Presentation on theme: "World-System An interdependent system of countries linked by economic and political competition."— Presentation transcript:
1 World-SystemAn interdependent system of countries linked by economic and political competition
2 World-system processes COREIndustrialized capitalist countries or regions.PERIPHERYExploited countries and regions (“poor”)SEMI-PERIPHERYCountries or regions with mixed processes.Both exploited and exploiters.
3 Results of World-System The growth and strength of the Core is made possible by the exploitation of the rest of the world.The “poverty” in the Periphery is made possible by the exploitation by the rest of the world.Recent globalization has widened, not narrowed, the gap between Core and Periphery countries.
4 Globalization is nothing new (Flows of goods, capital, information)
5 World-System History European colonialism/ slave trade, 1500s-1800s Industrial Revolution/ wage labor, 1800s/ early 1900sWorld War II/ Cold War/ decolonization, mid-1900sNeocolonialism/ multinational corporations, late 1900s
6 Why Europe? Early technical innovations Evangelical zeal Armor, gunnery fromwars among many small statesShipbuilding and navigationEvangelical zealCrusades in Middle EastMissionaries in AmericasLaw of Diminishing ReturnsDrive for gold/ money reachedlimits at home—Land divided by inheritance
10 Hegemony Domination over a region or the world Not just political or military controlMost pervasive is economic and cultural control
11 Leadership cycles (competitive struggles) Netherlands and Portugal, 1400s-1500sSpain and Portugal, 1500s-1600sEngland and France, 1600s-early 1900sGermany and Japan,United States and Soviet Union, sUnited States and ……?1990s-2000sEuropean Union andEast Asian bloc, 2010s ?
13 Industrial Revolution Early-1800sBritain (Hearth) --from slave cottonTextiles, steam power, iron, canalsMid-1800sDiffusion to Germany, France, BelgiumSteel, railroads, steamships, telegraphLate-1800s/ early-1900sSpread to much of Europe, US, JapanElectricity, oil, engines, roads, radio
14 International Division of Labor Core (colonial powers) need resources, laborPeriphery (colonies) has labor, resourcesColonies had “comparative advantages” in natural resourcesThe Core “underdeveloped” the Periphery, which was not “poor” of its own accord
15 Imperialism, 1914 Britain France Spain Portugal Italy Netherlands GermanyRussiaU.S.JapanItaly
16 Geography Implicated Ethnocentrism and racism Imperialism and colonialismEnvironmental determinism
17 Imperialism: Formal Colonialism Colonies under direct controlCore controls labor, resources, landOften indirect political rule through local leaders
18 Imperialism: Spheres of Influence Core dominated, butnot controlled,trade and resourcesBritish opium war in China
19 World War II Begins contemporary globalization Sudden shifts in economic hegemony, political powerSudden technological innovationsSudden growth of transportation,communications networks
20 Late 1940s: U.S. dominant Sole possession of atomic bomb to 1949 NagasakiLate 1940s: U.S. dominantSole possession of atomic bomb to 1949War destroyed industries of Europe, Russia and JapanU.S. finances reconstructionFrankfurt
21 Anti-colonial revolts Colonial flags come downAsia, 1940s-1950s, Africa 1960s-1970s“Neocolonialism” continuesEx-colonial powers still dominate economies, resources, cultures
22 Cold War, 1949-1989 US-USSR “hot wars” fought in Periphery Periphery states competed for aidArms race depleted global social resources
23 Multinational corporations Investments, activities transcend bordersSubsidiaries in many Periphery/S-P countriesCore domination, centralization outside state structureCartoon on Standard Oil, 1904
24 World divisions, late 20th century First World - Industrialized capitalist countries of Western Europe, North America.Second World - Centrally-planned “socialist” countries such as former Soviet Union.Third World - Ex-colonial nations such asIndia, Malaysia, Iran, Brazil, etc.Fourth World - Poorest nations (and indigenous communities)
26 “North/South” Divisions Poor countries tend to be located in Southern Hemisphere.World Bank estimates more than 1.3 billion people (1/5 world population) live in acute poverty of < $1 (U.S.) per day.70% women and childrenSelf-Sustaining
27 Regions of the “World Village” In a world village of 1,000:333 East Asians274 South Asians132 Africans120 Europeans86 Latin Americans50 North Americans5 from Oceania
28 Household income Average annual income $4,890 600 poor 300 marginal 100 well-off
29 Ownership/consumption 200 richest villagers own and consume80% of goodsOther villagers own and consume remaining 20%
30 Material World: A Global Family Portrait IcelandGuatemalaJapan
31 Philadelphia Infant Mortality Red area high thanat least 28 “ThirdWorld” countries,including:JamaicaCubaCosta RicaMalaysiaPanamaSri LankaSouth KoreaTaiwanUruguayArgentinaChile
32 The CoreIndustrialized capitalist countries, led by former colonial powersCenters of trade, technology, productivity.Examples: Western Europe, North America, Japan, AustraliaExploit the Periphery and Semi-periphery.
33 The Periphery Poor, ex-colonial nations. Tend to export resources and labor.Examples: Kenya, Bolivia, Pakistan, etc.Exploited by Core and by Semi-periphery
34 The Semi-periphery Partially industrialized ex-colonial countries. Both exporters and importers of goods.Examples: South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea, etc. (parts of India, China?)Exploited by Core, but also exploit Periphery.
36 New International Division of Labor Industrial growth of Europe and JapanInternationalization of economic networksNew global consumer marketsNew global technologies
37 Industrial growth of Europe, Japan European economic blocExpanding to east, will it include western Russia?Japan, other East Asian statesFour Tigers (Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong)China as possible partner in new economic bloc?Relative decline of U.S. in “Tripolar Economy”
38 Internationalization of economics TRADE“Free trade” agreementsStandards “race to bottom”FINANCES24/7 stock marketsMobile investmentsPRODUCTIONOverseas “sweatshops”Core automating, losing industrial jobs
39 New consumer markets World products Media diffusion Core luxury goodsMedia diffusionCNN, MTV, HollywoodSemi-periphery consumersFour Tigers, Oil states
40 New technological innovations MicroelectronicsPersonal computersInternetSatellitesAircraftRobotics (automation)BiotechnologyContainer ships/rail
41 Digital DivideUnequal access to telecommunications and information technology80% of websites in North America20% of population has 74% of phone lines
42 “Fast” vs. “Slow” worlds “Fast” (20%) has access to telecommunications, consumer goods, arts & entertainment.“Slow” (80%) has limited access, more resentment of elites.Search for “sense of place” in both areas to lessen alientation.