2Agenda Causes Schlieffen Plan Trench Warfare Attempts to break the stalemateGasPeripheral OperationsFrontal Assaults at Verdun and the SommeTanksAmerican InvolvementTechnological DevelopmentsAmerican EntrySurrender and Settlement
3Causes of World War I Colonial disputes Nationalism Alliances Militarism
4ColonialismVirtually all the major powers were engaged in a scramble for empire to bolster their economiesThe fiercest competition was between Britain and Germany and between France and Germany
5NationalismThe French Revolution had spread nationalism throughout most of EuropeThe idea that people with the same ethnic origins, language, and political ideals had the right to form sovereign states through the process of self-determinationNationalist aspirations of subject minorities threatened to tear apart the multinational empires of the Ottomans, Hapsburgs, and RussiansSuch a development would affect the regional balance of power
6Nationalism: Austria-Hungary Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes all had nationalist aspirations, especially the SerbsThe Serbs were strongly supported by the Russians as part of the pan-Slavic movementThe Austria-Hungarians were strongly supported by the Germans
7Nationalism: Assassination of Ferdinand Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary went on a visit to Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina which Austria-Hungary had annexed in 1908Sarajevo was a hotbed of pan-Serbian nationalismAs he drove through Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, seven assassins from the terrorist group Black Hand waited for himThe Black Hand advocated for a greater SerbiaArchduke Ferdinand and his family
8Nationalism: Assassination of Ferdinand Gavrilo Princip shot and killed FerdinandAustria issued an ultimatum to Serbia demanding that Austrian officials take part in any investigation of people found on Serbian territory connected to the assassinationSerbia refused this demand as a violation of its sovereigntyOn July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on SerbiaA tangled alliance system then began to realize itself
9Triple AllianceGermany and Austria-Hungary signed the Dual Alliance in 1879, committing the two states to mutual assistance in the event of attack by France or Russia.The Dual Alliance was expanded into the Triple Alliance in 1882 when Italy joined.Italy proved to be an equivocal partner, declaring itself neutral when the war began and ultimately siding with the Allies
10Triple EntenteThe Triple Alliance was counter-balanced by the Triple Entente of France, Russia, and Britain.As a result, by 1907 Europe was divided into two armed and rather fearful camps.
11Tangled AlliancesSo…When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, on July 29 Russia began mobilizing to defend its Serbian allyThen, in consideration of mobilization timetables, Russia also mobilized against GermanyIn response, Germany declared war on Russia on Aug 1
12Tangled Alliances It continues… France started to mobilize on behalf of its ally RussiaOn Aug 3, Germany declared war on France and also began to attack through neutral Belgium to France in accordance with its war planBelgium protested to the signatories of the 1839 treaty guaranteeing its neutralityWhen Germany refused Britain (one of the treaty signatories) ultimatum on Aug 4, Britain declared war on Germany
13MilitarismThe reason all this happened so fast was the advanced state of militarismWorld War I was the first war in which the opponents went to war with detailed and precise plans that had been written years before the outbreak of hostilities“Mobilization means war” (German ambassador to the Russians)War PlansAustria: Attack Russia, Italy, or the Balkans (Variants R, I, and B)Russia: Attack Austria-Hungary (Plan A) or defend against Germany (Plan G)Germany: Attack France before Russia could mobilize (Schlieffen Plan)France: Attack Germany (Plan XVII)Great Britain: Deploy BEF
14The PlansFrench Plan XVII disregarded Belgian frontier (thought Germans wouldn’t violate Belgian neutrality)In reality, the German Schlieffen Plan had its main effort through BelgiumSchlieffen, Alfred, Graf von , 1833–1913, German field marshal and strategist. In the tradition of the Prussian officer corps, Schlieffen was a professional soldier who considered political questions beyond his responsibility. As chief of the German general staff from 1891 through 1905 he developed the famous Schlieffen plan.. According to the plan, Germany could solve the problem of war on two fronts by first defeating France in a lightning campaign and then throwing its full weight against Russia. The plan called for a flanking movement by an overwhelmingly strong right (i.e., northern) wing, which was to advance through Belgium and Holland and, in an enveloping move, compel the bulk of the French forces either to fight with their backs to the frontier fortresses or to flee into Switzerland. Much weaker contingents were to be used to hold back the French in the south and the Russians in the east. The plan (which disregarded Belgian and Dutch neutrality) demanded boldness for its execution. When World War I broke out in 1914 the Schlieffen plan was employed in a modified form, but a number of factors—including Russian military strength, German lack of mobility, effective French delaying action, and the reluctance of Schlieffen's successor, H. J. L. von Moltke, to weaken his eastern front—led to its failure. In World War II, unhampered by a Russian threat in the east and possessing highly mobile forces, the German command successfully employed (May–June, 1940) a variation of the Schlieffen plan to defeat France.
15Alfred von Schlieffen (1833-1913), chief of the German general staff Schlieffen PlanThe Schlieffen plan sent a powerful right wing through western Belgium, the Netherlands, and northern France in a gigantic wheeling movementThe idea was to destroy France before Russia could mount an effective offensive against the weak German forces in the east and thus avoid fighting a two-front warAlfred von Schlieffen ( ), chief of the German general staff
16Moltke’s Modifications to the Schlieffen Plan Helmuth von Moltke replaced Schlieffen as chief of the general staff in 1906 and modified Schlieffen’s original planWeakened the right wing and strengthened the leftMoved four and a half corps from the west to the east to protect East PrussiaModified sweep of right wing so that Germans would not violate the Netherlands’ neutralityAdded a counterattack mission to the left wingViolated Schlieffen’s dying words to “Keep the right wing strong”
17Problems with the German Plan Became inflexible “war by timetable”Required enormous logistical effort to move men and equipment from Aachen to around Paris in a little more than five weeksCommitted Germany to a two front warNecessitated attacking before Russia or France could seize the initiative (even if Germany wasn’t ready)
18ResultSchlieffen Plan worked initially but stalled due to logistical demands; static warfare began
21Attempts to Break the Stalemate: Gas Various efforts were made to break the stalemateThe Germans first used gas against the Russians on Jan 13, 1915 with little effectThey were more successful at Ypres on Aug 15Even German dogs were outfitted with gas masks
22Attempts to Break the Stalemate: Peripheral Operations Ottoman Empire entered war on the side of the Central Powers on Oct 31, 1914Seen, especially with the British, as a new theater that offered an alternative to the deadlock on the Western FrontEnd result is a series of operations on the periphery of Europe
23Attempts to Break the Stalemate: Frontal Attacks On Feb 21, 1916, the Germans launched a massive attack on Verdun which was preceded by a 12-hour bombardmentFighting continued until December 19 and caused over an estimated 700,000 dead, wounded and missingThe battlefield was smaller than ten square kilometers
24Attempts to Break the Stalemate: Frontal Assaults On July 1, the British launched an offensive along the Somme River to try to divert German troops from VerdunOn the first day, 60,000 British soldiers were killed, wounded, or captured.When the attack halted in November, the Allies and the Germans had each suffered more than 600,000 casualties.German casualties at the Battle of the Somme
25Attempts to Break the Stalemate: Tanks The British began developing tanks in 1914 and used them in small numbers at the Somme on Sept 15, 1916Achieved little in this initial employmentThe Battle of Cambrai on Nov 20, 1917 marked the first large scale use of tanks with 474British Mark I tank of the type used during the Battle of the Somme
26Attempts to Break the Stalemate: Tanks At Cambrai, the British gained initial surprise and advanced three miles by the end of the first dayDeepest penetration into German lines on the Western Front since the beginning of trench warfareOn the second day, the British continued to advance but the Germans brought up four more divisionsOn the third day, the British began losing what ground they had gained
27Technological Advances from World War I The industrialization of society in the 19th Century would generate many military applications of new technologyIn 1915 British Admiral Jacky Fisher wrote, “The war is going to be won by inventions.”Example of war becoming more totalMachine gunRapid fire artilleryAirplanesInternal combustion engineTanksZeppelinsGasFlamethrowers
28148th American Aero Squadron Petite Sythe, France. (August 6, 1918) World War I Airplanes148th American Aero Squadron Petite Sythe, France. (August 6, 1918)Baron Manfred von Richthofen, the Red Baron, was credited with 80 confirmed kills
29World War I VehiclesT. E. Lawrence used a fleet of nine Rolls-Royce armored cars and tenders specially adapted for desert warfare.
32Breaking the Stalemate: American Entry In 1914, the American public was firmly opposed to intervening in the warThe mood began to change in 1915, when the Germans sunk the British passenger liner Lusitania, killing 1,198, including 128 US citizensStill in 1916, Woodrow Wilson was reelected President with the slogan, “He Kept Us Out of War”Between Feb 14 and Sept 18, 1915, the Germans practiced “unrestricted submarine warfare.” Any Allied ship in the seas around the British Isles would be sunk without warning.
33Russia Leaves the WarRussia was experiencing social and political unrest and growing war-wearyThe Bolsheviks seized power through the Russian Revolution and ended Russia’s involvement in World War I by signing the treaty of Brest-Litorsk with Germany on March 3, 1918In the midst of World War I, Britain, France, Japan, and the US all sent troops and supplies to aid the “Whites” in their struggle against the “Reds” but the Whites were defeated in 19201919 Bolshevik poster showing the three White generals as vicious dogs under the control of the US, France, and Britain.
34German Miscalculation Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917Notified US of decision Jan 31Sunk several US ships in Feb and MarUS declared war on April 6, 1917At the same time Russia was withdrawing from the war, the US was enteringGermany failed to end war before the US entered it
35Role of the US NavyThe entry of the US into the war coincided with the highest loss rate of Allied ships during the warLong-distance ocean shipping was particularly vulnerableIt became obvious that the US Navy’s role would not be in large-scale battles with opposing fleets but rather in protecting shippingGerman U-boat
36Role of the US NavyThis was not the role the Navy had anticipated and meant the Navy would need less battleships and cruisers and more destroyers and anti-submarine craftRear Admiral William Sims challenged the British assessment that the situation was “hopeless” and instead proposed a convoy system to protect ships
37Role of the US NavyNot just the British, but many US naval officers opposed the convoy systemIt meant concentrating forces around slow moving and difficult to control convoys instead of the offensive action that Mahan had advocatedMost convoys had 20 or 30 ships, moving in four to six columnsNavy escorts patrolled the flanks and, in the case of particularly slow convoys, the front
38Role of the US Navy Sims’ convoy system showed immediate results By the end of 1917 losses were just 1/5 what they had been in AprilBy the summer of 1917, about 50,000 troops were arriving in Europe each monthBy 1918, about 250,000 were arriving each month
39American Involvement: Command Issues British and French wanted the Americans attached to armies of other nations (amalgamation)Committing the Americans to combat in small units rather than waiting for them to organize and train as divisions and corps would get them into the fight more quicklyPershing resisted, arguing that national pride and a separate American contribution to victory overshadowed the logistical and preparation problemsJohn Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Force
40The AEFIn order to field the AEF, the US had to overcome numerous challengesOn April 6, 1917 the Army had only 127,588 active soldiers and 80,446 National GuardsmenNo active units larger than a regiment existedSevere shortages in uniforms, weapons, and equipment existedSome new soldiers would have to train in coveralls and used wooden sticks to simulate weapons
41The AEF On May 18, 1917, the US passed the Selective Service Act By the time of the armistice in November 1918, the US Army had 3,685,458 soldiers, an increase of more than 17 times its April 1917 strength
42Overwhelming the Germans On July 18, 1918 the Allies began a series of counterattacks designed to take advantage of their new strength and seize the initiative from the GermansNine American divisions participated as part of three French armies (rather than as an independent force)The Germans were forced out of their Marne River salient
43Overwhelming the Germans The initiative had now shifted to the AlliesLudendorff called August 8, the first day of the next Battle of Amiens, a “black day for the German army” because it marked a turning point in the conduct of Allied operations and inaugurated the relatively open form of warfare that would characterize the last months of the warThe Allies were now getting stronger while Germany could only get weakerThe Kaiser called a conference of his military leaders on August 14 and announced, “We have reached the limits of our endurance”
44Overwhelming the Germans The rapidly deteriorating German situation surprised the Allies, but they determined to press their gains with two simultaneous attacks that would advance and turn inward like giant pincers
45St. MihielThe American contribution was the attack of Pershing’s First Army against the St. Mihiel salient on September 12The fighting included the greatest concentration of aircraft during the warColonel Billy Mitchell commanded 1,481 Allied planes against only 283 German planesFirst Army met little resistance as the Germans had already begun withdrawing and the salient was captured in two days
46Meuse-ArgonneAfter St. Mihiel, the French and Americans conducted the Meuse-Argonne offensiveAmerican inexperience showed throughout the offensive and casualties were high, but ultimately the Americans were able to cross the Meuse River before the Germans could reestablish their defense thereMeuse RiverSt. Mihiel
47SGT Alvin YorkConscientious objector from Tennessee; drafted and assigned to the 82ndBattalion commander gave York two weeks’ leave to search his soul about servingYork returned having decided to serve
48SGT YorkWon the Medal of Honor for heroism in the Argonne Forest Oct 8, 1918York’s battalion received fire from German machine guns and York’s 16-man platoon was sent to flank the enemyNine Americans, to include the platoon leader and the other two corporals, were killed our woundedYork was the only remaining unhurt leader
49SGT YorkYork’s platoon was now trapped and under fire within 25 yards of the enemy’s machine gunsYork was an expert marksman. He began shooting at the nearest position, knowing the enemy would expose themselves to return fire. One by one, he hit every enemy soldier who popped his head up
50SGT YorkAfter York killed over a dozen enemy, six Germans charged him with fixed bayonets.York shot the last man first, than the 5th, 4th, etc so the soldiers in front didn’t see their comrades fall.Then he turned his attention to the machine guns.
51SGT YorkBetween shots, York, by himself, called for the Germans to surrenderThe German commander, seeing York had single-handedly killed over 20 Germans, offered to surrender.Now York, with seven friendly soldiers wounded, had dozens of enemy prisoners to evacuate from an isolated position behind enemy lines.As he began moving these prisoners, other Germans start surrendering.By the time it was over, York had taken a total of 132 prisoners and put 35 machine guns out of action.
52Breaking the Hindenburg Line At the same time, other Allied offensives breached the Hindenburg Line in October and forced the Germans to withdrawGerman morale was at the point of breaking and on September 29, Hindenburg and Ludendorff told the Kaiser that Germany had to request an armistice
53SurrenderIn the end, the Allies had overwhelmed the Germans with men and equipment“Americans and tanks”Bulgaria surrendered Sept 30, 1918The Ottomans Oct 30Austria-Hungary Nov 4Germany Nov 11“Armistice Day” was replaced by “Veterans’ Day” by Act of Congress on May 24, 1954
54Paris Peace Conference The victorious powers met in Paris in 1919 to determine the postwar settlementRepresentatives from the Central Powers were not invited to attendThe Russians were not invited to attendThe French, British, and Americans dominated the conferenceGeorges Clemenceau (France), Lloyd George (Britain), and Woodrow Wilson (US) at Versailles
55Treaty of Versailles (1919) Woodrow Wilson proposed a generous “Fourteen Points” designed to focus on international cooperation and peace, but the French especially wanted harsh terms imposed on the GermansWanted to destroy or permanently weaken Germany as a threat
56Treaty of Versailles (1919) The resulting Treaty of Versailles denied the Germans a navy and air force and limited the size of their army to 100,000 troopsPrevented Germany and Austria from entering any sort of political unionRequired the payment of war reparationsGerman protest against the Treaty of Versailles will lead to Hitler’s rise to power and World War II