Michael Angelo Sorice Live in Urbana; from Forest Park (west side of Chicago) Played at Fenwick & Illinois Coach at Champaign Centennial High School ACF & PACE member NAQT writer First time teaching at ACE About to read the 2006 PACE NSC All-Star Game

3 Class Topic – World Religions  4/5 ths non-Judeo-Christian religions & topics  1/5 th modern religions (since ~1500)  ~half of questions from these areas  Won’t cover  Judaism  Mainstream Christianity  The Bible  These are good topics that come up, so learn about them, too… elsewhere! (Not a comment on preferred religion – have no personal preference!)

4 ANSWER 0: typical slide  Easiest/most basic information first  Harder/more abstruse information later  Clues almost all from actual questions  Buzz words underlined  Important, but learn the context, too!  Sometimes information left out because it appears in a later slide  I’ll try to point out– leave yourself space in your notes to fill in

5 World Religions: Part 1 Ancient Religions of India and East Asia

6 ANSWER 1: Hinduism  Main religion of India  Many gods & goddesses  Brahma the Creator, part of the Trimurti (Trinity)  Yama (death,) Agni (fire,) Surya (sun,) Chandra (moon) & many others  Scriptures (holy books)  Upanishads (“Sitting Near”)  Mahabharata (Epic of the Children of Bharata) & Ramayana (Epic of Rama)  Puranas (hymns to the gods)  Four goals in life  Artha (wealth & skill)  Dharma (moral living)  Kama (pleasure)  Moksha (ultimate release)

7 ANSWER 2: The Vedas  Main & oldest Hindu scriptures  BCE  Four in number (oldest to newest)  Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda  Written in Sanskrit  Upanishads are mainly commentaries on them  Vedanta is the school of philosophy of interpreting them  Masters of the Vedas are called Pandits  Our word pundit comes from that

8 ANSWER 3: Vishnu  “The Preserver” - one of the three main Hindu gods  In the Trimurti (Trinity) along with Brahma  Wife (consort) is Lakshmi (a.k.a. Sri or Maya,) goddess of wealth  Ten avatars (earthly manifestations)  Matsya the Fish; Kurma the Turtle; Varaha the Boar; Narashima the Lion- Man; Vamana the Dwarf; Parashurama the Axe-Man; Lord Rama; Krishna; and Kalki, who has not yet come  Depicted riding on the eagle Garuda, the Bird King  Carries a conch shell, chakra (discus,) mace, and lotus in his four hands

9 ANSWER 4: Shiva  “The Destroyer/Redeemer” – one of the three main Hindu gods  Makes up the Trimurti along with Brahma and Vishnu  Takes the form of Nataraja, the Eternal Dancer  Husband of Parvati, a.k.a. Durga or Kali, goddess of death  Father of Kartikeya and Ganesha  Ganesha has an elephant’s head because Shiva knocked his head off!  Rides the bull Nandi  Also called Rudra (in the Vedas) and Mahadeva

10 ANSWER 5: Indra  Hindu god of war and storms  Main god in the Vedas, but not later Hinduism  Killed the demon Vritra who was stealing all the world’s water  According to the Rig Veda  Lives on Mount Meru in the hall of Svarga  Rides an elephant named Airavata

11 ANSWER 6: Diwali  The Hindu Festival of Lights  5 days long  Lamps & candles (called diyas) & fireworks are lit  Celebrates Rama (Vishnu) defeating of the demon Ravana to rescue his wife, Sita (Lakshmi)  Especially sacred to Lakshmi, goddess of wealth, who is offered sweets (mithai) to ensure a prosperous year  Celebrates the home & family  House is cleaned on first day (Dhanteras)  Between husband & wife (Padva)  Between sister & brother (Bahu-beej)

12 ANSWER 7: Holi  Hindu Festival of Colors  Believers throw colored powder on each other  Celebrates love – of Krishna (Vishnu) for Radha (Lakshmi)  Radha is one of the gopis, girls whom Krishna loved to frolic with  A bonfire the night before commemorates the burning of Holika, a demoness  She was trying to kill Prince Prahlada  Celebrates the defeat of the seemingly invulnerable demon king Hiranyakashipu, who demanded to be worshipped  Vishnu (as the Lion-Man Narashima) slew him for Prince Prahlada, a devotee of Vishnu

13 ANSWER 8: Bhagavad Gita  Part of the 6 th book of the epic poem Mahabharata  The advice of Krishna (Vishnu,) who is serving as charioteer to the hero, King Arjuna  Arjuna is wavering because he’s in a bloody war with his own relatives. Krishna explains that duty and destiny (dharma) trump even family ties  Each of 18 chapters describes one yoga (discipline)  Bhakti yoga, or devotion to the gods, is paramount  Takes place during the Battle of Kurukshetra

14 ANSWER 9: the castes  Hinduism divides people in to rigid classes, called castes (or varnas)  Brahmins – priests and scholars  Kshatriyas – warriors and earthly kings  Vaishyas – merchants, farmers, and makers of things  Shudras – laborers  People outside the varnas are Dalits (or untouchables)  Vishnu’s avatar Parashurama hates the Kshatriyas  He killed every Kshatriya 21 times with his axe!  Described in the Laws of Manu (Manusmriti)  Manu is the first human being in Hinduism

15 ANSWER 10: Buddhism  Basic scriptures are the Tripitaka, a.k.a. Three Baskets or Pali Canon  Spread by Ashoka, emperor of India, in the 300’s B.C.E.  Various sects contain many schools  Theravada (sometimes called Hinayana) is the older, most orthodox sect  Temples are known as stupas  Each stupa should contain a relic of the Buddha, like a hair or tooth

16 ANSWER 11: Buddha  A prince of Shakya named Siddhartha Gautama  Buddha is a title meaning “Awakened One”  Some forms of Buddhism use Buddha only to refer to the Buddha; others use it to refer to many different Buddhas  Meditated under the Bodhi tree to realize Four Noble Truths  Existence is suffering (dukka), and how to deal with it: the Eightfold Way  Expounded his ideas in the Deer Park Sermon  His mother, Queen Maya, had a vision of a white elephant with 6 tusks before giving birth  9 th avatar of Vishnu

17 ANSWER 12: reincarnation (samsara)  Central concept in Buddhism & Hinduism (et al.)  Good karma, gained by following dharma, determines the soul’s next life  Also called metempsychosis or transmigration of souls  The soul (jiva or atman) takes a new form based on its actions in this life (or maybe not!)  Quasi-eternal cycle of birth, death and reincarnation is called samsara

18 ANSWER 13: nirvana (moksha)  “Enlightenment” and escape from the cycle of samsara  Technically, nirvana is the bliss resulting from moksha, the escape from rebirth, but they’re used interchangeably  People who have achieved this are called arhats; those who put it off to help others are called bodhisattvas  Different schools have different ideas which is better  Means “extinguishing (of a candle)” (probably)  Four stages  Sotapanna (Wader,) Sakadagami (Once-Returner,) Anagami (Non-Returner,) Arhat (Perfect)

19 ANSWER 14: Mahayana  Largest sect of Buddhism  Name means “Greater Vehicle”  Supposed to enlighten many people at once through group practice, as opposed to individual enlightenment through individual meditation  Venerates bodhisattvas  Saints who have achieved nirvana, but remained in the world to help others do so as well  Many sub-schools  Pure Land  Nichiren  Tendai  Tibetan/Tantric/Vajrayana (sort-of)

20 ANSWER 15: Zen  Japanese school of Mahayana Buddhism  Derived from Chinese Chan Buddhism  Sub-sects include Rinzai and Soto, founded by Dogen  Meditative practice called zazen  To achieve satori, temporary enlightenment  Paradoxical riddles called koans subdue the mind  Blue Cliff Record and Gateless Gate, collections of koans  Founded by Bodhidarma, an Indian monk

21 ANSWER 16: sutras  Buddhist (and Hindu, etc.) aphoristic scriptures  Many thousands of different books  Buddhist ones contain sayings of the Buddha  They form the first “basket” of the Tripitaka  Name means “sewn (together)”  Mahayana Buddhist schools often based on one  Diamond Sutra: Vajrayana  Platform Sutra: Zen  Lotus Sutra: Tendai  World’s oldest printed book: 9 th -C. copy of Diamond Sutra

22 ANSWER 17: Jainism  Indian religion centered on ahimsa (non-violence)  The Universe is eternal, uncreated & subject to laws, as are the gods.  Leaders/founders are the 24 Tirthankaras (“Ford-Makers”)  Only the last two are historical; the 23 rd, Parsva, lived ~900 B.C.E.  Two major sects, differ on who can be clergy, who can achieve nirvana, and what monks should wear  Digambara (“Sky-Clad”) – Male-only, naked  Svetambara (“White-Clad”) – Men and women, robed  Major scriptures are the Agamas (Agamasutra)  Paryushana/Das Lakshana is major holiday (along w/ Diwali)  8-day festival – gods (devas) celebrate Tirtankaras  Believers fast and dedicate themselves to study

23 ANSWER 18: Mahavira  24 th (last) Jain Tirthankara & central figure of Jainism  Lived ~500 B.C.E.  Symbolized by the lion  Each Tirthankara has a symbolic animal  Originally named Prince Vardhamana  Mahavira is a title meaning “Great Warrior”  Preached Five Laws of Trust  Ahimsa, or Non-Violence  Satya, or Truthfulness  Asteya, or Non-Theft  Bramhacharya, or Chastity  Aparigraha, or Renunciation of the World

24 ANSWER 19: Sikhism  Indian (mainly Punjabi) monotheistic religion  Founded by Nanak c C.E.  Centered on the Golden Temple of Amritsar  Scripture is called the Granth (or Adi Grath)  Sikhs practice the Five K’s  Kesh, non-cutting of hair  Sikhs usually wear a turban to hold their long hair  Kangha, carrying a small wooden comb  Kara, wearing an iron bracelet  Kacchera, wearing a particular undergarment  Kirpan, carrying a dagger  Sikhs may be baptized in holy water (Amrit) to join the Khalsa

25 ANSWER 20: Gurus  The Gurus are the leaders of Sikhism  Nanak (“Light,”) founder of Sikhism; Angad; Amar Das; Ram Das; Arjun; Har Gobind; Har Rai; Har Krishan; Tegh Bahadur; and Gobind Singh  The 11 th Guru is eternal: it’s the Sikh scripture, the Granth  Called Guru Granth Sahib in this context  In the same fashion, the Khalsa is sometimes also considered a Guru  Called Guru Panth (“Embodied Guru”)

26 ANSWER 21: Shintoism  Japanese native animism (worship of nature spirits)  Gods/spirits known as kami  Shinto also called kami-no-michi (“Way of the Kami”)  Major kami  Susanoo, god of sea and storm  Izanami (1st woman) and Izanagi (1 st man,) made the world  Shrines have gates called torii and maidens called miko  Myth collection called the Kojiki (“Ancient Record”)

27 ANSWER 22: Amaterasu  Sun goddess and chief kami of Shinto  Name means “Heaven Shiner”  Ancestor of the emperors of Japan  She gave them her sacred mirror, jewel, and sword  Sword is named Kusanagi, or “Grass Cutter”  Born from the left eye of Izanagi  After he washed it following a visit to the underworld, Yomi  Chief shrine is at Ise is razed and rebuilt every 20 years

28 ANSWER 23: Confucianism  Chinese philosophy/religion founded in the 6 th C. B.C.E.  Four Books (Si Shu) are its scriptures  Analects – life and sayings of Confucius  Mencius – dialogues of namesake scholar  Ethical principles are the Wuchang (“Five Eternals”)  Ren, “Humaneness;” Yi, “Justice;” Li, “Piety;” Zhi, “Knowledge;” Xin, “Integrity”  Also “Four Virtues” (Sizi)  Zhong, “Loyalty;” Xiao, “Respect for Ancestors;” Jie, “Continence;” Yi, “Justice”

29 ANSWER 24: Confucius  Philosopher born in Lu state during the Chinese Spring and Autumn period, c. 550 B.C.E.  Believed to have written or edited the Five Classics  I Ching, Book of Songs, Book of History, Book of Rites, and Spring and Autumn Annals  Central idea: Rectification of Names  Words must correspond to reality, or nothing can succeed  72 disciples  Ziyuan, Zilu, Zichang, Zigong, etc.

30 ANSWER 25: Taoism (Daoism)  Chinese philosophical religion centered on the Tao (“Way”) and founded c. 500 B.C.E.  Central idea is Wu Wei (“Non-Action,”)  Representing harmony with nature’s opposites, yin and yang  Differing pantheons of gods  Jade Emperor  Three Pure Ones  Pangu, god of creation  Zuganzi (or Zhuang Zhou) is a major Taoist thinker

31 ANSWER 26: Laozi (Lao-tzu)  Central figure of Taoism  Name is a title meaning “Old Master”  Real name may have been Li Er  Author of Tao To Ching, central text of Taoism  “The Tao that can be spoken of is not the Tao”  “Spokes join to form a wheel, but the central hole moves the wagon”  Legendarily fathered by a star and gestated for 62 years  Deified as Taisahng Laojun (“Supreme Old Master”)  Head of the Three Pure Ones

32 End of Part 1

33 World Religions: Part 2 Ancient Religions of the Near East

34 ANSWER 27: Zoroastrianism  Dualistic (world divided into good & evil) religion of Persia  Chief good god Ahura Mazda; evil, Angra Mainyu/Ahriman  Also called Mazdaism for that reason  Still exists among Parsis of India & Iran  Leave the dead exposed in Towers of Silence to be eaten by vultures  Human flesh is bad and would pollute the world  Worship in Fire Temples (Dar-e-Mehr)  New Years’ Festival Nowruz near Spring equinox  Stories of an evil dragon named Azi-Dahaka  Chained up by the hero Fredon in the Alborz Mtns.

35 ANSWER 28: Zoroaster  Founded Zoroastrianism c B.C.E. (?!)  Also called Zarathustra  Wrote parts of the Avesta, the Zoroastrian holy book  Specifically, the hymns called the Gathas and Yasna  Saw life as a struggle between asa (truth) and druj (lies)  Converted King Vistaspa to spread his religion  Biography of him called the Spend Nask (lost)

36 ANSWER 29: Islam  Centers of worship are called mosques or masjids  Priests are known as imams  Dietary code called Halal  Creed is the shahada  “God (Allah) is the only God and Muhammad is his messenger”  Savior known as the Mahdi will signal end times  Devout Muslims pray 5 times per day toward the qibla  The direction to the holy city of Mecca  The misbaha is a rosary used to pray  99 beads count the 99 Names of God

37 ANSWER 30: Muhammad  Founder of Islam, which considers him the last messanger  Thus called Seal of the Prophets  Fled from Mecca to Medina in 662 C.E.  The Hijra (or Hegira) is the start of the Muslim calendar (A.H.)  Biography & sayings (sunnah) are collected in the Hadith  First prophetic vision in the cave of Hira in 610 C.E.  Member of the Banu Hashim, a branch of the Quraysh tribe of Arabia

38 ANSWER 31: Koran (Quran)  Holy book of Islam – name means “Recitation”  Revealed (wahy) to Muhammad by Angel Gabriel (Jibril)  Text perfect & co-eternal with God  Chapters are called Suras  “The Cow” (Baqara)  “The Night Journey” (Isra)  “The Cave” (Kahf)  “Romans” (Rum)  Verses called ayahs; Arabic recitation called tajwid  A hafez is someone who can recite the whole from memory

39 ANSWER 32: Shiism (Shia Islam)  Smaller of two major sects of Islam (majority in Iran & Iraq)  Believe Muhammad’s son-in-law, Imam Ali, was proper 1 st Caliph (successor of Muhammad)  Lost the First Fitna (Islamic Civil War) over this issue  Supreme leaders called Imams  Sub-sects based on #: Twelver, Sevener/Ismaili & Fiver/Zaidi  Twelvers believe 12 th Imam (Mahdi) on Earth in Occultation  Important holiday of Ashura  Commemorating death of Imam Hussein (son of Ali) at Karbala

40 ANSWER 33: Sunniism (Sunni Islam)  Larger of two major sects of Islam (larger than Shiism)  Believe Abu Bakr was proper 1 st Caliph & that the body of Muslims should choose the leader  Won the First Fitna (Islamic Civil War) over this issue  Consider the first 4 Caliphs Rashidun (“Rightly Guided”)  Name means “Traditionalists” (from Sunnah, the traditions of Muhammad’s life)

41 ANSWER 34: Sufism  The mystical tradition within Islam  Possibly named for their simple woolen clothes  “Whirling Dervishes” are Sufis who worship by spinning  The poet Rumi founded an order of Sufis  Orders of Sufis are called turuqs  Alevi  Mevlevi  Chishti

42 ANSWER 35: the Five Pillars  The basic practices of Islam  Recite the Shahada (creed)  Pray 5 times each day (Salat)  Give alms to the poor (Zakat)  2.5% of ones wealth is to be donated  Fast during the month of Ramadan (Sawm)  Make a pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)  Delineated in the Hadith of Gabriel  Known in Arabic as the arkan al-din

43 ANSWER 36: Hajj (Haj/Hadj)  Pilgrimage to Mecca  All able-bodied Muslims must go at least once (it’s a Pillar!)  Commemorates the lives of Abraham (Ibrahim) and Hagar (Hajar)  Central rite: circling (Tawaf) the Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram (“Forbidden Mosque”)  Some believe the Black Stone of the Kaaba absorbs Hajjis’ sins  Many other rituals  Visiting the Well of Zam Zam  Running (Sayi) between the hills of Safa and Marwah  Throwing stones at pillars representing Satan (“Stoning the Devil”/Ramy al-Jamarat)  Happens during final month of the Islamic calendar  Dhu al-Hijjah (“Hajj Month”)  Ends with the feast holiday Eid al-Adha

44 ANSWER 37: Ramadan  Able-bodied Muslim practice sawm (fasting from sunrise to sunset)  One of the Pillars  9 th month of the Muslim calendar, name means “Hot/Dry”  Commemorates the Hijra  Determined by sightings of the crescent moon over sunset  Ends with the feast holiday Eid al-Fitr  Fast is broken with a meal called iftar & begun after a dawn meal called suhor  Extra night prayers called tarawih are said  Contains the holiday Laylat al-Qadr (“Night of Power”)

45 ANSWER 38: Druze  Egyptian (now Lebanese/Syrian )offshoot of Ismaili (Sevener) Shia Islam  Begun in the 11 th C. C.E.  Have reserved political positions in Lebanon  Revere al-Hakim, a Fatimid Caliph  May believe he was manifestation of god  Represented by a five-pointed, multicolored star  Practice taqiya, the hiding of their faith from outsiders  Named for Muhammad ad-Darazi  Though they consider him a heretic  Founded by Hamza ibn Ali

46 End of Part 2

47 World Religions: Part 3 Modern & New World Religions

48 ANSWER 39: Voodoo  Afro-French syncretic offshoot of Catholicism  Uses Fon, Ewe, Bakongo & Yoruba practices  Believe in spirits called loas  Bondye (“Good God” – chief deity)  Papa Legba  Shango  Baron Samedi  Priests known as houngans & priestesses mambos  Worship places called Sosyetes or Hounfours

49 ANSWER 40: Santeria  Afro-Spanish syncretic offshoot of Catholicism  Mainly uses Yoruban traditions, including chief god Olurun  Name means “Way of the Saints”  Gods syncretized/disguised as Catholic saints  Also called Regla de Ocha or Lucumi  Lucumi is also the name of the language of worship  Deities/saints known as Orishas (or Orichas)  Divination ceremony known as Ifa  Temples called Iles (or Casas de Santos)

50 ANSWER 41: Quakers  17 th C. English offshoot of Christianity  Also called Religious Society of Friends  Name may come from tremors of ecstatic worshippers (or fear at persecution)  Founded by George Fox  Established in America by William Penn in Pennsylvania  Worship in Meeting Houses  Believe in the Inner Light  Force of god may inspire anyone at any time, so no clergy  First members called the Valiant Sixty

51 ANSWER 42: Shakers  18 th C. Anglo-American Christian sect  Began as offshoot of Quakers  Wrote the hymn “Simple Gifts” (basis for Appalachian Spring)  Founded towns in America like New Lebanon, NY  Most prominent leader was “Mother” Ann Lee  Believed to be a second coming of Christ  Other leaders: James Whittaker, Lucy Wright & Joseph Meacham  Formally called United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing  Believe in strict celibacy  Communities tend to die out – only one left (Sabbath Day Lake Village, Maine)

52 ANSWER 43: Mormonism (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints)  American offshoot of Christianity founded c in NY  Followers fled to Deseret (Utah) after being persecution & infighting in Ohio, Illinois & Missouri  Issues persisted until the Utah War of , a.k.a. “Buchanan’s Blunder”  Mountain Meadows Massacre  Believe Tribes of Israel became American Indians  Nephites & Lamanites  Scriptures include Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants & The Pearl of Great Price  Latter two are additions to the King James version of the Bible

53 ANSWER 44: Book of Mormon  Central scripture unique to Mormonism (it uses the Bible as well)  Believed to have been translated from Golden Plates written in Reformed Egyptian  Found in the Hill of Cumorah  Translated using “seer stones” called Urim and Thummim  Components Books: Plates/Books of Nephi, Book of Jarom, Book of Omni, Words of Mormon, Book of Mosiah, Book of Ether  Attested by the Testimony of the Three Witnesses and Testimony of the Eight Witnesses  They appear at the start of most editions

54 ANSWER 45: Joseph Smith, Jr.  Founder of Mormonism & author of the Book of Mormon  Visited by the angel Moroni in 1823  Clued in to the existence of the Golden Plates  Moved to Kirtland, Ohio, then Independence, Missouri, then Nauvoo, Illinois (which he founded)  Worked with Oliver Cowdery, his scribe  Killed by a mob in jail in Carthage, Illinois in 1844  Jailed after his followers destroyed the printing press of a sect who disagreed with “plural marriage”

55 ANSWER 46: Bahaism  19 th C. syncretic offshoot of Shia Islam  All religions fundamentally worship the same god  All people are one and all religions valid  Use practices & scriptures from other religions  Founded by Bahaullah, nee Mirza Hysayn Ali Nuri  Bahaullah and most early Bahais had been Babis  Babis were followers of the Bab (“Gate,”) a (slightly) earlier preacher from Persia  Believes religious founders were Manifestations of God  Calendar of 19 months of 19 days (plus 4 or 5 intercalary)  Symbolized by 9-point star  Basic texts by Bahaullah: Book of Laws (Kitab-i-Aqdas) & Book of Certitude (Kitab-i-Iqan)

56 ANSWER 47: Jehovah’s Witnesses  American Christian sect founded c by Charles Taze Russell  Publishes a newsletter called The Watchtower  Refuse blood transfusion or donation  Worship in Kingdom Halls  Grew out of the Movement of Bible Students  Believe that exactly 144,000 people go to Heaven  Believe that end times began October 1, 1914

57 ANSWER 48: Christian Science  American Christian sect founded 1879 by Mary Baker Eddy  After recovering from a slip & fall in Lynn, MA, 1866  Refuse most medical treatment, preferring to trust in the power of prayer  Worship in Churches of Christ, Scientist  Central text: Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (by Eddy)  Also Manual of the Mother Church  Christian Science Mother Church built in Boston, 1894

58 ANSWER 49: Rastafarianism  Jamaican offshoot of Ethiopic Christianity founded c  Revere Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I (Ras Tafari)  Also integrate pan-African/back-to-Africa ideologies  Consider Marcus Garvey a saint/prophet  Call god Jah (short form of Jehovah)  Dietary code called I-tal  Sacred text Holy Piby  Holiday Grounation Day (Haile Selassie 1966 visit to Jamaica)  Sometimes erroneously “Groundation” in questions  Sects known as Mansions  Bobo Ashanti, Nyabinghi, 12 Tribes of Israel

59 ANSWER 50: Nation of Islam  Black nationalist American sect founded c  Most members converted to orthodox Sunni Islam 1976; the current group is a revival created 1977  Led by Malcolm X, Elijah Muhammad & Louis Farrakhan  Founder Wallace Fard Muhammad  Believed to be god (Allah) incarnate  Believe in giant flying saucers called Mother Planes  Believe white people are devils resulting from “grafting” by scientist Yakub

60 End of Part 3

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