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AP World History Review

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1 AP World History Review
1914-Present Myers

2 Which of the following was NOT a weakness associated with the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century? A) Weak rulers B) Competition within factions of the elite C) Conversion of much of the population to Christianity D) Deteriorating conditions for artisans as a result of competition with the West E) Weak and obsolete military force

3 And the answer is C) Conversion of much of the population to Christianity

4 Which of the following statements concerning the Muslim economy at the beginning of the eighteenth century is most accurate? A) The Muslim economy remained dependent on Arab merchants who traded predominantly with Africa. B) By holding the Europeans at bay, the Muslims were able to capitalize an indigenous industry based on the production of cotton textiles. C) The prosperity of the industrial base of the Muslim empires led to a close alliance between the artisans and the government. D) Merchants within the empire, especially those who were Jews or Christians, grew more dependent on commercial dealings with European counterparts, accelerating the influx of Western goods. E) The discovery of new resources caused a resurgence of Ottoman economic power.

5 And the answer is D) Merchants within the empire, especially those who were Jews or Christians, grew more dependent on commercial dealings with European counterparts, accelerating the influx of Western goods.

6 ) Which of the following European powers seized territories of the Ottoman Empire in the early decades of the eighteenth century? A) Austria-Hungary B) Britain C) France D) Italy E) Russia

7 And the answer is A) Austria-Hungary

8 In the later 1700s what power became the main threat to the Ottomans’ survival?
A) Britain B) Austria-Hungary C) France D) Russia E) Germany

9 And the answer is D) Russia

10 The first region to successfully rebel and achieve independence from the Ottoman Empire was:
A) the Crimea. B) Greece. C) Serbia. D) Palestine. E) Turkey.

11 And the answer is B) Greece.

12 By the 1870s, the Ottoman Empire:
A) had recovered most of their territorial losses to European powers. B) had ceased to rule any portion of Asia Minor. C) had been driven from virtually all of the Balkans. D) had driven the Russian armies back to the steppes. E) was the largest multiethnic empire in Eurasia.

13 And the answer is C) had been driven from virtually all of the Balkans.

14 What European nation supported the Ottoman Empire in order to prevent other European powers from gaining access to the Mediterranean? A) Britain B) France C) Russia D) Austria-Hungary E) Belgium

15 And the answer is A) Britain

16 What was the result of the reforms of Sultan Selim III (1789 –1807)?
A) Western-style education was introduced throughout the empire. B) The Janissary corps was eliminated as a political and military force. C) The Sultan was toppled from the throne by a Janissary revolt. D) Railways were constructed connecting the empire with Europe. E) The empire was taken over by Muhammad Ali.

17 And the answer is C) The Sultan was toppled from the throne by a Janissary revolt.

18 What Ottoman Sultan successfully eliminated the Janissary corps as a military and political influence? A) Selim III B) Mahmud II C) Abdul Hamid D) Selim II E) Ali

19 And the answer is B) Mahmud II

20 Which of the following statements concerning the reforms of Mahmud II is most accurate?
A) Mahmud patterned his reform program on Western precedents, including the creation of a diplomatic corps. B) Despite subtle military and administrative reforms, Mahmud was unable to shake off the influence of the Janissaries. C) Mahmud, with the consent of the ulama and the ayan returned to a traditional Islamic form of government. D) Mahmud’s program of reform was actually less ambitious than that of his predecessor, Selim III. E) The reforms were a blend of Islamic and East Asian economic influences.

21 And the answer is A) Mahmud patterned his reform program on Western precedents, including the creation of a diplomatic corps

22 Which of the following was NOT part of the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire?
A) Introduction of Western-style education in the universities B) Addition of state-run postal and telegraph systems C) Creation of a constitution based on European prototypes D) Elimination of religious protection for minority religious groups E) Extensive legal reforms

23 And the answer is D) Elimination of religious protection for minority religious groups

24 ) In what year was the revised constitution introduced as part of the Tanzimat reforms?
B) 1848 C) 1876 D) 1898 E) 1904

25 And the answer is C) 1876

26 What group within the Ottoman Empire actually suffered as a result of the Tanzimat reforms?
A) ayan B) ulama C) artisans D) merchants E) sufis

27 And the answer is C) artisans

28 Which of the following statements concerning the improvement of women’s status as a result of the Tanzimat reforms is most accurate? A) The inclusion of reforms for women was not even considered in Ottoman society during the period of the Tanzimat reforms. B) Despite widespread discussion of the practices of seclusion, polygamy, and veiling, few improvements in women’s social status were won in the nineteenth century. C) While not all women benefited, elite women were freed from the restrictive aspects of Muslim society during the period of the Tanzimat reforms. D) Muslim restrictions against the social equality of women were swept away as part of the Tanzimat reforms. E) Women in the Ottoman Empire became as free as those in Western Europe.

29 And the answer is B) Despite widespread discussion of the practices of seclusion, polygamy, and veiling, few improvements in women’s social status were won in the nineteenth century.

30 What Ottoman Sultan attempted to roll back the Tanzimat reforms and reinstitute an absolute monarchy in 1878? A) Selim III B) Mahmud II C) Yazid II D) Abdul Hamid E) Muhammad Ali

31 And the answer is D) Abdul Hamid

32 In which of the following areas did Sultan Abdul Hamid continue to press for increased Westernization? A) Freedom of the press B) Constitutional reform C) Military reform and the introduction of Western technology D) Civil liberties E) Religious reform

33 And the answer is C) Military reform and the introduction of Western technology

34 Which of the following groups was responsible for the overthrow of the Ottoman Sultanate in 1908?
A) Black September B) Young Turks C) Young Arabs D) Mamluks E) Black Hand

35 And the answer is B) Young Turks

36 Which of the following reforms resulted from the coup in the Ottoman Empire of 1908?
A) Sultanate was abolished B) Constitution of 1876 was restored C) Janissaries removed as a political and military force D) Restrictions against women in Muslim society removed . E) Removal of the political influence of the officer corps

37 And the answer is B) Constitution of 1876 was restored

38 With what European power did the Ottomans contest the control of Libya just prior to World War I?
A) Britain E) Russia B) Germany C) Austria-Hungary D) Italy

39 And the answer is D) Italy

40 Which of the following statements concerning the relationships between the Young Turks and the Arabs of the Ottoman Empire after the 1908 coup is most accurate? A) The Young Turks harbored resentment against the Arabs of the empire for failing to support the 1908 coup. B) Arab support of the 1908 coup waned when they discovered that the Young Turks had no intentions of abandoning the concept of empire. C) The 1908 coup resulted in the immediate independence of the Arab portions of the Ottoman empire. D) The close alliance between the Young Turks and the Arab leaders of the Ottoman empire continued after the 1908 coup. E) The Young Turks supported the idea of autonomy for the Arab portion of the empire.

41 And the answer is B) Arab support of the 1908 coup waned when they discovered that the Young Turks had no intentions of abandoning the concept of empire.

42 What nation’s invasion of Egypt in 1798 signaled the beginning of European penetration of the Islamic heartland? A) France B) Britain C) Russia D) Austria-Hungary E) Prussia

43 And the answer is A) France

44 What Islamic group ruled Egypt in 1798?
A) Fatimids B) Umayyads C) Mamluks D) Almoravids E) Shiites

45 And the answer is C) Mamluks

46 By 1801 what ruler had succeeded in establishing his dominance over Egypt?
A) Murad, commander of the Mamluks B) Napoleon, French emperor C) Muhammad Ali, an Albanian officer in the Ottoman army D) Nurhaci, Almoravid military commander E) Sultan Ahmet, Egyptian nationalist

47 And the answer is C) Muhammad Ali, an Albanian officer in the Ottoman army

48 Which of the following reforms was NOT introduced in Egypt after 1801?
A) Restoration of the Mamluk armies B) Introduction of Western-style military conscription C) Hiring of French military advisors D) Importation of Western arms E) Separation of church and state

49 And the answer is A) Restoration of the Mamluk armies

50 What prevented Muhammad Ali from overthrowing the Ottoman Empire?
A) His failure to develop a modern army B) Lack of a navy C) His defeat by the Ottomans at Omdurman D) Opposition of European powers E) Completion of the Suez Canal

51 And the answer is D) Opposition of European powers

52 Which of the following reforms undertaken by Muhammad Ali failed?
A) Production of raw materials in demand in Europe (cotton, hemp, indigo) B) Improvements of Egyptian harbors and irrigation works along the Nile C) Build-up of an Egyptian industrial sector D) Modernization of the army E) Education reform

53 And the answer is C) Build-up of an Egyptian industrial sector

54 With which of the following groups did Muhammad All ally himself?
A) Peasantry B) Ulama C) Ayan D) Sufi E) Mamluks

55 And the answer is C) Ayan

56 Muhammad Ali’s successors as rulers of Egypt were referred to as:
A) Sultans. B) Khedives. C) Caliphs. D) Kings. E) Emperors.

57 And the answer is B) Khedives.

58 European financiers lent money to the profligate successors of Muhammad Ali because they desired access to Egypt’s cheap cotton and, by the 1850s, a share in the: A) Orient Express. B) Cairo Railway. C) Suez Canal. D) Panama Canal. E) Silk Road.

59 And the answer is C) Suez Canal.

60 Which of the following was an Islamic moderate in nineteenth century Egypt who urged the adoption of Western scientific knowledge and technology? A) al-Afghani B) Ibn Sina C) Ibn Rochd D) al-Mansur E) Ismail Pasha

61 And the answer is A) al-Afghani

62 The Khedival government of Egypt was threatened in 1882 by a rebellion of Egyptian military officers under: A) Muhammad Ali. B) Ahmad Orabi C) Muhammad Achmad. D) Khalifa Abdallahi. E) Muhammed Abduh.

63 And the answer is B) Ahmad Orabi

64 What was the result of the rebellion by Egyptian army officers in 1882?
A) The Khedival government was overthrown by an indigenous Egyptian government. B) A new constitution was instituted modeled on the Ottoman constitution of 1876. C) The rebellion was crushed by the Turkish elements within the Egyptian army. D) The Khedive called on the British to crush the rebellion resulting in British overlordship of Egypt. E) British influence in Egypt was ended.

65 And the answer is D) The Khedive called on the British to crush the rebellion resulting in British overlordship of Egypt.

66 What was the center of Egyptian administration in the Sudan?
A) Omdurman B) Cairo C) Aboukir D) Khartoum E) Fashoda.

67 And the answer is D) Khartoum

68 On what basis did Muhammad Achmad claim leadership of the Sudanic resistance to Egyptian rule?
A) He claimed direct descent from Muhammad. B) He claimed to be a direct descendant of the kings of Ghana. C) He was the head of the Sunni ulama in the Sudan. D) He claimed to be a direct descendant of Murad, the last ruler of the Mamluks. E) He had substantial Western support.

69 And the answer is A) He claimed direct descent from Muhammad.

70 The successor to the Mahdi, Khalifa Abdallahi,:
A) relieved the restrictive social regulations imposed by the Mahdi. B) immediately lost the military advantage gained by the Mahdi. C) fell in the Mahdist defeat at the battle of Omdurman in 1898. D) overthrew the Ottoman Sultan and captured Istanbul. E) ended slavery in the Sudan.

71 And the answer is C) fell in the Mahdist defeat at the battle of Omdurman in 1898.

72 Who was responsible for the unification of the Manchu tribesmen prior to the invasion of China in the seventeenth century? A) Lin Zexu B) Nurhaci C) Cixi D) Hong Liaquan E) Kang Xi

73 And the answer is B) Nurhaci

74 The dynastic name taken by the Manchu dynasty was:
A) Song. B) Tang. C) Qing. D) Chou. E) Sui.

75 And the answer is C) Qing.

76 Which of the following statements concerning the Manchu government is most accurate?
A) They destroyed the scholar-gentry in order to consolidate their grip on the government. B) The civil service examination system was eliminated as a means of entering the government. C) Though Manchus occupied a disproportionate number of the highest political positions, there were few limits on Chinese promotions within the imperial bureaucracy. D) Chinese officials were eliminated at the local administrative levels in order to prevent the extreme regionalization that had led to the downfall of previous dynasties. E) They welcomed modernization and Western influence.

77 And the answer is C) Though Manchus occupied a disproportionate number of the highest political positions, there were few limits on Chinese promotions within the imperial bureaucracy.

78 In what area did the Manchus attempt to take strong measures of reform?
A) Elimination of the scholar-gentry B) Removal of social restrictions on women C) Overturning the Confucian social hierarchy of age and sex D) Alleviating rural distress and unrest E) Eliminating the influence of religion

79 And the answer is D) Alleviating rural distress and unrest

80 What accounts for the general failure of Manchu attempts at reform?
A) Resistance on the part of the peasantry B) Enormous population growth and the disappearance of open lands C) Buddhist resistance D) Loss of territory to nomads from the Asian steppes E) Strong resistance from the scholar-gentry

81 And the answer is B) Enormous population growth and the disappearance of open lands

82 The new groups of merchants that developed in China under the more relaxed commercial system of the Manchus were called A) waiqin. B) pescadors. C) compradors. D) Boxers. E) Mandarins

83 And the answer is C) compradors.

84 All of the following signs of dynastic decline were apparent in the Qing regime by the beginning of the nineteenth century EXCEPT: A) corruption of the examination system. B) diversion of revenue from state projects to private fortunes. C) failure of foreign commerce. D) food shortages, mass migrations, and banditry. E) explosive growth of the bureaucracy.

85 And the answer is C) failure of foreign commerce.

86 ) How large was the Chinese population by 1850?
A) 100 million B) 200 million C) 410 to 415 million D) 500 million E) 1 billion

87 And the answer is C) 410 to 415 million

88 Unhappy about the unfavorable terms of trade in China, British merchants hit on a possible solution to reverse the flow of bullion in the form of: A) cotton textiles. B) opium from India. C) teas. D) industrial machinery. E) gold and salt.

89 And the answer is B) opium from India.

90 What was the impact of the British opium trade on China?
A) Its use was restricted to the peasantry of northern China, where production of food rapidly decreased. B) The government was quickly able to halt the importation of opium, so that it did not have the disastrous impact on the Chinese population that was expected. C) Within years China’s favorable balance of trade was reversed and silver began to flow out of the country. D) Due to the addiction of the imperial court, the British were welcomed as a valuable trade partner of China. E) The opium trade had little economic effect on China.

91 And the answer is C) Within years China’s favorable balance of trade was reversed and silver began to flow out of the country.

92 The Chinese official charged with eliminating the opium trade in the 1830s was:
A) Cixi. B) Lin Zexu. C) Hong Liuquan. D) Kanxi. E) Zeng Guofan.

93 And the answer is B) Lin Zexu.

94 What was the outcome of the Opium War?
A) Despite technological advantages, the British forces were overwhelmed by the Chinese numerical superiority and were unable to penetrate China’s isolation. B) The British soon swept the seas of opposition, but were prevented from entering China by opposition from other European powers who feared Britain’s overthrow of the Manchus. C) The British victory was so overwhelming that the Manchu dynasty was overthrown by 1850 and replaced by a republic. D) British victory in the Opium War allowed European powers to force China to open trade and diplomatic exchanges. E) The Opium Was led directly to the Sino-Japanese War.

95 And the answer is D) British victory in the Opium War allowed European powers to force China to open trade and diplomatic exchanges.

96 The semi-Christian rebellion that broke out in southern China in the 1850s and early 1860s was the:
A) Boxer rebellion. B) Kwangxi rebellion. C) Taiping rebellion. D) Shandong rebellion. E) Manchu rebellion.

97 And the answer is C) Taiping rebellion.

98 What was the political and social position of the Manchu rulers at the end of the nineteenth century? A) The Manchu rulers stubbornly resisted the far reaching reforms that were the only hope of saving the regime and Chinese civilization. B) The last decades of the dynasty were dominated by Cixi, a woman who proposed radical reforms of the social order. C) The Chinese scholar-gentry and the provincial elite allied with the emperors to introduce significant reform of landholding practices and regional administration. D) The dynasty wholeheartedly embraced the ongoing westernization of the Chinese government and economy. E) Their capital, the Forbidden City, was a center of Chinese culture.

99 And the answer is A) The Manchu rulers stubbornly resisted the far reaching reforms that were the only hope of saving the regime and Chinese civilization.

100 In what year was the last emperor of China deposed in favor of a republican form of government?

101 And the answer is D) 1912

102 Of the following regions, which defied the common pattern of growing Western domination in the nineteenth century? A) Russia and Japan B) The Ottoman Empire C) Latin America D) West Africa E) Eastern Europe

103 And the answer is A) Russia and Japan

104 Which of the following statements concerning the development of Russia and Japan to 1900 is NOT accurate? A) Neither Russia nor Japan rivaled the industrial might of the West by 1900. B) Both nations gained sufficient power to wield important political and military influence in the colonial scramble. C) Russia and Japan did launch significant industrialization by 1914. D) Russia and Japan achieved both economic autonomy and a share in the West’s core position. E) Japan outstripped Russia’s industrial gains by 1900.

105 And the answer is D) Russia and Japan achieved both economic autonomy and a share in the West’s core position.

106 Which of the following represents a significant difference between Russia and Japan?
A) Only Japan had a significant aristocracy prior to industrialization. B) Only Russia participated in territorial expansion by 1914. C) Russia engaged in selective borrowing from Western models by 1700. D) Only Japan underwent significant political revolution prior to 1914. E) Only Japan experienced Communist uprisings by 1905.

107 And the answer is C) Russia engaged in selective borrowing from Western models by 1700.

108 Which of the following reflects a significant similarity between Japan and Russia during the period of industrialization prior to 1914? A) Both experienced significant political revolutions. B) Both Japan and Russia had prior experience of imitation, Japan from China, Russia from Byzantium and the West. C) Both demonstrated remarkable political flexibility resulting in sweeping transformations of political structure. D) Both engaged in territorial acquisitions in the Ottoman Empire. E) Both had a large industrial labor force.

109 And the answer is B) Both Japan and Russia had prior experience of imitation, Japan from China, Russia from Byzantium and the West.

110 Russia’s fear about Westernization in the first decades of the nineteenth century was rooted in:
A) concern about British invasion. B) the French Revolution. C) dislike of Western dress. D) worry over loss of Poland. E) German nationalism.

111 And the answer is B) the French Revolution.

112 What nations were linked together in the Holy Alliance that grouped conservative monarchies together in defense of religion and the status quo in 1815? A) Britain, France, Spain B) Spain, Russia, Poland C) Russia, Prussia, Austria D) Austria, Japan, Russia E) France, Britain, Italy

113 And the answer is C) Russia, Prussia, Austria

114 What was the name of the Russian revolt inspired by Western values in 1825?
A) Decembrist ring B) November rebellion C) Pushkin’s revolt D) Pugachev rebellion E) Potemkin mutiny

115 And the answer is A) Decembrist ring

116 Which of the following accounts for Russia’s lack of significant revolution in 1830 and 1848?
A) Russia’s lack of a substantial history of autocracy B) Absence of a coercive labor system in Russia leaving scant cause for rebellion C) Political repression D) like England, Russia’s history of participatory government and its national parliament, forestalling revolution E) Major reforms, satisfying most Russians

117 And the answer is C) Political repression

118 Which of the following statements concerning Russian territorial expansion is most accurate?
A) Russia’s loss of Poland in the revolt of 1830 stimulated other attempts at territorial expansion. B) Russia actively opposed nationalist movements in the Balkans in keeping with their conservative tradition. C) Western powers actively aided Russia’s pursuit of territories in the Ottoman Empire. D) No massive acquisitions marked the early nineteenth century, but Russia continued to be an aggressive competitor for territorial expansion. E) Russia expanded rapidly south of Alaska to Oregon.

119 And the answer is D) No massive acquisitions marked the early nineteenth century, but Russia continued to be an aggressive competitor for territorial expansion.

120 Which of the following statements best describes the Russian economy at the beginning of the nineteenth century? A) Russia had achieved economic autonomy in the eighteenth century, although most of eastern Europe remained largely agricultural. B) The Russian economy was geographically oriented to the Ottoman Empire—a feature of the Mongol domination of Russia until the fifteenth century. C) Russia’s economic dynamism and innovation rivaled the West. D) In return for low-cost grain exports, Russia and other East European areas imported Western luxury goods for the great aristocrats to display as badges of respectability. E) Russian heavy industry accounted for all their economic growth.

121 And the answer is D) In return for low-cost grain exports, Russia and other East European areas imported Western luxury goods for the great aristocrats to display as badges of respectability.

122 What war in the mid-nineteenth century demonstrated Russia’s widening gap with the West?
A) Russo-Japanese War B) Napoleon’s invasion of Russia C) Crimean War D) Sepoy rebellion E) Russo-Turkish War

123 And the answer is C) Crimean War

124 What accounted for the West’s victory over Russia in the Crimean War?
A) The war was fought far from Russia, necessitating lengthy lines of communication and supply. B) Russia was forced to fight an offensive war against entrenched positions. C) The war was fought almost entirely at sea where the Russians were unable to bring their numerical superiority to bear. D) The Western nations won not because of superior tactics or inspired principles, but because of industrial advantages. E) Sardinian assistance to the Russians was ineffective.

125 And the answer is D) The Western nations won not because of superior tactics or inspired principles, but because of industrial advantages.

126 What tsar began the process of reform in the nineteenth century?
A) Alexander I B) Alexander II C) Nicholas I D) Peter the Great E) Nicholas II

127 And the answer is B) Alexander II

128 Which of the following was NOT a consideration in the reform of serfdom?
A) It was the purpose of the tsar to sweep away the tightly knit peasant communities on which serfdom depended. B) The development of a vigorous and mobile labor force. C) A desire to meet Western humanitarian standards. D) Periodic peasant uprisings focused on lack of freedom, undue obligations, and lack of land. E) The preservation of aristocratic power.

129 And the answer is A) It was the purpose of the tsar to sweep away the tightly knit peasant communities on which serfdom depended.

130 In what year were Russian serfs emancipated?
B) 1854 C) 1861 D) 1868 E) 1914

131 And the answer is C) 1861

132 Which of the following statements concerning the emancipation of the serfs in Russia is most accurate? A) The emancipation of the serfs destroyed the Russian aristocracy. B) Emancipation of the serfs loosened the grip of the tsarist state. C) In addition to personal freedom, the serfs were granted parcels of land subject to redemption payments. D) Following emancipation, peasants were free to move about Russia as they pleased leading to massive movements of agricultural labor. E) Few serfs were really emancipated.

133 And the answer is C) In addition to personal freedom, the serfs were granted parcels of land subject to redemption payments.

134 All of the following were reforms introduced in Russia in the 1860s and 1870s EXCEPT:
A) the creation of the Duma, a national parliament. B) the creation of local political councils, the zemstvoes. C) the issuance of new law codes that cut back traditional punishments. D) reorganization of the military. E) universal voting rights.

135 And the answer is A) the creation of the Duma, a national parliament.

136 What was the first step toward industrialization in Russia?
A) construction of factories B) development of the mining sector C) creation of an extensive system of railways D) end of the grain trade with the West E) mechanization of agriculture

137 And the answer is C) creation of an extensive system of railways

138 The Russian minister of finance from 1892 to 1903 responsible for much economic modernization was:
A) Stolypin. B) Count Witte. C) Klemenz von Metternich. D) Gregor Mendel. E) General Kuropatkin.

139 And the answer is B) Count Witte.

140 Which of the following statements concerning the capitalization of Russian industry is most accurate? A) Capital for Russian investment was almost entirely derived from liquidation of agricultural estates in Russia. B) By 1900 approximately half of Russian industry was foreign-owned by British, German, and French industrialists. C) It was the contact with the Japanese that led to an influx of capital for Russian industrialization. D) Russian industry was capitalized by a substantial middle class that had built up wealth in the grain trade with the West. E) United Sates investors were the largest owners of machinery in Russia by 1900.

141 And the answer is B) By 1900 approximately half of Russian industry was foreign-owned by British, German, and French industrialists.

142 By 1900, how successful was the Russian industrialization program?
A) Despite massive programs of forced labor and extensive government subsidies, the Russian program of industrialization failed. B) Russian industrialization progressed slowly and by 1900 had reached tenth in the world in terms of steel production. C) By 1900, Russia had surged to fourth rank in the world in steel production and was second to the United States in the newer area of petroleum production. D) Without access to plentiful raw materials, Russia was dependent on constant territorial acquisitions to fuel its lagging industrial program. E) Russia was unable to industrialize any of its larger businesses.

143 And the answer is C) By 1900, Russia had surged to fourth rank in the world in steel production and was second to the United States in the newer area of petroleum production.

144 Which of the following was present during the Russian program of industrialization?
A) attitudinal change among workers similar to the West B) large middle class C) rich natural resources D) small, but efficient, factories E) highly educated work force

145 And the answer is C) rich natural resources

146 All of the following were part of the rising tide of unrest in Russia during the second half of the nineteenth century EXCEPT: A) the Orthodox Church. B) ethnic minorities. C) peasants. D) the intelligentsia. E) the industrial workers.

147 And the answer is A) the Orthodox Church.

148 What was the general goal of the Russian intelligentsia?
A) political freedom, social reform, and retention of Russian culture B) political freedom, retention of the social hierarchy, and increased Westernization C) restriction of civil liberties, honor and deference to the emperor, retention of Russian culture D) radical Westernization as part of a program of increased industrialization E) globally competitive economy.

149 And the answer is A) political freedom, social reform, and retention of Russian culture

150 Russian radicals who sought the abolition of all formal government were called:
A) Decembrists. B) Latitudinarians. C) abolitionists. D) anarchists. E) socialists.

151 And the answer is D) anarchists.

152 What was the chief political method used by the anarchists to achieve reform?
A) strikes B) terrorism C) political D) voter registration E) non-violent protest

153 And the answer is B) terrorism

154 Which of the following statements about Russian Marxism is most accurate?
A) Marxist insistence on careful revolutionary organization and a focus on the working class was rapidly assimilated by anarchists and peasant groups. B) Marxist doctrines were not imported from the West, but originated among the Russian intelligentsia. C) Lenin introduced important innovations in Marxist theory, including the idea that a proletarian revolution could take place without going through a middle-class phase. D) Lenin was dedicated to the mass electioneering typical of Western socialist parties. E) Marxist doctrines were most applicable to an agrarian economy.

155 And the answer is C) Lenin introduced important innovations in Marxist theory, including the idea that a proletarian revolution could take place without going through a middle-class phase.

156 Lenin’s approach was adopted by the groups of Russian Marxists known as:
A) Mensheviks. B) anarchists. C) Decembrists. D) Bolsheviks. E) Zemstvos.

157 And the answer is D) Bolsheviks.

158 Which of the following did NOT contribute to working-class radicalism in late nineteenth century Russia? A) absence of legal political outlets B) severe conditions of early industrialization C) rural unrest and adoption of peasant grievances D) absence of unions E) workplace reforms

159 And the answer is D) absence of unions

160 Failure in what war led to the Russian revolution of 1905?
A) Crimean B) Sino-Japanese C) Russo-Japanese D) World War I E) Russo-Turkish War

161 And the answer is C) Russo-Japanese

162 What group did the imperial government appeal to in the reforms following the revolution of 1905?
A) liberals B) workers organizations C) Marxists D) anarchists E) conservatives

163 And the answer is A) liberals

164 What minister was responsible for enacting reforms for the peasantry following the revolution of 1905? A) Count Witte B) Grigori Rasputin C) Alexi Romanov D) Stolypin E) Prince Gortchakov

165 And the answer is D) Stolypin

166 The Duma was: A) the confrontation between radial workers and the tsarist army in 1905. B) a system of collective farms for peasants introduced following 1905. C) a national parliament created in the aftermath of the 1905 revolution. D) the imperial council that took over government after the abdication of the tsar in 1905. E) the Russian national labor union.

167 And the answer is C) a national parliament created in the aftermath of the 1905 revolution.

168 Peasants who responded to the reforms of 1905 by engaging in entrepreneurial activity including increasing production and buying up land were called: A) Duma. B) kulaks. C) anarchists. D) Bakunin. E) soviets.

169 And the answer is B) kulaks.

170 Which of the following Russian developments was NOT adopted in other East European states?
A) national parliaments B) emancipation of serfs C) economic autonomy from the West D) monarchic forms of government E) nationalism

171 And the answer is C) economic autonomy from the West

172 Which of the following was NOT a nineteenth century Russian novelist?
A) Turgenev B) Pavlov C) Tolstoy D) Dostoevsky E) Gogol

173 And the answer is B) Pavlov

174 Which of the following statements concerning the Tokugawa Shogunate in the nineteenth century is most accurate? A) The Shogunate bureaucracy had been opened to talented commoners—a reform that improved the standing of the government with the masses of the Japanese people. B) By the nineteenth century, the Tokugawa were able to dispense with the feudal organization of earlier Japan. C) Increasingly the Shogunate depended on its long-standing alliances with Western powers to maintain its dominance. D) The Shogunate continued to combine a central bureaucracy with semi-feudal alliances with regional daimyos and the samurai. E) The Shogunate managed its finances carefully, and never carried a deficit.

175 And the answer is D) The Shogunate continued to combine a central bureaucracy with semi-feudal alliances with regional daimyos and the samurai.

176 Which of the following statements concerning Tokugawa intellectual and cultural life is most accurate? A) Japanese literature reached its zenith during the last decades of the Tokugawa Shogunate. B) Confucianism rapidly lost ground to Buddhism as the major religious and ethical basis for Japanese society. C) Japan continued to be largely imitative of conservative Chinese intellectual currents rather than developing dynamic ethical and philosophical systems. D) Literacy in Japan reached levels higher than anywhere else outside the West. E) The Tokugawa placed little emphasis on learning.

177 And the answer is D) Literacy in Japan reached levels higher than anywhere else outside the West.

178 Which of the following groups in Tokugawa Japan advocated interest in Western scientific advance?
A) Dutch Studies group B) national studies group C) Confucian scholars D) Buddhist scholars E) Shinto priests

179 And the answer is A) Dutch Studies group

180 Who was responsible for the forced opening of Japan in 1853?
A) Captain James Cook B) Commodore Matthew Perry C) Admiral Horatio Nelson D) Captain William Farragut E) Commodore George Perry

181 And the answer is B) Commodore Matthew Perry

182 In what year was a new emperor, Mutsuhito but commonly called “Meiji” or “Enlightened One,” proclaimed, signaling the end of a major political crisis? A) 1854 B) 1868 C) 1875 D) 1889 E) 1914

183 And the answer is B) 1868

184 Which of the following was NOT an advantage of Japan over China in the competition to assume leadership and to establish industrialization in Asia? A) Japan’s leadership was less secular and bureaucratic than that of China. B) Japan already knew the benefits of imitation, which China had never acknowledged. C) Japan had allowed a more autonomous merchant tradition. D) Feudal traditions limited the heavy hand of government controls while stimulating a sense of competitiveness. E) Japan was a heterogeneous, diverse society

185 And the answer is A) Japan’s leadership was less secular and bureaucratic than that of China.

186 Which of the following statements concerning Japanese political reforms in the period of the Meiji state is NOT accurate? A) Meiji leaders established a new conservative nobility, stocked with former nobles and Meiji leaders that operated a British-style House of Peers. B) Samurai, destroyed by the removal of government stipends, were banned from participation in the Meiji Diet. C) The constitution issued in 1889 assured major prerogatives for the emperor along with limited powers for the lower house of the Diet. D) The bureaucracy was reorganized, insulated from political pressures, and opened to talent on the basis of civil service examinations. E) The Meiji came to power with very little violence.

187 And the answer is B) Samurai, destroyed by the removal of government stipends, were banned from participation in the Meiji Diet.

188 What was the primary difference between the reformed Japanese government and reformed Russian institutions by 1914? A) Japan retained an emperor at the head of government. B) Japan created a national parliament. C) Japan’s government was elected by a broad majority of the population. D) Japan’s government had incorporated business leaders into its governing structure. E) Russian institutions were more secular than Japan’s.

189 And the answer is D) Japan’s government had incorporated business leaders into its governing structure.

190 One of the major similarities between Japanese and Russian industrialization was the fact that:
A) both lacked natural resources. B) scarce capital and unfamiliarity of new technology compelled state direction. C) neither was able to complete construction of a railway system. D) neither had any experience of cultural exchange with the West. E) a small group of independent entrepreneurs led to movement in each case.

191 And the answer is B) scarce capital and unfamiliarity of new technology compelled state direction.

192 Huge industrial combines put together in Japan by the 1890s were called:
A) haiku. B) terakoya. C) zaibatsus. D) khitan. E) Samurais.

193 And the answer is C) zaibatsus.

194 Which of the following statements concerning Japanese industrialization prior to World War I is correct? A) Japan’s workforce was among the highest paid in the world. B) Abundant natural resources made Japan virtually self-sufficient as an industrialized nation. C) By 1914, Japan had reached the level of industrialization found in the West. D) Japan needed exports to pay for machine and resource imports. E) Japan lagged far behind the West industrially.

195 And the answer is D) Japan needed exports to pay for machine and resource imports.

196 Which of the following Western cultural characteristics was NOT adopted by large numbers of Japanese? A) hair styles B) standards of hygiene C) Western calendar D) Christianity E) work styles

197 And the answer is D) Christianity

198 Which of the following religions gained new adherents in industrialized Japan?
A) Shinto B) Confucianism C) Buddhism D) Christianity E) Judaism

199 And the answer is A) Shinto

200 Which of the following was NOT a sign of significant social stress in industrialized Japan?
A) disputes between generations over Westernization B) increasing freedom and political influence of women C) growth of nationalism D) growth of urban slums E) racial unrest

201 And the answer is B) increasing freedom and political influence of women

202 Which of the following was NOT a feature of twentieth-century world history?
A) the forming of international organizations B) a changing balance of power C) a lessening of conflict D) massive population growth E) little industrial development.

203 And the answer is C) a lessening of conflict

204 What disseminators of American popular culture established distribution branches around the world in the second decade of the twentieth century? A) film companies B) libraries C) theatrical groups D) television networks E) radio networks

205 And the answer is A) film companies

206 Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the attitude of Western observers just before 1914? A) The constant warfare involved in the scramble for imperial possessions caused many observers to anticipate global conflict. B) Disease and famine were the constant reminders of a society that had yet to achieve self-sufficiency . C) Frustration with limited civil liberties and voting rights gave a jaded Europe a sense of impending revolution. D) Western leadership was bringing new enlightenment to the inferior peoples of the rest of the world. E) Western dominance would soon end.

207 And the answer is D) Western leadership was bringing new enlightenment to the inferior peoples of the rest of the world.

208 Which of the following was NOT an institution created during the period of internationalization during the later nineteenth century? A) International Statistical Congress B) Red Cross C) League of Nations D) Postal Union E) Concert of Europe

209 And the answer is C) League of Nations

210 What was one of the weaknesses of the international movement prior to World War I?
A) it was heavily based on Western dominance and control of empires B) it limited nationalism C) it did not exist outside of Europe D) it was opposed by the United States E) most people did not believe in its goals

211 And the answer is A) it was heavily based on Western dominance and control of empires

212 The permanent court of arbitration created at the Hague in 1899 was called the:
A) League of Nations. B) United Nations. C) Dutch Parliament. D) World Court. E) German Confederation.

213 And the answer is D) World Court.

214 What was the region of Europe that produced most diplomatic crises prior to World War I?
A) Scandinavia B) the Balkans C) Italy D) Spain E) Sudetenland

215 And the answer is B) the Balkans

216 What two European powers were directly involved in the Balkan diplomacy?
A) Germany and Russia B) Russia and Britain C) Russia and Austria-Hungary D) France and Austria-Hungary E) France and Germany

217 And the answer is C) Russia and Austria-Hungary

218 Which of the following was NOT an event leading to the outbreak of World War I?
A) the assassination of the Austrian Archduke by a Serbian nationalist B) Austria’s declaration of war on Serbia C) the mobilization of the Russian army D) France’s invasion of Belgium E) France’s support of Russia

219 And the answer is D) France’s invasion of Belgium

220 The sea warfare during World War I consisted largely of:
A) major surface battles between the fleets of Britain and Germany. B) a single major battle in which the German fleet destroyed the Russian navy. C) German submarine warfare. D) the British attempt to destroy the Russian fleet in the Mediterranean. E) Russian offensives in the Black Sea.

221 And the answer is C) German submarine warfare.

222 By 1916, conflict on the western front
A) had become a shifting game of rapid maneuver with few major battles. B) had resulted in the surrender of France and the establishment of the Vichy government. C) had resulted in victory for the British and French troops who pushed the exhausted enemy to the borders of Germany. D) had settled into a deadly stalemate in which hundreds of thousands of lives were expended for a few feet of trench. E) caused the Germans to open a second front in Italy.

223 And the answer is D) had settled into a deadly stalemate in which hundreds of thousands of lives were expended for a few feet of trench.

224 On the Italian front, the primary combatants were Italy and:
A) Germany. B) Russia. C) Austria-Hungary. D) France. E) Serbia.

225 And the answer is C) Austria-Hungary.

226 Between 1914 and 1917, warfare on the eastern front:
A) pitted the forces of Russian and Austria-Hungary against the invading Germans. B) included parts of Russia and the Balkans. C) resulted in the Serbian knockout of the Austrian forces. D) featured bloody trench warfare in which almost no land changed hands. E) was dominated by the Austrians.

227 And the answer is B) included parts of Russia and the Balkans.

228 Which of the following was NOT a feature of war on the home front between 1914 and 1919?
A) Governments organized the major sectors of the economy to ration resources and production. B) Executive branches of government increasingly took over from parliaments. C) Governments controlled public opinion through manipulation of mass media such as newspapers. D) Strict government regulation prevented material shortages and famine. E) Most civilians felt the effects of the war.

229 And the answer is D) Strict government regulation prevented material shortages and famine.

230 Which of the following statements concerning the global aspects of World War I is most accurate?
A) The British dominions—Canada, Australia, and New Zealand—remained aloof and virtually untouched by the war. B) By 1914, the United States had not entered the scramble for colonial possessions. C) American businessmen prior to 1917 profited by selling goods to both sides and by taking advantage of European distractions to seize new world markets. D) The United States aggressively entered the war in 1914 to demonstrate its new position as a world power. E) The world economic system was mostly unaffected.

231 And the answer is C) American businessmen prior to 1917 profited by selling goods to both sides and by taking advantage of European distractions to seize new world markets.

232 What nation profited most by warfare in Asia between 1914 and 1919?
A) Japan B) China C) New Zealand D) the United States E) Vietnam

233 And the answer is A) Japan

234 During World War I, the Ottoman Empire
A) vainly attempted to retain its neutrality in what the Turks perceived was a Christian conflict. B) long attached to German military advisors, joined Germany in the war effort. C) used the opportunity to reassert Turkish dominance over the Arab regions. D) launched assaults indifferently against the colonial possessions of Britain, France, and Germany. E) was unable to repel British invaders at Gallipolli.

235 And the answer is B) long attached to German military advisors, joined Germany in the war effort.

236 The British promised support for a Jewish settlement in the Middle East in the:
A) Sinai Resolution. B) Exodus Pact. C) Chamberlain Manifesto. D) Balfour Declaration. E) Fourteen Points.

237 And the answer is D) Balfour Declaration.

238 By 1917 the war on the eastern front:
A) had stagnated into a stalemate in which neither side had an advantage. B) led to a major revolution in Russia that toppled the tsarist government. C) was resolved by a peace treaty between the combatants. D) resulted in a massive Russian offensive fueled by the numerical superiority of Russian armies. E) was joined by the American Expeditionary Force.

239 And the answer is B) led to a major revolution in Russia that toppled the tsarist government.

240 In what year was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed?
C) 1918 D) 1919 E) 1920

241 And the answer is C) 1918

242 In what year did the German forces on the western front sue for peace?
B) 1917 C) 1918 D) 1919 E) 1915

243 And the answer is C) 1918

244 Before their surrender, the German generals running the government:
A) installed a new civilian government to shoulder the blame of defeat. B) murdered the emperor. C) issued a statement accepting blame for the policies that had led to World War I. D) overthrew the civilian government and established a military dictatorship. E) tried to break through the Allied lines at Verdun.

245 And the answer is A) installed a new civilian government to shoulder the blame of defeat.

246 The series of treaties that ended World War I were negotiated at:
A) Potsdam. B) Brest-Litovsk. C) London. D) Versailles. E) Berlin.

247 And the answer is D) Versailles.

248 Which of the following was NOT included in the final set of treaties that ended World War I?
A) A League of Nations was formed, but the United States refused to join. B) Russia was rewarded for its service to the Allies by the grant of substantial territories in Poland and the Baltic republics. C) Germany was forced to accept blame for the war and to pay huge reparations to the victorious Allies. 0) Austria-Hungary was divided up into a Germanic Austria as well as independent states of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. E) The Ottoman Empire ceased to exist.

249 And the answer is B) Russia was rewarded for its service to the Allies by the grant of substantial territories in Poland and the Baltic republics.

250 Approximately how many people died as a result of the carnage of World War I?
A) one million B) two million C) five million D) ten million E) 500,000

251 And the answer is D) ten million

252 As a result of their participation in World War I, the Ottoman Empire:
A) effectively collapsed. B) recovered their control over the Arab regions of the empire, including Egypt. C) was rewarded by the grant of substantial territories in the Balkans. D) recovered land previously lost to Russia. E) formed a new Islamic kingdom.

253 And the answer is A) effectively collapsed.

254 Which of the following was NOT carved from the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I?
A) Turkish republic B) Jewish state of Israel C) British mandates in Palestine and Iraq D) French mandates in Syria and Lebanon E) Arab states under tribal leaders

255 And the answer is B) Jewish state of Israel

256 The League of Nations, created in the aftermath of World War I,:
A) proved to be an effective international forum for negotiating disputes. B) was handicapped by the absence of Germany, Japan, and France. C) was led by the newly powerful United States. D) was little more than a discussion group, as real diplomacy continued to be on a nation-by-nation basis. E) created the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

257 And the answer is D) was little more than a discussion group, as real diplomacy continued to be on a nation-by-nation basis.

258 In what year did the Great Depression begin?
C) 1929 D) 1939 E) 1924

259 And the answer is C) 1929

260 All of the following were causes of the Great Depression EXCEPT:
A) war-induced inflation. B) prosperity in dependent economies leading to competition with the Western core. C) overproduction of food prices and consequent low prices. D) excessive debts to the United States. E) high economic barriers between nations.

261 And the answer is B) prosperity in dependent economies leading to competition with the Western core.

262 Which of the following was a social result of the Great Depression?
A) up to one-third of all blue-collar workers in the West lost their jobs for prolonged periods B) family farms in the United States flourished C) white-collar unemployment exceeded the numbers of unskilled laborers as corporations foundered in a sea of debt D) despite the economic dislocation, employment in most countries rose E) the United States turned toward communism

263 And the answer is A) up to one-third of all blue-collar workers in the West lost their jobs for prolonged periods

264 Which of the following economies was least affected by the Great Depression?
A) Latin America B) the Soviet Union C) the United States D) western Europe E) Japan

265 And the answer is B) the Soviet Union

266 ) In Japan, the Great Depression:
A) had little effect due to the economic isolation of Japan’s economy from the West. B) actually resulted in an economic boom for the Japanese, as they managed to seize numerous export markets that had previously been the sole possession of the West. C) resulted in a slight economic downturn, but nothing similar to the catastrophic events of western Europe and the U.S. D) devastated an economy still heavily dependent on export earnings for financing imports of essential fuel and raw materials. E) led to a Socialist dictatorship.

267 And the answer is D) devastated an economy still heavily dependent on export earnings for financing imports of essential fuel and raw materials.

268 The Soviet leader Joseph Stalin regarded the Great Depression as:
A) an outgrowth of imperialism and capitalism. B) a world-wide tragedy calling for international cooperation between communist and capitalist states. C) a temporary and mild economic dislocation. D) a result of the weakness of democratic, non-aggressive states. E) an opportunity to trade with the United States.

269 And the answer is A) an outgrowth of imperialism and capitalism.

270 After 1937, the government of Japan was dominated by:
A) socialists who gained power in the aftermath of the depression. B) labor unions whose position was strengthened by their control of industry. C) the emerging estate of middle-class liberals intent on a broader franchise. D) a military regime dedicated to the ultra-nationalist goals. E) advocates of parliamentary democracy.

271 And the answer is D) a military regime dedicated to the ultra-nationalist goals.

272 In 1931, the Japanese army marched into and declared it an independent state.
A) Korea B) Vietnam C) the Philippines D) Manchuria E) Mongolia

273 And the answer is D) Manchuria

274 Adolph Hitler was the political and ideological leader of the:
A) Social Democratic Party. B) National Socialist Party. C) Christian Democratic Party. D) Conservative Union. E) German Communist Party.

275 And the answer is B) National Socialist Party.

276 Hitler came to power in Germany
A) as a result of entirely legal and constitutional means. B) with the support of socialists. C) after a short, but violent, overthrow of the constitutional government. D) after a lengthy civil war between forces of conservatives and communists. E) immediately after World War I.

277 And the answer is A) as a result of entirely legal and constitutional means.

278 Who was the leader of fascist Italy?
A) Benedetto Croce B) Ernesto Momigliano C) Benito Mussolini D) Benito Juarez E) Antonio Gramsci

279 And the answer is C) Benito Mussolini

280 In the Spanish civil war (1936 to 1939), what nation sent effective support to the republican forces? A) Britain B) Germany C) the United States D) the Soviet Union E) Mexico

281 And the answer is D) the Soviet Union

282 The policy followed by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain at the Munich conference of 1939 came to be known as: A) pacification. B) aggressive peacemaking. C) appeasement. D) the Germanification of Europe. E) brinkmanship.

283 And the answer is C) appeasement.

284 In what year did the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, thus bringing the United States into World War II? A) 1939 B) 1941 C) 1943 D) 1945 E) 1938

285 And the answer is E) 1938

286 Which of the following statements concerning warfare in the European theater during World War II is most accurate? A) France mounted a fanatic defense of its home territories, only succumbing to the Nazi advance in 1944. B) By the summer of 1940, most of France lay in German hands, while a semi-fascist collaborative regime ruled in Vichy. C) British resistance crumbled before the air assaults of Germany, and an amphibious assault knocked the British from the war. D) From 1939 on, the chief resistance to the German advance was provided by American forces. E) The Germans never broke through the Western front.

287 And the answer is B) By the summer of 1940, most of France lay in German hands, while a semi-fascist collaborative regime ruled in Vichy.

288 The balance of the war in Europe shifted in 1941 when Germany invaded:
A) France. B) Britain. C) Italy. D) the Soviet Union. E) the United States.

289 And the answer is D) the Soviet Union.

290 Japan’s surrender in the Pacific was precipitated by:
A) the use of atomic weapons on the cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima by the U.S. B) a massive land and sea assault on the Japanese home islands. C) the loss of the Philippines to the U.S. D) the British advance through Malaya into China. E) victories by China under Mao Zedong.

291 And the answer is A) the use of atomic weapons on the cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima by the U.S.

292 All the following were conferences held among the allied powers to determine the fate of Europe after the defeat of Germany EXCEPT: A) Potsdam. B) Yalta. C) Sarajevo. D) Teheran. E) Oslo.

293 And the answer is C) Sarajevo.

294 Which of the following was NOT a result of the peace treaties signed following World War II?
A) the United States occupied Japan B) Germany was divided into four zones of occupation C) the Soviet Union took much of eastern Poland, while the Poles were compensated by receiving part of eastern Germany D) German industrial power was destroyed. E) Finland remained an independent state.

295 And the answer is D) German industrial power was destroyed.

296 Which of the following nations, created in the aftermath of World War I, lost their independence following World War II? A) Czechoslovakia B) Yugoslavia C) Greece D) Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia E) East Prussia

297 And the answer is D) Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia

298 What phrase did Winston Churchill coin to describe the division between free and repressed societies after World War II? A) the red menace B) the iron curtain C) the Berlin wall D) the cold war E) appeasement

299 And the answer is B) the iron curtain

300 Where was the focal point of the Cold War in Europe immediately after World War II?
A) Hungary B) Czechoslovakia C) France D) Germany E) Switzerland

301 And the answer is D) Germany

302 Which of the following states was NOT one of the industrialized centers of the Pacific rim?
A) Japan B) Korea C) Taiwan D) Sri Lanka E) Singapore

303 And the answer is D) Sri Lanka

304 What nation became the first serious challenger to the West’s industrial supremacy?
A) China B) Vietnam C) Korea D) Japan E) Hong Kong

305 D) Japan

306 Which of the following factors limited Japanese economic advance prior to World War II?
A) continued dependence on relatively few export items B) low population growth C) failure of the agricultural economy D) rapidly increasing wages in the work force E) lack of managerial expertise

307 A) continued dependence on relatively few export items

308 By 1936 the Japanese controlled what percentage of world trade?
A) less than 4% B) 8% C) 15% D) more than 20% E) 10%

309 A) less than 4%

310 Which of the following statements concerning the depression in Japan is most accurate?
A) Due to government controls, the depression never affected the Japanese. B) The Japanese government failed to take any direct action to modify the impact of the depression. C) After initial results that caused great misery, Japan suffered far less than many Western nations because of effective government action. D) The total concentration of the government on military aggression led to an ineffective response to the depression. E) The Depression threw Japan into total chaos.

311 C) After initial results that caused great misery, Japan suffered far less than many Western nations because of effective government action.

312 Who was the Japanese finance minister responsible for the government policies during the depression?
A) Kyoto Surimboto B) Korekiyo Takahashi C) Tojo Haru D) Minamasu Yokomoto E) Hirohito

313 B) Korekiyo Takahashi

314 Which of the following statements best describes the Japanese government during the 1920s and early 1930s? A) Japan was ruled exclusively by a strong liberal party that dominated the lower house of parliament. B) Japanese politics were fully democratic leading to the growth of communism in Japan. C) Japan’s oligarchic political structure allowed elite groups to negotiate with each other for appropriate policy and allowed military leaders to take a growing role. D) Labor unions began to exert increasing control over economic policy in the aftermath of the government’s failure to take direct action during the depression. E) Japan had a thoroughly democratic parliamentary government.

315 C) Japan’s oligarchic political structure allowed elite groups to negotiate with each other for appropriate policy and allowed military leaders to take a growing role.

316 The leading military figure in the Japanese government following the failed coup of 1936 was:
A) Kendo Nobunaga B) Tojo Hideki C) Ikura Kansatsu D) Teoke Tomomi E) Matsuhito

317 B) Tojo Hideki

318 Early Japanese military aggression resulted in the conquest of all of the following territories by the end of 1938 EXCEPT: A) Manchuria. B) Korea. C) Malaya. D) Taiwan. E) Manchukuo.

319 C) Malaya

320 Which of the following statements most accurately depicts the impact of the Japanese takeover of Korea prior to World War II? A) Japanese economic policies led to rapid industrialization. B) The Japanese takeover was widely accepted by the Korean population. C) The Japanese takeover disrupted the Korean tradition of kingship leading to the abolition of the monarchy in 1909. D) Japanese occupation led to the swift development of parliamentary institutions based on Chinese models. E) Japan quickly divided Korea into northern and southern zones.

321 C) The Japanese takeover disrupted the Korean tradition of kingship leading to the abolition of the monarchy in 1909.

322 Singapore was originally part of what British colony?
A) India B) Malaya C) Sri Lanka D) Thailand E) Burma

323 B) Malaya

324 The population of Singapore was largely:
A) Chinese. B) Malayan. C) Islamic. D) Japanese. E) Indian.

325 A) Chinese.

326 Who headed the American occupation government of Japan?
A) Hap Arnold B) Omar Bradley C) Douglas MacArthur D) Dwight D. Eisenhower E) Henry Luce

327 C) Douglas MacArthur

328 Americans introduced all of the following reforms to Japan during their occupation EXCEPT:
A) giving women the vote. B) abolishing Shintoism as a state religion. C) outlawing labor unions. D) making the emperor a symbolic figurehead. E) parliamentary democracy.

329 C) outlawing labor unions.

330 What party monopolized Japanese government into the 1990s?
A) Socialist B) Liberal Democratic C) Labor D) Communist E) Republican

331 B) Liberal Democratic

332 In what year did the American occupation of Japan come to an end?
B) 1947 D) 1955 E) 1950 C) 1952

333 C) 1952

334 In what way was the restoration of an independent Korea complicated?
A) Korea had become a colony of China, which refused to restore independence. B) Korea was divided into zones controlled by the U.S. and the Soviet Union. C) Korea’s government was claimed by surviving members of the old monarchy. D) Korea had no prior experience as an independent government. E) Korea wanted to be reunited with Japan.

335 B) Korea was divided into zones controlled by the U. S
B) Korea was divided into zones controlled by the U.S. and the Soviet Union.

336 Who was the political leader of the Soviet-dominated People’s Democratic Republic of Korea?
A) Syngman Rhee B) Lee Ho Park C) Kim Il-Sung D) So Kim Chung E) Kim Jong Il

337 C) Kim Il-Sung

338 The first leader of the U.S.-dominated Republic of Korea was:
A) Syngman Rhee B) Lee Ho Park C) Kim Il-Sung D) So Kim Chung E) long Kim

339 A) Syngman Rhee

340 In what year did the conflict between North and South Korea come to a temporary conclusion with the signing of an armistice? A) 1947 B) 1950 C) 1953 D) 1964 E) 1980

341 C) 1953

342 Who commanded the United Nations troops who participated in the Korean conflict on behalf of the Republic of Korea? A) Hap Arnold B) Douglas MacArthur C) Omar Bradley D) Dwight D. Eisenhower E) William Westmoreland

343 B) Douglas MacArthur

344 Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the situation in Korea following the Korean War? A) Northern and southern Korea were rapidly reunited under a single, authoritarian government controlled by the Soviet Union. B) Northern Korea threw off its ties with China and the Soviet Union and sought a closer relationship with the U.S. C) Korea remained divided with relatively authoritarian governments in both halves of the divided nation. D) Southern Korea became fully democratic, but moved closer to political neutrality during the Cold War. E) Democracy was restored in North Korea.

345 C) Korea remained divided with relatively authoritarian governments in both halves of the divided nation.

346 What Chinese leader established an autocratic government on Taiwan in 1948?
A) Sun Yat-sen B) Shi Zilin C) Kim Il-Sung D) Chiang Kai-shek E) Chou En-lai

347 D) Chiang Kai-shek

348 Which of the following economic powers of the Pacific rim remained a European colony long after World War II? A) Malaya B) Indonesia C) the Philippines D) Hong Kong E) Taiwan

349 D) Hong Kong

350 Which nation retained a large British naval base until 1971?
A) Malaya B) Taiwan C) Singapore D) Hong Kong E) Burma

351 C) Singapore

352 The Japanese political system after 1955:
A) was marked by radical shifts between parties of the left and right. B) was typified by the dominance of socialism. C) revived many of the oligarchic features of earlier political tradition. D) was intent on the destruction of the big business combines. E) became much more like that of the United States.

353 C) revived many of the oligarchic features of earlier political tradition.

354 What was the only weakness of the leadership of the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan in the 1980s?
A) inability to provide economic growth B) corruption C) association with military policies of World War II D) adoption of a policy of nuclear armament E) policy of appeasement of China

355 B) corruption

356 What Western label was applied to the close coordination of Japanese government and business for promotion of economic growth and export expansion? A) Japan, Incorporated B) Business, Japan C) Toyota, Inc. D) Sony United E) Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

357 A) Japan, Incorporated

358 Which of the following was NOT a feature of government involvement in Japanese industry?
A) setting production goals B) establishing investment goals C) limiting imports D) selecting the heads of the major corporations E) granting huge military contracts

359 D) selecting the heads of the major corporation

360 Which of the following statements concerning the development of Japanese culture in the postwar era is most accurate? A) Japanese culture threw off its connections with the past and wholeheartedly embraced Western styles in literature, drama, and the arts. B) Japanese culture was defined by its conservatism and retention of old forms to the extent that Western forms—particularly in art and architecture—were unknown. C) Aside from interior decoration and film, Japanese contributions to world culture were negligible. D) Buddhism and Shintoism were officially banned because of their association with the warlike Japanese past. E) Japanese culture mimicked that of China

361 C) Aside from interior decoration and film, Japanese contributions to world culture were negligible.

362 Which of the following was NOT a factor in the amazing economic growth of Japan following the 1950s?
A) cheap loans for technological innovation B) educational expansion C) a growing population and a reduction in the agricultural labor force D) a rapidly growing military-industrial complex E) a productive labor force

363 D) a rapidly growing military-industrial complex

364 Japan produced a distinctive economic culture after the 1950s that included all of the following features EXCEPT: A) a strong tradition of independent unions. B) managers who displayed active interest in suggestions by employees. C) a network of policies and attitudes that reflected older traditions of group solidarity. D) willingness among management to abide by collective decisions and less concern for quick personal profits. E) the zaibatsu system.

365 A) a strong tradition of independent unions.

366 Which of the following represents a significant difference between Japanese and Western women in the later 20th century? A) Women in Japan participated actively in leisure activities with their husbands. B) Japanese women had higher rates of divorce than their Western counterparts. C) The Japanese feminist movement was confined to a small number of intellectuals. D) Japanese women concentrated less on domestic duties than women in the West. E) Western styles of dress were not popular among women.

367 C) The Japanese feminist movement was confined to a small number of intellectuals.

368 In the 1980s the Japanese government invested considerable money in teaching:
A) Japanese mothers to breast feed. B) social etiquette at geisha houses. C) eating with chopsticks. D) Western-style dancing. E) imported culture.

369 C) eating with chopsticks.

370 What nation other than Japan in the Pacific rim was the most obvious example of the spread of new economic dynamism? A) South Korea B) North Korea C) Vietnam D) Malaya E) the Philippines

371 A) South Korea

372 What leadership was typical of South Korea between 1960 and the late 1980s?
A) Liberal Democratic B) Socialist C) Communist D) military E) fascist

373 D) military

374 Which of the following statements most accurately describes Korean economic growth after 1950?
A) Economic growth was limited to production of porcelain and silks for export. B) Korean economic growth was much slower than that of Japan. C) Korean economic growth was dependent on small, government-financed corporations producing limited quantities of goods with little advanced technology. D) Korea was able by the 1970s to compete successfully in the areas of steel, automobiles, and cheap consumer goods. E) Korea was primarily agricultural.

375 D) Korea was able by the 1970s to compete successfully in the areas of steel, automobiles, and cheap consumer goods.

376 Which of the following companies exemplifies the economic growth and political influence of Korean corporations? A) Hyundai B) Sony C) Mitsubishi D) Magnavox E) Toshiba

377 A) Hyundai

378 In 1978 the United States government
A) recognized Taiwan as a most-favored trading partner. B) severed its diplomatic ties with Taiwan and recognized the legitimacy of the communist government of mainland China. C) offered significant military aid to Taiwan in its continuing opposition to communism in Asia. D) supported Taiwan’s invasion of Quemoy and Matsu. E) supported Chinese claims to Taiwan.

379 B) severed its diplomatic ties with Taiwan and recognized the legitimacy of the communist government of mainland China.

380 C) Japan.

381 Who was the ruler of Singapore from its independence to the present?
A) Kim Il-Sung B) Chiang Ching-kuo C) Chung Ju Yung D) Lee Kuan Yew E) Chulalongkorn II

382 D) Lee Kuan Yew

383 Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the political climate of the free port of Singapore? A) Proximity to China and the large majority of ethnic Chinese led to the rapid expansion of communism. B) As a long-time colony of Britain, Singapore developed an active parliamentary democracy with numerous political parties that shared power in the government. C) Although a democratic constitution was written, the government became increasingly authoritarian with tight controls over its citizens and active suppression of political opposition. D) Singapore’s government remained intentionally weak, and the free port became notorious for its lax attitudes toward drug smuggling, sex, and economic corruption. E) Singapore was a puppet state of China.

384 C) Although a democratic constitution was written, the government became increasingly authoritarian with tight controls over its citizens and active suppression of political opposition.

385 What is the primary export of Hong Kong?
A) textiles and clothing B) steel C) automobiles D) agricultural products E) small electrics

386 A) textiles and clothing

387 Because of the cultural influence of China on all of the Pacific rim states, each stressed a form of morality based on what philosophical system? A) Buddhism B) Confucianism C) Shintoism D) Hinduism E) legalism

388 B) Confucianism

389 Which of the following was NOT a similarity among the Pacific rim states?
A) Chinese cultural and political heritage B) special contacts with the West through unusually intense interaction with Britain or the U.S. C) the ability to maintain distinctive identity even amid change and imitation of the West D) similar political structures E) large amounts of heavy industry

390 D) similar political structures

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400 Taiwan’s greatest trade partner was:
A) mainland China. B) the U.S. C) Japan. D) Hong Kong. E) North Korea.


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