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1914-Present Myers.  Which of the following was NOT a weakness associated with the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century?  A) Weak rulers  B) Competition.

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Presentation on theme: "1914-Present Myers.  Which of the following was NOT a weakness associated with the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century?  A) Weak rulers  B) Competition."— Presentation transcript:

1 1914-Present Myers

2  Which of the following was NOT a weakness associated with the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century?  A) Weak rulers  B) Competition within factions of the elite  C) Conversion of much of the population to Christianity  D) Deteriorating conditions for artisans as a result of competition with the West  E) Weak and obsolete military force

3  C) Conversion of much of the population to Christianity

4  Which of the following statements concerning the Muslim economy at the beginning of the eighteenth century is most accurate?  A) The Muslim economy remained dependent on Arab merchants who traded predominantly with Africa.  B) By holding the Europeans at bay, the Muslims were able to capitalize an indigenous industry based on the production of cotton textiles.  C) The prosperity of the industrial base of the Muslim empires led to a close alliance between the artisans and the government.  D) Merchants within the empire, especially those who were Jews or Christians, grew more dependent on commercial dealings with European counterparts, accelerating the influx of Western goods.  E) The discovery of new resources caused a resurgence of Ottoman economic power.

5  D) Merchants within the empire, especially those who were Jews or Christians, grew more dependent on commercial dealings with European counterparts, accelerating the influx of Western goods.

6  ) Which of the following European powers seized territories of the Ottoman Empire in the early decades of the eighteenth century?  A) Austria-Hungary  B) Britain  C) France  D) Italy  E) Russia

7  A) Austria-Hungary

8  In the later 1700s what power became the main threat to the Ottomans’ survival?  A) Britain  B) Austria-Hungary  C) France  D) Russia  E) Germany

9  D) Russia

10  The first region to successfully rebel and achieve independence from the Ottoman Empire was:  A) the Crimea.  B) Greece.  C) Serbia.  D) Palestine.  E) Turkey.

11  B) Greece.

12  By the 1870s, the Ottoman Empire:  A) had recovered most of their territorial losses to European powers.  B) had ceased to rule any portion of Asia Minor.  C) had been driven from virtually all of the Balkans.  D) had driven the Russian armies back to the steppes.  E) was the largest multiethnic empire in Eurasia.

13  C) had been driven from virtually all of the Balkans.

14  What European nation supported the Ottoman Empire in order to prevent other European powers from gaining access to the Mediterranean?  A) Britain  B) France  C) Russia  D) Austria-Hungary  E) Belgium

15  A) Britain

16  What was the result of the reforms of Sultan Selim III (1789 –1807)?  A) Western-style education was introduced throughout the empire.  B) The Janissary corps was eliminated as a political and military force.  C) The Sultan was toppled from the throne by a Janissary revolt.  D) Railways were constructed connecting the empire with Europe.  E) The empire was taken over by Muhammad Ali.

17  C) The Sultan was toppled from the throne by a Janissary revolt.

18  What Ottoman Sultan successfully eliminated the Janissary corps as a military and political influence?  A) Selim III  B) Mahmud II  C) Abdul Hamid  D) Selim II  E) Ali

19  B) Mahmud II

20  Which of the following statements concerning the reforms of Mahmud II is most accurate?  A) Mahmud patterned his reform program on Western precedents, including the creation of a diplomatic corps.  B) Despite subtle military and administrative reforms, Mahmud was unable to shake off the influence of the Janissaries.  C) Mahmud, with the consent of the ulama and the ayan returned to a traditional Islamic form of government.  D) Mahmud’s program of reform was actually less ambitious than that of his predecessor, Selim III.  E) The reforms were a blend of Islamic and East Asian economic influences.

21  A) Mahmud patterned his reform program on Western precedents, including the creation of a diplomatic corps

22  Which of the following was NOT part of the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire?  A) Introduction of Western-style education in the universities  B) Addition of state-run postal and telegraph systems  C) Creation of a constitution based on European prototypes  D) Elimination of religious protection for minority religious groups  E) Extensive legal reforms

23  D) Elimination of religious protection for minority religious groups

24  ) In what year was the revised constitution introduced as part of the Tanzimat reforms?  A) 1839  B) 1848  C) 1876  D) 1898  E) 1904

25  C) 1876

26  What group within the Ottoman Empire actually suffered as a result of the Tanzimat reforms?  A) ayan  B) ulama  C) artisans  D) merchants  E) sufis

27  C) artisans

28  Which of the following statements concerning the improvement of women’s status as a result of the Tanzimat reforms is most accurate?  A) The inclusion of reforms for women was not even considered in Ottoman society during the period of the Tanzimat reforms.  B) Despite widespread discussion of the practices of seclusion, polygamy, and veiling, few improvements in women’s social status were won in the nineteenth century.  C) While not all women benefited, elite women were freed from the restrictive aspects of Muslim society during the period of the Tanzimat reforms.  D) Muslim restrictions against the social equality of women were swept away as part of the Tanzimat reforms.  E) Women in the Ottoman Empire became as free as those in Western Europe.

29  B) Despite widespread discussion of the practices of seclusion, polygamy, and veiling, few improvements in women’s social status were won in the nineteenth century.

30  What Ottoman Sultan attempted to roll back the Tanzimat reforms and reinstitute an absolute monarchy in 1878?  A) Selim III  B) Mahmud II  C) Yazid II  D) Abdul Hamid  E) Muhammad Ali

31  D) Abdul Hamid

32  In which of the following areas did Sultan Abdul Hamid continue to press for increased Westernization?  A) Freedom of the press  B) Constitutional reform  C) Military reform and the introduction of Western technology  D) Civil liberties  E) Religious reform

33  C) Military reform and the introduction of Western technology

34  Which of the following groups was responsible for the overthrow of the Ottoman Sultanate in 1908?  A) Black September  B) Young Turks  C) Young Arabs  D) Mamluks  E) Black Hand

35  B) Young Turks

36  Which of the following reforms resulted from the coup in the Ottoman Empire of 1908?  A) Sultanate was abolished  B) Constitution of 1876 was restored  C) Janissaries removed as a political and military force  D) Restrictions against women in Muslim society removed.  E) Removal of the political influence of the officer corps

37  B) Constitution of 1876 was restored

38  With what European power did the Ottomans contest the control of Libya just prior to World War I?  A) Britain  E) Russia  B) Germany  C) Austria-Hungary  D) Italy

39

40  Which of the following statements concerning the relationships between the Young Turks and the Arabs of the Ottoman Empire after the 1908 coup is most accurate?  A) The Young Turks harbored resentment against the Arabs of the empire for failing to support the 1908 coup.  B) Arab support of the 1908 coup waned when they discovered that the Young Turks had no intentions of abandoning the concept of empire.  C) The 1908 coup resulted in the immediate independence of the Arab portions of the Ottoman empire.  D) The close alliance between the Young Turks and the Arab leaders of the Ottoman empire continued after the 1908 coup.  E) The Young Turks supported the idea of autonomy for the Arab portion of the empire.

41  B) Arab support of the 1908 coup waned when they discovered that the Young Turks had no intentions of abandoning the concept of empire.

42  What nation’s invasion of Egypt in 1798 signaled the beginning of European penetration of the Islamic heartland?  A) France  B) Britain  C) Russia  D) Austria-Hungary  E) Prussia

43  A) France

44  What Islamic group ruled Egypt in 1798?  A) Fatimids  B) Umayyads  C) Mamluks  D) Almoravids  E) Shiites

45  C) Mamluks

46  By 1801 what ruler had succeeded in establishing his dominance over Egypt?  A) Murad, commander of the Mamluks  B) Napoleon, French emperor  C) Muhammad Ali, an Albanian officer in the Ottoman army  D) Nurhaci, Almoravid military commander  E) Sultan Ahmet, Egyptian nationalist

47  C) Muhammad Ali, an Albanian officer in the Ottoman army

48  Which of the following reforms was NOT introduced in Egypt after 1801?  A) Restoration of the Mamluk armies  B) Introduction of Western-style military conscription  C) Hiring of French military advisors  D) Importation of Western arms  E) Separation of church and state

49  A) Restoration of the Mamluk armies

50  What prevented Muhammad Ali from overthrowing the Ottoman Empire?  A) His failure to develop a modern army  B) Lack of a navy  C) His defeat by the Ottomans at Omdurman  D) Opposition of European powers  E) Completion of the Suez Canal

51  D) Opposition of European powers

52  Which of the following reforms undertaken by Muhammad Ali failed?  A) Production of raw materials in demand in Europe (cotton, hemp, indigo)  B) Improvements of Egyptian harbors and irrigation works along the Nile  C) Build-up of an Egyptian industrial sector  D) Modernization of the army  E) Education reform

53  C) Build-up of an Egyptian industrial sector

54  With which of the following groups did Muhammad All ally himself?  A) Peasantry  B) Ulama  C) Ayan  D) Sufi  E) Mamluks

55  C) Ayan

56  Muhammad Ali’s successors as rulers of Egypt were referred to as:  A) Sultans.  B) Khedives.  C) Caliphs.  D) Kings.  E) Emperors.

57  B) Khedives.

58  European financiers lent money to the profligate successors of Muhammad Ali because they desired access to Egypt’s cheap cotton and, by the 1850s, a share in the:  A) Orient Express.  B) Cairo Railway.  C) Suez Canal.  D) Panama Canal.  E) Silk Road.

59  C) Suez Canal.

60  Which of the following was an Islamic moderate in nineteenth century Egypt who urged the adoption of Western scientific knowledge and technology?  A) al-Afghani  B) Ibn Sina  C) Ibn Rochd  D) al-Mansur  E) Ismail Pasha

61  A) al-Afghani

62  The Khedival government of Egypt was threatened in 1882 by a rebellion of Egyptian military officers under:  A) Muhammad Ali.  B) Ahmad Orabi  C) Muhammad Achmad.  D) Khalifa Abdallahi.  E) Muhammed Abduh.

63  B) Ahmad Orabi

64  What was the result of the rebellion by Egyptian army officers in 1882?  A) The Khedival government was overthrown by an indigenous Egyptian government.  B) A new constitution was instituted modeled on the Ottoman constitution of  C) The rebellion was crushed by the Turkish elements within the Egyptian army.  D) The Khedive called on the British to crush the rebellion resulting in British overlordship of Egypt.  E) British influence in Egypt was ended.

65  D) The Khedive called on the British to crush the rebellion resulting in British overlordship of Egypt.

66  What was the center of Egyptian administration in the Sudan?  A) Omdurman  B) Cairo  C) Aboukir  D) Khartoum  E) Fashoda.

67  D) Khartoum

68  On what basis did Muhammad Achmad claim leadership of the Sudanic resistance to Egyptian rule?  A) He claimed direct descent from Muhammad.  B) He claimed to be a direct descendant of the kings of Ghana.  C) He was the head of the Sunni ulama in the Sudan.  D) He claimed to be a direct descendant of Murad, the last ruler of the Mamluks.  E) He had substantial Western support.

69  A) He claimed direct descent from Muhammad.

70  The successor to the Mahdi, Khalifa Abdallahi,:  A) relieved the restrictive social regulations imposed by the Mahdi.  B) immediately lost the military advantage gained by the Mahdi.  C) fell in the Mahdist defeat at the battle of Omdurman in  D) overthrew the Ottoman Sultan and captured Istanbul.  E) ended slavery in the Sudan.

71  C) fell in the Mahdist defeat at the battle of Omdurman in 1898.

72  Who was responsible for the unification of the Manchu tribesmen prior to the invasion of China in the seventeenth century?  A) Lin Zexu  B) Nurhaci  C) Cixi  D) Hong Liaquan  E) Kang Xi

73  B) Nurhaci

74  The dynastic name taken by the Manchu dynasty was:  A) Song.  B) Tang.  C) Qing.  D) Chou.  E) Sui.

75  C) Qing.

76  Which of the following statements concerning the Manchu government is most accurate?  A) They destroyed the scholar-gentry in order to consolidate their grip on the government.  B) The civil service examination system was eliminated as a means of entering the government.  C) Though Manchus occupied a disproportionate number of the highest political positions, there were few limits on Chinese promotions within the imperial bureaucracy.  D) Chinese officials were eliminated at the local administrative levels in order to prevent the extreme regionalization that had led to the downfall of previous dynasties.  E) They welcomed modernization and Western influence.

77  C) Though Manchus occupied a disproportionate number of the highest political positions, there were few limits on Chinese promotions within the imperial bureaucracy.

78  In what area did the Manchus attempt to take strong measures of reform?  A) Elimination of the scholar-gentry  B) Removal of social restrictions on women  C) Overturning the Confucian social hierarchy of age and sex  D) Alleviating rural distress and unrest  E) Eliminating the influence of religion

79  D) Alleviating rural distress and unrest

80  What accounts for the general failure of Manchu attempts at reform?  A) Resistance on the part of the peasantry  B) Enormous population growth and the disappearance of open lands  C) Buddhist resistance  D) Loss of territory to nomads from the Asian steppes  E) Strong resistance from the scholar-gentry

81  B) Enormous population growth and the disappearance of open lands

82  The new groups of merchants that developed in China under the more relaxed commercial system of the Manchus were called  A) waiqin.  B) pescadors.  C) compradors.  D) Boxers.  E) Mandarins

83  C) compradors.

84  All of the following signs of dynastic decline were apparent in the Qing regime by the beginning of the nineteenth century EXCEPT:  A) corruption of the examination system.  B) diversion of revenue from state projects to private fortunes.  C) failure of foreign commerce.  D) food shortages, mass migrations, and banditry.  E) explosive growth of the bureaucracy.

85  C) failure of foreign commerce.

86  ) How large was the Chinese population by 1850?  A) 100 million  B) 200 million  C) 410 to 415 million  D) 500 million  E) 1 billion

87  C) 410 to 415 million

88  Unhappy about the unfavorable terms of trade in China, British merchants hit on a possible solution to reverse the flow of bullion in the form of:  A) cotton textiles.  B) opium from India.  C) teas.  D) industrial machinery.  E) gold and salt.

89  B) opium from India.

90  What was the impact of the British opium trade on China?  A) Its use was restricted to the peasantry of northern China, where production of food rapidly decreased.  B) The government was quickly able to halt the importation of opium, so that it did not have the disastrous impact on the Chinese population that was expected.  C) Within years China’s favorable balance of trade was reversed and silver began to flow out of the country.  D) Due to the addiction of the imperial court, the British were welcomed as a valuable trade partner of China.  E) The opium trade had little economic effect on China.

91  C) Within years China’s favorable balance of trade was reversed and silver began to flow out of the country.

92  The Chinese official charged with eliminating the opium trade in the 1830s was:  A) Cixi.  B) Lin Zexu.  C) Hong Liuquan.  D) Kanxi.  E) Zeng Guofan.

93  B) Lin Zexu.

94  What was the outcome of the Opium War?  A) Despite technological advantages, the British forces were overwhelmed by the Chinese numerical superiority and were unable to penetrate China’s isolation.  B) The British soon swept the seas of opposition, but were prevented from entering China by opposition from other European powers who feared Britain’s overthrow of the Manchus.  C) The British victory was so overwhelming that the Manchu dynasty was overthrown by 1850 and replaced by a republic.  D) British victory in the Opium War allowed European powers to force China to open trade and diplomatic exchanges.  E) The Opium Was led directly to the Sino-Japanese War.

95  D) British victory in the Opium War allowed European powers to force China to open trade and diplomatic exchanges.

96  The semi-Christian rebellion that broke out in southern China in the 1850s and early 1860s was the:  A) Boxer rebellion.  B) Kwangxi rebellion.  C) Taiping rebellion.  D) Shandong rebellion.  E) Manchu rebellion.

97  C) Taiping rebellion.

98  What was the political and social position of the Manchu rulers at the end of the nineteenth century?  A) The Manchu rulers stubbornly resisted the far reaching reforms that were the only hope of saving the regime and Chinese civilization.  B) The last decades of the dynasty were dominated by Cixi, a woman who proposed radical reforms of the social order.  C) The Chinese scholar-gentry and the provincial elite allied with the emperors to introduce significant reform of landholding practices and regional administration.  D) The dynasty wholeheartedly embraced the ongoing westernization of the Chinese government and economy.  E) Their capital, the Forbidden City, was a center of Chinese culture.

99  A) The Manchu rulers stubbornly resisted the far reaching reforms that were the only hope of saving the regime and Chinese civilization.

100  In what year was the last emperor of China deposed in favor of a republican form of government?  A) 1895  B) 1901  C) 1908  D) 1912  E) 1914

101  D) 1912

102  Of the following regions, which defied the common pattern of growing Western domination in the nineteenth century?  A) Russia and Japan  B) The Ottoman Empire  C) Latin America  D) West Africa  E) Eastern Europe

103  A) Russia and Japan

104  Which of the following statements concerning the development of Russia and Japan to 1900 is NOT accurate?  A) Neither Russia nor Japan rivaled the industrial might of the West by  B) Both nations gained sufficient power to wield important political and military influence in the colonial scramble.  C) Russia and Japan did launch significant industrialization by  D) Russia and Japan achieved both economic autonomy and a share in the West’s core position.  E) Japan outstripped Russia’s industrial gains by 1900.

105  D) Russia and Japan achieved both economic autonomy and a share in the West’s core position.

106  Which of the following represents a significant difference between Russia and Japan?  A) Only Japan had a significant aristocracy prior to industrialization.  B) Only Russia participated in territorial expansion by  C) Russia engaged in selective borrowing from Western models by  D) Only Japan underwent significant political revolution prior to  E) Only Japan experienced Communist uprisings by 1905.

107  C) Russia engaged in selective borrowing from Western models by 1700.

108  Which of the following reflects a significant similarity between Japan and Russia during the period of industrialization prior to 1914?  A) Both experienced significant political revolutions.  B) Both Japan and Russia had prior experience of imitation, Japan from China, Russia from Byzantium and the West.  C) Both demonstrated remarkable political flexibility resulting in sweeping transformations of political structure.  D) Both engaged in territorial acquisitions in the Ottoman Empire.  E) Both had a large industrial labor force.

109  B) Both Japan and Russia had prior experience of imitation, Japan from China, Russia from Byzantium and the West.

110  Russia’s fear about Westernization in the first decades of the nineteenth century was rooted in:  A) concern about British invasion.  B) the French Revolution.  C) dislike of Western dress.  D) worry over loss of Poland.  E) German nationalism.

111  B) the French Revolution.

112  What nations were linked together in the Holy Alliance that grouped conservative monarchies together in defense of religion and the status quo in 1815?  A) Britain, France, Spain  B) Spain, Russia, Poland  C) Russia, Prussia, Austria  D) Austria, Japan, Russia  E) France, Britain, Italy

113  C) Russia, Prussia, Austria

114  What was the name of the Russian revolt inspired by Western values in 1825?  A) Decembrist ring  B) November rebellion  C) Pushkin’s revolt  D) Pugachev rebellion  E) Potemkin mutiny

115  A) Decembrist ring

116  Which of the following accounts for Russia’s lack of significant revolution in 1830 and 1848?  A) Russia’s lack of a substantial history of autocracy  B) Absence of a coercive labor system in Russia leaving scant cause for rebellion  C) Political repression  D) like England, Russia’s history of participatory government and its national parliament, forestalling revolution  E) Major reforms, satisfying most Russians

117  C) Political repression

118  Which of the following statements concerning Russian territorial expansion is most accurate?  A) Russia’s loss of Poland in the revolt of 1830 stimulated other attempts at territorial expansion.  B) Russia actively opposed nationalist movements in the Balkans in keeping with their conservative tradition.  C) Western powers actively aided Russia’s pursuit of territories in the Ottoman Empire.  D) No massive acquisitions marked the early nineteenth century, but Russia continued to be an aggressive competitor for territorial expansion.  E) Russia expanded rapidly south of Alaska to Oregon.

119  D) No massive acquisitions marked the early nineteenth century, but Russia continued to be an aggressive competitor for territorial expansion.

120  Which of the following statements best describes the Russian economy at the beginning of the nineteenth century?  A) Russia had achieved economic autonomy in the eighteenth century, although most of eastern Europe remained largely agricultural.  B) The Russian economy was geographically oriented to the Ottoman Empire—a feature of the Mongol domination of Russia until the fifteenth century.  C) Russia’s economic dynamism and innovation rivaled the West.  D) In return for low-cost grain exports, Russia and other East European areas imported Western luxury goods for the great aristocrats to display as badges of respectability.  E) Russian heavy industry accounted for all their economic growth.

121  D) In return for low-cost grain exports, Russia and other East European areas imported Western luxury goods for the great aristocrats to display as badges of respectability.

122  What war in the mid-nineteenth century demonstrated Russia’s widening gap with the West?  A) Russo-Japanese War  B) Napoleon’s invasion of Russia  C) Crimean War  D) Sepoy rebellion  E) Russo-Turkish War

123  C) Crimean War

124  What accounted for the West’s victory over Russia in the Crimean War?  A) The war was fought far from Russia, necessitating lengthy lines of communication and supply.  B) Russia was forced to fight an offensive war against entrenched positions.  C) The war was fought almost entirely at sea where the Russians were unable to bring their numerical superiority to bear.  D) The Western nations won not because of superior tactics or inspired principles, but because of industrial advantages.  E) Sardinian assistance to the Russians was ineffective.

125  D) The Western nations won not because of superior tactics or inspired principles, but because of industrial advantages.

126  What tsar began the process of reform in the nineteenth century?  A) Alexander I  B) Alexander II  C) Nicholas I  D) Peter the Great  E) Nicholas II

127  B) Alexander II

128  Which of the following was NOT a consideration in the reform of serfdom?  A) It was the purpose of the tsar to sweep away the tightly knit peasant communities on which serfdom depended.  B) The development of a vigorous and mobile labor force.  C) A desire to meet Western humanitarian standards.  D) Periodic peasant uprisings focused on lack of freedom, undue obligations, and lack of land.  E) The preservation of aristocratic power.

129  A) It was the purpose of the tsar to sweep away the tightly knit peasant communities on which serfdom depended.

130  In what year were Russian serfs emancipated?  A) 1831  B) 1854  C) 1861  D) 1868  E) 1914

131  C) 1861

132  Which of the following statements concerning the emancipation of the serfs in Russia is most accurate?  A) The emancipation of the serfs destroyed the Russian aristocracy.  B) Emancipation of the serfs loosened the grip of the tsarist state.  C) In addition to personal freedom, the serfs were granted parcels of land subject to redemption payments.  D) Following emancipation, peasants were free to move about Russia as they pleased leading to massive movements of agricultural labor.  E) Few serfs were really emancipated.

133  C) In addition to personal freedom, the serfs were granted parcels of land subject to redemption payments.

134  All of the following were reforms introduced in Russia in the 1860s and 1870s EXCEPT:  A) the creation of the Duma, a national parliament.  B) the creation of local political councils, the zemstvoes.  C) the issuance of new law codes that cut back traditional punishments.  D) reorganization of the military.  E) universal voting rights.

135  A) the creation of the Duma, a national parliament.

136  What was the first step toward industrialization in Russia?  A) construction of factories  B) development of the mining sector  C) creation of an extensive system of railways  D) end of the grain trade with the West  E) mechanization of agriculture

137  C) creation of an extensive system of railways

138  The Russian minister of finance from 1892 to 1903 responsible for much economic modernization was:  A) Stolypin.  B) Count Witte.  C) Klemenz von Metternich.  D) Gregor Mendel.  E) General Kuropatkin.

139  B) Count Witte.

140  Which of the following statements concerning the capitalization of Russian industry is most accurate?  A) Capital for Russian investment was almost entirely derived from liquidation of agricultural estates in Russia.  B) By 1900 approximately half of Russian industry was foreign- owned by British, German, and French industrialists.  C) It was the contact with the Japanese that led to an influx of capital for Russian industrialization.  D) Russian industry was capitalized by a substantial middle class that had built up wealth in the grain trade with the West.  E) United Sates investors were the largest owners of machinery in Russia by 1900.

141  B) By 1900 approximately half of Russian industry was foreign-owned by British, German, and French industrialists.

142  By 1900, how successful was the Russian industrialization program?  A) Despite massive programs of forced labor and extensive government subsidies, the Russian program of industrialization failed.  B) Russian industrialization progressed slowly and by 1900 had reached tenth in the world in terms of steel production.  C) By 1900, Russia had surged to fourth rank in the world in steel production and was second to the United States in the newer area of petroleum production.  D) Without access to plentiful raw materials, Russia was dependent on constant territorial acquisitions to fuel its lagging industrial program.  E) Russia was unable to industrialize any of its larger businesses.

143  C) By 1900, Russia had surged to fourth rank in the world in steel production and was second to the United States in the newer area of petroleum production.

144  Which of the following was present during the Russian program of industrialization?  A) attitudinal change among workers similar to the West  B) large middle class  C) rich natural resources  D) small, but efficient, factories  E) highly educated work force

145  C) rich natural resources

146  All of the following were part of the rising tide of unrest in Russia during the second half of the nineteenth century EXCEPT:  A) the Orthodox Church.  B) ethnic minorities.  C) peasants.  D) the intelligentsia.  E) the industrial workers.

147  A) the Orthodox Church.

148  What was the general goal of the Russian intelligentsia?  A) political freedom, social reform, and retention of Russian culture  B) political freedom, retention of the social hierarchy, and increased Westernization  C) restriction of civil liberties, honor and deference to the emperor, retention of Russian culture  D) radical Westernization as part of a program of increased industrialization  E) globally competitive economy.

149  A) political freedom, social reform, and retention of Russian culture

150  Russian radicals who sought the abolition of all formal government were called:  A) Decembrists.  B) Latitudinarians.  C) abolitionists.  D) anarchists.  E) socialists.

151  D) anarchists.

152  What was the chief political method used by the anarchists to achieve reform?  A) strikes  B) terrorism  C) political  D) voter registration  E) non-violent protest

153  B) terrorism

154  Which of the following statements about Russian Marxism is most accurate?  A) Marxist insistence on careful revolutionary organization and a focus on the working class was rapidly assimilated by anarchists and peasant groups.  B) Marxist doctrines were not imported from the West, but originated among the Russian intelligentsia.  C) Lenin introduced important innovations in Marxist theory, including the idea that a proletarian revolution could take place without going through a middle-class phase.  D) Lenin was dedicated to the mass electioneering typical of Western socialist parties.  E) Marxist doctrines were most applicable to an agrarian economy.

155  C) Lenin introduced important innovations in Marxist theory, including the idea that a proletarian revolution could take place without going through a middle-class phase.

156  Lenin’s approach was adopted by the groups of Russian Marxists known as:  A) Mensheviks.  B) anarchists.  C) Decembrists.  D) Bolsheviks.  E) Zemstvos.

157  D) Bolsheviks.

158  Which of the following did NOT contribute to working-class radicalism in late nineteenth century Russia?  A) absence of legal political outlets  B) severe conditions of early industrialization  C) rural unrest and adoption of peasant grievances  D) absence of unions  E) workplace reforms

159  D) absence of unions

160  Failure in what war led to the Russian revolution of 1905?  A) Crimean  B) Sino-Japanese  C) Russo-Japanese  D) World War I  E) Russo-Turkish War

161  C) Russo-Japanese

162  What group did the imperial government appeal to in the reforms following the revolution of 1905?  A) liberals  B) workers organizations  C) Marxists  D) anarchists  E) conservatives

163  A) liberals

164  What minister was responsible for enacting reforms for the peasantry following the revolution of 1905?  A) Count Witte  B) Grigori Rasputin  C) Alexi Romanov  D) Stolypin  E) Prince Gortchakov

165  D) Stolypin

166  The Duma was:  A) the confrontation between radial workers and the tsarist army in  B) a system of collective farms for peasants introduced following  C) a national parliament created in the aftermath of the 1905 revolution.  D) the imperial council that took over government after the abdication of the tsar in  E) the Russian national labor union.

167  C) a national parliament created in the aftermath of the 1905 revolution.

168  Peasants who responded to the reforms of 1905 by engaging in entrepreneurial activity including increasing production and buying up land were called:  A) Duma.  B) kulaks.  C) anarchists.  D) Bakunin.  E) soviets.

169  B) kulaks.

170  Which of the following Russian developments was NOT adopted in other East European states?  A) national parliaments  B) emancipation of serfs  C) economic autonomy from the West  D) monarchic forms of government  E) nationalism

171  C) economic autonomy from the West

172  Which of the following was NOT a nineteenth century Russian novelist?  A) Turgenev  B) Pavlov  C) Tolstoy  D) Dostoevsky  E) Gogol

173  B) Pavlov

174  Which of the following statements concerning the Tokugawa Shogunate in the nineteenth century is most accurate?  A) The Shogunate bureaucracy had been opened to talented commoners—a reform that improved the standing of the government with the masses of the Japanese people.  B) By the nineteenth century, the Tokugawa were able to dispense with the feudal organization of earlier Japan.  C) Increasingly the Shogunate depended on its long-standing alliances with Western powers to maintain its dominance.  D) The Shogunate continued to combine a central bureaucracy with semi-feudal alliances with regional daimyos and the samurai.  E) The Shogunate managed its finances carefully, and never carried a deficit.

175  D) The Shogunate continued to combine a central bureaucracy with semi-feudal alliances with regional daimyos and the samurai.

176  Which of the following statements concerning Tokugawa intellectual and cultural life is most accurate?  A) Japanese literature reached its zenith during the last decades of the Tokugawa Shogunate.  B) Confucianism rapidly lost ground to Buddhism as the major religious and ethical basis for Japanese society.  C) Japan continued to be largely imitative of conservative Chinese intellectual currents rather than developing dynamic ethical and philosophical systems.  D) Literacy in Japan reached levels higher than anywhere else outside the West.  E) The Tokugawa placed little emphasis on learning.

177  D) Literacy in Japan reached levels higher than anywhere else outside the West.

178  Which of the following groups in Tokugawa Japan advocated interest in Western scientific advance?  A) Dutch Studies group  B) national studies group  C) Confucian scholars  D) Buddhist scholars  E) Shinto priests

179  A) Dutch Studies group

180  Who was responsible for the forced opening of Japan in 1853?  A) Captain James Cook  B) Commodore Matthew Perry  C) Admiral Horatio Nelson  D) Captain William Farragut  E) Commodore George Perry

181  B) Commodore Matthew Perry

182  In what year was a new emperor, Mutsuhito but commonly called “Meiji” or “Enlightened One,” proclaimed, signaling the end of a major political crisis?  A) 1854  B) 1868  C) 1875  D) 1889  E) 1914

183  B) 1868

184  Which of the following was NOT an advantage of Japan over China in the competition to assume leadership and to establish industrialization in Asia?  A) Japan’s leadership was less secular and bureaucratic than that of China.  B) Japan already knew the benefits of imitation, which China had never acknowledged.  C) Japan had allowed a more autonomous merchant tradition.  D) Feudal traditions limited the heavy hand of government controls while stimulating a sense of competitiveness.  E) Japan was a heterogeneous, diverse society

185  A) Japan’s leadership was less secular and bureaucratic than that of China.

186  Which of the following statements concerning Japanese political reforms in the period of the Meiji state is NOT accurate?  A) Meiji leaders established a new conservative nobility, stocked with former nobles and Meiji leaders that operated a British-style House of Peers.  B) Samurai, destroyed by the removal of government stipends, were banned from participation in the Meiji Diet.  C) The constitution issued in 1889 assured major prerogatives for the emperor along with limited powers for the lower house of the Diet.  D) The bureaucracy was reorganized, insulated from political pressures, and opened to talent on the basis of civil service examinations.  E) The Meiji came to power with very little violence.

187  B) Samurai, destroyed by the removal of government stipends, were banned from participation in the Meiji Diet.

188  What was the primary difference between the reformed Japanese government and reformed Russian institutions by 1914?  A) Japan retained an emperor at the head of government.  B) Japan created a national parliament.  C) Japan’s government was elected by a broad majority of the population.  D) Japan’s government had incorporated business leaders into its governing structure.  E) Russian institutions were more secular than Japan’s.

189  D) Japan’s government had incorporated business leaders into its governing structure.

190  One of the major similarities between Japanese and Russian industrialization was the fact that:  A) both lacked natural resources.  B) scarce capital and unfamiliarity of new technology compelled state direction.  C) neither was able to complete construction of a railway system.  D) neither had any experience of cultural exchange with the West.  E) a small group of independent entrepreneurs led to movement in each case.

191  B) scarce capital and unfamiliarity of new technology compelled state direction.

192  Huge industrial combines put together in Japan by the 1890s were called:  A) haiku.  B) terakoya.  C) zaibatsus.  D) khitan.  E) Samurais.

193  C) zaibatsus.

194  Which of the following statements concerning Japanese industrialization prior to World War I is correct?  A) Japan’s workforce was among the highest paid in the world.  B) Abundant natural resources made Japan virtually self-sufficient as an industrialized nation.  C) By 1914, Japan had reached the level of industrialization found in the West.  D) Japan needed exports to pay for machine and resource imports.  E) Japan lagged far behind the West industrially.

195  D) Japan needed exports to pay for machine and resource imports.

196  Which of the following Western cultural characteristics was NOT adopted by large numbers of Japanese?  A) hair styles  B) standards of hygiene  C) Western calendar  D) Christianity  E) work styles

197  D) Christianity

198  Which of the following religions gained new adherents in industrialized Japan?  A) Shinto  B) Confucianism  C) Buddhism  D) Christianity  E) Judaism

199  A) Shinto

200  Which of the following was NOT a sign of significant social stress in industrialized Japan?  A) disputes between generations over Westernization  B) increasing freedom and political influence of women  C) growth of nationalism  D) growth of urban slums  E) racial unrest

201  B) increasing freedom and political influence of women

202  Which of the following was NOT a feature of twentieth-century world history?  A) the forming of international organizations  B) a changing balance of power  C) a lessening of conflict  D) massive population growth  E) little industrial development.

203  C) a lessening of conflict

204  What disseminators of American popular culture established distribution branches around the world in the second decade of the twentieth century?  A) film companies  B) libraries  C) theatrical groups  D) television networks  E) radio networks

205  A) film companies

206  Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the attitude of Western observers just before 1914?  A) The constant warfare involved in the scramble for imperial possessions caused many observers to anticipate global conflict.  B) Disease and famine were the constant reminders of a society that had yet to achieve self-sufficiency.  C) Frustration with limited civil liberties and voting rights gave a jaded Europe a sense of impending revolution.  D) Western leadership was bringing new enlightenment to the inferior peoples of the rest of the world.  E) Western dominance would soon end.

207  D) Western leadership was bringing new enlightenment to the inferior peoples of the rest of the world.

208  Which of the following was NOT an institution created during the period of internationalization during the later nineteenth century?  A) International Statistical Congress  B) Red Cross  C) League of Nations  D) Postal Union  E) Concert of Europe

209  C) League of Nations

210  What was one of the weaknesses of the international movement prior to World War I?  A) it was heavily based on Western dominance and control of empires  B) it limited nationalism  C) it did not exist outside of Europe  D) it was opposed by the United States  E) most people did not believe in its goals

211  A) it was heavily based on Western dominance and control of empires

212  The permanent court of arbitration created at the Hague in 1899 was called the:  A) League of Nations.  B) United Nations.  C) Dutch Parliament.  D) World Court.  E) German Confederation.

213  D) World Court.

214  What was the region of Europe that produced most diplomatic crises prior to World War I?  A) Scandinavia  B) the Balkans  C) Italy  D) Spain  E) Sudetenland

215  B) the Balkans

216  What two European powers were directly involved in the Balkan diplomacy?  A) Germany and Russia  B) Russia and Britain  C) Russia and Austria-Hungary  D) France and Austria-Hungary  E) France and Germany

217  C) Russia and Austria-Hungary

218  Which of the following was NOT an event leading to the outbreak of World War I?  A) the assassination of the Austrian Archduke by a Serbian nationalist  B) Austria’s declaration of war on Serbia  C) the mobilization of the Russian army  D) France’s invasion of Belgium  E) France’s support of Russia

219  D) France’s invasion of Belgium

220  The sea warfare during World War I consisted largely of:  A) major surface battles between the fleets of Britain and Germany.  B) a single major battle in which the German fleet destroyed the Russian navy.  C) German submarine warfare.  D) the British attempt to destroy the Russian fleet in the Mediterranean.  E) Russian offensives in the Black Sea.

221  C) German submarine warfare.

222  By 1916, conflict on the western front  A) had become a shifting game of rapid maneuver with few major battles.  B) had resulted in the surrender of France and the establishment of the Vichy government.  C) had resulted in victory for the British and French troops who pushed the exhausted enemy to the borders of Germany.  D) had settled into a deadly stalemate in which hundreds of thousands of lives were expended for a few feet of trench.  E) caused the Germans to open a second front in Italy.

223  D) had settled into a deadly stalemate in which hundreds of thousands of lives were expended for a few feet of trench.

224  On the Italian front, the primary combatants were Italy and:  A) Germany.  B) Russia.  C) Austria-Hungary.  D) France.  E) Serbia.

225  C) Austria-Hungary.

226  Between 1914 and 1917, warfare on the eastern front:  A) pitted the forces of Russian and Austria- Hungary against the invading Germans.  B) included parts of Russia and the Balkans.  C) resulted in the Serbian knockout of the Austrian forces.  D) featured bloody trench warfare in which almost no land changed hands.  E) was dominated by the Austrians.

227  B) included parts of Russia and the Balkans.

228  Which of the following was NOT a feature of war on the home front between 1914 and 1919?  A) Governments organized the major sectors of the economy to ration resources and production.  B) Executive branches of government increasingly took over from parliaments.  C) Governments controlled public opinion through manipulation of mass media such as newspapers.  D) Strict government regulation prevented material shortages and famine.  E) Most civilians felt the effects of the war.

229  D) Strict government regulation prevented material shortages and famine.

230  Which of the following statements concerning the global aspects of World War I is most accurate?  A) The British dominions—Canada, Australia, and New Zealand—remained aloof and virtually untouched by the war.  B) By 1914, the United States had not entered the scramble for colonial possessions.  C) American businessmen prior to 1917 profited by selling goods to both sides and by taking advantage of European distractions to seize new world markets.  D) The United States aggressively entered the war in 1914 to demonstrate its new position as a world power.  E) The world economic system was mostly unaffected.

231  C) American businessmen prior to 1917 profited by selling goods to both sides and by taking advantage of European distractions to seize new world markets.

232  What nation profited most by warfare in Asia between 1914 and 1919?  A) Japan  B) China  C) New Zealand  D) the United States  E) Vietnam

233  A) Japan

234  During World War I, the Ottoman Empire  A) vainly attempted to retain its neutrality in what the Turks perceived was a Christian conflict.  B) long attached to German military advisors, joined Germany in the war effort.  C) used the opportunity to reassert Turkish dominance over the Arab regions.  D) launched assaults indifferently against the colonial possessions of Britain, France, and Germany.  E) was unable to repel British invaders at Gallipolli.

235  B) long attached to German military advisors, joined Germany in the war effort.

236  The British promised support for a Jewish settlement in the Middle East in the:  A) Sinai Resolution.  B) Exodus Pact.  C) Chamberlain Manifesto.  D) Balfour Declaration.  E) Fourteen Points.

237  D) Balfour Declaration.

238  By 1917 the war on the eastern front:  A) had stagnated into a stalemate in which neither side had an advantage.  B) led to a major revolution in Russia that toppled the tsarist government.  C) was resolved by a peace treaty between the combatants.  D) resulted in a massive Russian offensive fueled by the numerical superiority of Russian armies.  E) was joined by the American Expeditionary Force.

239  B) led to a major revolution in Russia that toppled the tsarist government.

240  In what year was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed?  A) 1916  B) 1917  C) 1918  D) 1919  E) 1920

241  C) 1918

242  In what year did the German forces on the western front sue for peace?  A) 1916  B) 1917  C) 1918  D) 1919  E) 1915

243  C) 1918

244  Before their surrender, the German generals running the government:  A) installed a new civilian government to shoulder the blame of defeat.  B) murdered the emperor.  C) issued a statement accepting blame for the policies that had led to World War I.  D) overthrew the civilian government and established a military dictatorship.  E) tried to break through the Allied lines at Verdun.

245  A) installed a new civilian government to shoulder the blame of defeat.

246  The series of treaties that ended World War I were negotiated at:  A) Potsdam.  B) Brest-Litovsk.  C) London.  D) Versailles.  E) Berlin.

247  D) Versailles.

248  Which of the following was NOT included in the final set of treaties that ended World War I?  A) A League of Nations was formed, but the United States refused to join.  B) Russia was rewarded for its service to the Allies by the grant of substantial territories in Poland and the Baltic republics.  C) Germany was forced to accept blame for the war and to pay huge reparations to the victorious Allies.  0) Austria-Hungary was divided up into a Germanic Austria as well as independent states of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia.  E) The Ottoman Empire ceased to exist.

249  B) Russia was rewarded for its service to the Allies by the grant of substantial territories in Poland and the Baltic republics.

250  Approximately how many people died as a result of the carnage of World War I?  A) one million  B) two million  C) five million  D) ten million  E) 500,000

251  D) ten million

252  As a result of their participation in World War I, the Ottoman Empire:  A) effectively collapsed.  B) recovered their control over the Arab regions of the empire, including Egypt.  C) was rewarded by the grant of substantial territories in the Balkans.  D) recovered land previously lost to Russia.  E) formed a new Islamic kingdom.

253  A) effectively collapsed.

254  Which of the following was NOT carved from the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I?  A) Turkish republic  B) Jewish state of Israel  C) British mandates in Palestine and Iraq  D) French mandates in Syria and Lebanon  E) Arab states under tribal leaders

255  B) Jewish state of Israel

256  The League of Nations, created in the aftermath of World War I,:  A) proved to be an effective international forum for negotiating disputes.  B) was handicapped by the absence of Germany, Japan, and France.  C) was led by the newly powerful United States.  D) was little more than a discussion group, as real diplomacy continued to be on a nation-by-nation basis.  E) created the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

257  D) was little more than a discussion group, as real diplomacy continued to be on a nation- by-nation basis.

258  In what year did the Great Depression begin?  A) 1919  B) 1921  C) 1929  D) 1939  E) 1924

259  C) 1929

260  All of the following were causes of the Great Depression EXCEPT:  A) war-induced inflation.  B) prosperity in dependent economies leading to competition with the Western core.  C) overproduction of food prices and consequent low prices.  D) excessive debts to the United States.  E) high economic barriers between nations.

261  B) prosperity in dependent economies leading to competition with the Western core.

262  Which of the following was a social result of the Great Depression?  A) up to one-third of all blue-collar workers in the West lost their jobs for prolonged periods  B) family farms in the United States flourished  C) white-collar unemployment exceeded the numbers of unskilled laborers as corporations foundered in a sea of debt  D) despite the economic dislocation, employment in most countries rose  E) the United States turned toward communism

263  A) up to one-third of all blue-collar workers in the West lost their jobs for prolonged periods

264  Which of the following economies was least affected by the Great Depression?  A) Latin America  B) the Soviet Union  C) the United States  D) western Europe  E) Japan

265  B) the Soviet Union

266  ) In Japan, the Great Depression:  A) had little effect due to the economic isolation of Japan’s economy from the West.  B) actually resulted in an economic boom for the Japanese, as they managed to seize numerous export markets that had previously been the sole possession of the West.  C) resulted in a slight economic downturn, but nothing similar to the catastrophic events of western Europe and the U.S.  D) devastated an economy still heavily dependent on export earnings for financing imports of essential fuel and raw materials.  E) led to a Socialist dictatorship.

267  D) devastated an economy still heavily dependent on export earnings for financing imports of essential fuel and raw materials.

268  The Soviet leader Joseph Stalin regarded the Great Depression as:  A) an outgrowth of imperialism and capitalism.  B) a world-wide tragedy calling for international cooperation between communist and capitalist states.  C) a temporary and mild economic dislocation.  D) a result of the weakness of democratic, non- aggressive states.  E) an opportunity to trade with the United States.

269  A) an outgrowth of imperialism and capitalism.

270  After 1937, the government of Japan was dominated by:  A) socialists who gained power in the aftermath of the depression.  B) labor unions whose position was strengthened by their control of industry.  C) the emerging estate of middle-class liberals intent on a broader franchise.  D) a military regime dedicated to the ultra-nationalist goals.  E) advocates of parliamentary democracy.

271  D) a military regime dedicated to the ultra- nationalist goals.

272  In 1931, the Japanese army marched into and declared it an independent state.  A) Korea  B) Vietnam  C) the Philippines  D) Manchuria  E) Mongolia

273  D) Manchuria

274  Adolph Hitler was the political and ideological leader of the:  A) Social Democratic Party.  B) National Socialist Party.  C) Christian Democratic Party.  D) Conservative Union.  E) German Communist Party.

275  B) National Socialist Party.

276  Hitler came to power in Germany  A) as a result of entirely legal and constitutional means.  B) with the support of socialists.  C) after a short, but violent, overthrow of the constitutional government.  D) after a lengthy civil war between forces of conservatives and communists.  E) immediately after World War I.

277  A) as a result of entirely legal and constitutional means.

278  Who was the leader of fascist Italy?  A) Benedetto Croce  B) Ernesto Momigliano  C) Benito Mussolini  D) Benito Juarez  E) Antonio Gramsci

279  C) Benito Mussolini

280  In the Spanish civil war (1936 to 1939), what nation sent effective support to the republican forces?  A) Britain  B) Germany  C) the United States  D) the Soviet Union  E) Mexico

281  D) the Soviet Union

282  The policy followed by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain at the Munich conference of 1939 came to be known as:  A) pacification.  B) aggressive peacemaking.  C) appeasement.  D) the Germanification of Europe.  E) brinkmanship.

283  C) appeasement.

284  In what year did the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, thus bringing the United States into World War II?  A) 1939  B) 1941  C) 1943  D) 1945  E) 1938

285

286  Which of the following statements concerning warfare in the European theater during World War II is most accurate?  A) France mounted a fanatic defense of its home territories, only succumbing to the Nazi advance in  B) By the summer of 1940, most of France lay in German hands, while a semi-fascist collaborative regime ruled in Vichy.  C) British resistance crumbled before the air assaults of Germany, and an amphibious assault knocked the British from the war.  D) From 1939 on, the chief resistance to the German advance was provided by American forces.  E) The Germans never broke through the Western front.

287  B) By the summer of 1940, most of France lay in German hands, while a semi-fascist collaborative regime ruled in Vichy.

288  The balance of the war in Europe shifted in 1941 when Germany invaded:  A) France.  B) Britain.  C) Italy.  D) the Soviet Union.  E) the United States.

289  D) the Soviet Union.

290  Japan’s surrender in the Pacific was precipitated by:  A) the use of atomic weapons on the cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima by the U.S.  B) a massive land and sea assault on the Japanese home islands.  C) the loss of the Philippines to the U.S.  D) the British advance through Malaya into China.  E) victories by China under Mao Zedong.

291  A) the use of atomic weapons on the cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima by the U.S.

292  All the following were conferences held among the allied powers to determine the fate of Europe after the defeat of Germany EXCEPT:  A) Potsdam.  B) Yalta.  C) Sarajevo.  D) Teheran.  E) Oslo.

293  C) Sarajevo.

294  Which of the following was NOT a result of the peace treaties signed following World War II?  A) the United States occupied Japan  B) Germany was divided into four zones of occupation  C) the Soviet Union took much of eastern Poland, while the Poles were compensated by receiving part of eastern Germany  D) German industrial power was destroyed.  E) Finland remained an independent state.

295  D) German industrial power was destroyed.

296  Which of the following nations, created in the aftermath of World War I, lost their independence following World War II?  A) Czechoslovakia  B) Yugoslavia  C) Greece  D) Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia  E) East Prussia

297  D) Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia

298  What phrase did Winston Churchill coin to describe the division between free and repressed societies after World War II?  A) the red menace  B) the iron curtain  C) the Berlin wall  D) the cold war  E) appeasement

299  B) the iron curtain

300  Where was the focal point of the Cold War in Europe immediately after World War II?  A) Hungary  B) Czechoslovakia  C) France  D) Germany  E) Switzerland

301  D) Germany

302  Which of the following states was NOT one of the industrialized centers of the Pacific rim?  A) Japan  B) Korea  C) Taiwan  D) Sri Lanka  E) Singapore

303  D) Sri Lanka

304  What nation became the first serious challenger to the West’s industrial supremacy?  A) China  B) Vietnam  C) Korea  D) Japan  E) Hong Kong

305  D) Japan

306  Which of the following factors limited Japanese economic advance prior to World War II?  A) continued dependence on relatively few export items  B) low population growth  C) failure of the agricultural economy  D) rapidly increasing wages in the work force  E) lack of managerial expertise

307  A) continued dependence on relatively few export items

308  By 1936 the Japanese controlled what percentage of world trade?  A) less than 4%  B) 8%  C) 15%  D) more than 20%  E) 10%

309  A) less than 4%

310  Which of the following statements concerning the depression in Japan is most accurate?  A) Due to government controls, the depression never affected the Japanese.  B) The Japanese government failed to take any direct action to modify the impact of the depression.  C) After initial results that caused great misery, Japan suffered far less than many Western nations because of effective government action.  D) The total concentration of the government on military aggression led to an ineffective response to the depression.  E) The Depression threw Japan into total chaos.

311  C) After initial results that caused great misery, Japan suffered far less than many Western nations because of effective government action.

312  Who was the Japanese finance minister responsible for the government policies during the depression?  A) Kyoto Surimboto  B) Korekiyo Takahashi  C) Tojo Haru  D) Minamasu Yokomoto  E) Hirohito

313  B) Korekiyo Takahashi

314  Which of the following statements best describes the Japanese government during the 1920s and early 1930s?  A) Japan was ruled exclusively by a strong liberal party that dominated the lower house of parliament.  B) Japanese politics were fully democratic leading to the growth of communism in Japan.  C) Japan’s oligarchic political structure allowed elite groups to negotiate with each other for appropriate policy and allowed military leaders to take a growing role.  D) Labor unions began to exert increasing control over economic policy in the aftermath of the government’s failure to take direct action during the depression.  E) Japan had a thoroughly democratic parliamentary government.

315  C) Japan’s oligarchic political structure allowed elite groups to negotiate with each other for appropriate policy and allowed military leaders to take a growing role.

316  The leading military figure in the Japanese government following the failed coup of 1936 was:  A) Kendo Nobunaga  B) Tojo Hideki  C) Ikura Kansatsu  D) Teoke Tomomi  E) Matsuhito

317  B) Tojo Hideki

318  Early Japanese military aggression resulted in the conquest of all of the following territories by the end of 1938 EXCEPT:  A) Manchuria.  B) Korea.  C) Malaya.  D) Taiwan.  E) Manchukuo.

319  C) Malaya

320  Which of the following statements most accurately depicts the impact of the Japanese takeover of Korea prior to World War II?  A) Japanese economic policies led to rapid industrialization.  B) The Japanese takeover was widely accepted by the Korean population.  C) The Japanese takeover disrupted the Korean tradition of kingship leading to the abolition of the monarchy in  D) Japanese occupation led to the swift development of parliamentary institutions based on Chinese models.  E) Japan quickly divided Korea into northern and southern zones.

321  C) The Japanese takeover disrupted the Korean tradition of kingship leading to the abolition of the monarchy in 1909.

322  Singapore was originally part of what British colony?  A) India  B) Malaya  C) Sri Lanka  D) Thailand  E) Burma

323  B) Malaya

324  The population of Singapore was largely:  A) Chinese.  B) Malayan.  C) Islamic.  D) Japanese.  E) Indian.

325  A) Chinese.

326  Who headed the American occupation government of Japan?  A) Hap Arnold  B) Omar Bradley  C) Douglas MacArthur  D) Dwight D. Eisenhower  E) Henry Luce

327  C) Douglas MacArthur

328  Americans introduced all of the following reforms to Japan during their occupation EXCEPT:  A) giving women the vote.  B) abolishing Shintoism as a state religion.  C) outlawing labor unions.  D) making the emperor a symbolic figurehead.  E) parliamentary democracy.

329  C) outlawing labor unions.

330  What party monopolized Japanese government into the 1990s?  A) Socialist  B) Liberal Democratic  C) Labor  D) Communist  E) Republican

331  B) Liberal Democratic

332  In what year did the American occupation of Japan come to an end?  A) 1945  B) 1947  D) 1955  E) 1950  C) 1952

333

334  In what way was the restoration of an independent Korea complicated?  A) Korea had become a colony of China, which refused to restore independence.  B) Korea was divided into zones controlled by the U.S. and the Soviet Union.  C) Korea’s government was claimed by surviving members of the old monarchy.  D) Korea had no prior experience as an independent government.  E) Korea wanted to be reunited with Japan.

335  B) Korea was divided into zones controlled by the U.S. and the Soviet Union.

336  Who was the political leader of the Soviet- dominated People’s Democratic Republic of Korea?  A) Syngman Rhee  B) Lee Ho Park  C) Kim Il-Sung  D) So Kim Chung  E) Kim Jong Il

337  C) Kim Il-Sung

338  The first leader of the U.S.-dominated Republic of Korea was:  A) Syngman Rhee  B) Lee Ho Park  C) Kim Il-Sung  D) So Kim Chung  E) long Kim

339  A) Syngman Rhee

340  In what year did the conflict between North and South Korea come to a temporary conclusion with the signing of an armistice?  A) 1947  B) 1950  C) 1953  D) 1964  E) 1980

341  C) 1953

342  Who commanded the United Nations troops who participated in the Korean conflict on behalf of the Republic of Korea?  A) Hap Arnold  B) Douglas MacArthur  C) Omar Bradley  D) Dwight D. Eisenhower  E) William Westmoreland

343  B) Douglas MacArthur

344  Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the situation in Korea following the Korean War?  A) Northern and southern Korea were rapidly reunited under a single, authoritarian government controlled by the Soviet Union.  B) Northern Korea threw off its ties with China and the Soviet Union and sought a closer relationship with the U.S.  C) Korea remained divided with relatively authoritarian governments in both halves of the divided nation.  D) Southern Korea became fully democratic, but moved closer to political neutrality during the Cold War.  E) Democracy was restored in North Korea.

345  C) Korea remained divided with relatively authoritarian governments in both halves of the divided nation.

346  What Chinese leader established an autocratic government on Taiwan in 1948?  A) Sun Yat-sen  B) Shi Zilin  C) Kim Il-Sung  D) Chiang Kai-shek  E) Chou En-lai

347  D) Chiang Kai-shek

348  Which of the following economic powers of the Pacific rim remained a European colony long after World War II?  A) Malaya  B) Indonesia  C) the Philippines  D) Hong Kong  E) Taiwan

349  D) Hong Kong

350  Which nation retained a large British naval base until 1971?  A) Malaya  B) Taiwan  C) Singapore  D) Hong Kong  E) Burma

351  C) Singapore

352  The Japanese political system after 1955:  A) was marked by radical shifts between parties of the left and right.  B) was typified by the dominance of socialism.  C) revived many of the oligarchic features of earlier political tradition.  D) was intent on the destruction of the big business combines.  E) became much more like that of the United States.

353  C) revived many of the oligarchic features of earlier political tradition.

354  What was the only weakness of the leadership of the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan in the 1980s?  A) inability to provide economic growth  B) corruption  C) association with military policies of World War II  D) adoption of a policy of nuclear armament  E) policy of appeasement of China

355  B) corruption

356  What Western label was applied to the close coordination of Japanese government and business for promotion of economic growth and export expansion?  A) Japan, Incorporated  B) Business, Japan  C) Toyota, Inc.  D) Sony United  E) Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

357  A) Japan, Incorporated

358  Which of the following was NOT a feature of government involvement in Japanese industry?  A) setting production goals  B) establishing investment goals  C) limiting imports  D) selecting the heads of the major corporations  E) granting huge military contracts

359  D) selecting the heads of the major corporation

360  Which of the following statements concerning the development of Japanese culture in the postwar era is most accurate?  A) Japanese culture threw off its connections with the past and wholeheartedly embraced Western styles in literature, drama, and the arts.  B) Japanese culture was defined by its conservatism and retention of old forms to the extent that Western forms—particularly in art and architecture—were unknown.  C) Aside from interior decoration and film, Japanese contributions to world culture were negligible.  D) Buddhism and Shintoism were officially banned because of their association with the warlike Japanese past.  E) Japanese culture mimicked that of China

361  C) Aside from interior decoration and film, Japanese contributions to world culture were negligible.

362  Which of the following was NOT a factor in the amazing economic growth of Japan following the 1950s?  A) cheap loans for technological innovation  B) educational expansion  C) a growing population and a reduction in the agricultural labor force  D) a rapidly growing military-industrial complex  E) a productive labor force

363  D) a rapidly growing military-industrial complex

364  Japan produced a distinctive economic culture after the 1950s that included all of the following features EXCEPT:  A) a strong tradition of independent unions.  B) managers who displayed active interest in suggestions by employees.  C) a network of policies and attitudes that reflected older traditions of group solidarity.  D) willingness among management to abide by collective decisions and less concern for quick personal profits.  E) the zaibatsu system.

365  A) a strong tradition of independent unions.

366  Which of the following represents a significant difference between Japanese and Western women in the later 20th century?  A) Women in Japan participated actively in leisure activities with their husbands.  B) Japanese women had higher rates of divorce than their Western counterparts.  C) The Japanese feminist movement was confined to a small number of intellectuals.  D) Japanese women concentrated less on domestic duties than women in the West.  E) Western styles of dress were not popular among women.

367  C) The Japanese feminist movement was confined to a small number of intellectuals.

368  In the 1980s the Japanese government invested considerable money in teaching:  A) Japanese mothers to breast feed.  B) social etiquette at geisha houses.  C) eating with chopsticks.  D) Western-style dancing.  E) imported culture.

369  C) eating with chopsticks.

370  What nation other than Japan in the Pacific rim was the most obvious example of the spread of new economic dynamism?  A) South Korea  B) North Korea  C) Vietnam  D) Malaya  E) the Philippines

371  A) South Korea

372  What leadership was typical of South Korea between 1960 and the late 1980s?  A) Liberal Democratic  B) Socialist  C) Communist  D) military  E) fascist

373  D) military

374  Which of the following statements most accurately describes Korean economic growth after 1950?  A) Economic growth was limited to production of porcelain and silks for export.  B) Korean economic growth was much slower than that of Japan.  C) Korean economic growth was dependent on small, government-financed corporations producing limited quantities of goods with little advanced technology.  D) Korea was able by the 1970s to compete successfully in the areas of steel, automobiles, and cheap consumer goods.  E) Korea was primarily agricultural.

375  D) Korea was able by the 1970s to compete successfully in the areas of steel, automobiles, and cheap consumer goods.

376  Which of the following companies exemplifies the economic growth and political influence of Korean corporations?  A) Hyundai  B) Sony  C) Mitsubishi  D) Magnavox  E) Toshiba

377  A) Hyundai

378  In 1978 the United States government  A) recognized Taiwan as a most-favored trading partner.  B) severed its diplomatic ties with Taiwan and recognized the legitimacy of the communist government of mainland China.  C) offered significant military aid to Taiwan in its continuing opposition to communism in Asia.  D) supported Taiwan’s invasion of Quemoy and Matsu.  E) supported Chinese claims to Taiwan.

379  B) severed its diplomatic ties with Taiwan and recognized the legitimacy of the communist government of mainland China.

380  C) Japan.

381  Who was the ruler of Singapore from its independence to the present?  A) Kim Il-Sung  B) Chiang Ching-kuo  C) Chung Ju Yung  D) Lee Kuan Yew  E) Chulalongkorn II

382  D) Lee Kuan Yew

383  Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the political climate of the free port of Singapore?  A) Proximity to China and the large majority of ethnic Chinese led to the rapid expansion of communism.  B) As a long-time colony of Britain, Singapore developed an active parliamentary democracy with numerous political parties that shared power in the government.  C) Although a democratic constitution was written, the government became increasingly authoritarian with tight controls over its citizens and active suppression of political opposition.  D) Singapore’s government remained intentionally weak, and the free port became notorious for its lax attitudes toward drug smuggling, sex, and economic corruption.  E) Singapore was a puppet state of China.

384  C) Although a democratic constitution was written, the government became increasingly authoritarian with tight controls over its citizens and active suppression of political opposition.

385  What is the primary export of Hong Kong?  A) textiles and clothing  B) steel  C) automobiles  D) agricultural products  E) small electrics

386  A) textiles and clothing

387  Because of the cultural influence of China on all of the Pacific rim states, each stressed a form of morality based on what philosophical system?  A) Buddhism  B) Confucianism  C) Shintoism  D) Hinduism  E) legalism

388  B) Confucianism

389  Which of the following was NOT a similarity among the Pacific rim states?  A) Chinese cultural and political heritage  B) special contacts with the West through unusually intense interaction with Britain or the U.S.  C) the ability to maintain distinctive identity even amid change and imitation of the West  D) similar political structures  E) large amounts of heavy industry

390  D) similar political structures

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400  Taiwan’s greatest trade partner was:  A) mainland China.  B) the U.S.  C) Japan.  D) Hong Kong.  E) North Korea.


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