Presentation on theme: "An interdependent system of countries linked by economic and political competition World-System."— Presentation transcript:
An interdependent system of countries linked by economic and political competition World-System
World-system processes CORE –Industrialized capitalist countries or regions. PERIPHERY –Exploited countries and regions (“poor”) SEMI-PERIPHERY –Countries or regions with mixed processes. –Both exploited and exploiters.
Results of World-System The growth and strength of the Core is made possible by the exploitation of the rest of the world. The “poverty” in the Periphery is made possible by the exploitation by the rest of the world. Recent globalization has widened, not narrowed, the gap between Core and Periphery countries.
Globalization is nothing new (Flows of goods, capital, information)
World-System History European colonialism/ slave trade, 1500s-1800s Industrial Revolution/ wage labor, 1800s/ early 1900s World War II/ Cold War/ decolonization, mid-1900s Neocolonialism/ multinational corporations, late 1900s
Why Europe? Early technical innovations –Armor, gunnery from wars among many small states –Shipbuilding and navigation Evangelical zeal –Crusades in Middle East –Missionaries in Americas Law of Diminishing Returns –Drive for gold/ money reached limits at home —Land divided by inheritance
Wars among small states
Elements of a map
Hegemony Domination over a region or the world Not just political or military control Most pervasive is economic and cultural control
Leadership cycles (competitive struggles) Netherlands and Portugal, 1400s-1500s Spain and Portugal, 1500s-1600s England and France, 1600s-early 1900s Germany and Japan, United States and Soviet Union, s United States and ……? 1990s-2000s European Union and East Asian bloc, 2010s ?
Industrial Revolution Early-1800s –Britain (Hearth) --from slave cotton –Textiles, steam power, iron, canals Mid-1800s –Diffusion to Germany, France, Belgium –Steel, railroads, steamships, telegraph Late-1800s/ early-1900s –Spread to much of Europe, US, Japan –Electricity, oil, engines, roads, radio
International Division of Labor Core (colonial powers) need resources, labor Periphery (colonies) has labor, resources Colonies had “comparative advantages” in natural resources The Core “underdeveloped” the Periphery, which was not “poor” of its own accord
Imperialism, 1914 Britain France Spain Portugal Netherlands Germany Russia U.S. Japan Italy
Geography Implicated Ethnocentrism and racism Imperialism and colonialism Environmental determinism
Imperialism: Formal Colonialism Colonies under direct control Core controls labor, resources, land Often indirect political rule through local leaders
Imperialism: Spheres of Influence Core dominated, but not controlled, trade and resources British opium war in China
World War II Begins contemporary globalization Sudden shifts in economic hegemony, political power Sudden technological innovations Sudden growth of transportation, communications networks
Late 1940s: U.S. dominant Sole possession of atomic bomb to 1949 War destroyed industries of Europe, Russia and Japan U.S. finances reconstruction Nagasaki Frankfurt
Anti- colonial revolts Colonial flags come down –Asia, 1940s-1950s, Africa 1960s-1970s “Neocolonialism” continues –Ex-colonial powers still dominate economies, resources, cultures
Cold War, US-USSR “hot wars” fought in Periphery Periphery states competed for aid Arms race depleted global social resources
Multinational corporations Investments, activities transcend borders Subsidiaries in many Periphery/S-P countries Core domination, centralization outside state structure Cartoon on Standard Oil, 1904
World divisions, late 20th century First World - Industrialized capitalist countries of Western Europe, North America. Second World - Centrally-planned “socialist” countries such as former Soviet Union. Third World - Ex-colonial nations such as India, Malaysia, Iran, Brazil, etc. Fourth World - Poorest nations (and indigenous communities)
“North/South” Divisions Poor countries tend to be located in Southern Hemisphere. World Bank estimates more than 1.3 billion people (1/5 world population) live in acute poverty of < $1 (U.S.) per day. –70% women and children –Self-Sustaining
Regions of the “World Village” In a world village of 1,000: 333 East Asians 274 South Asians 132 Africans 120 Europeans 86 Latin Americans 50 North Americans 5 from Oceania
Household income Average annual income $4, poor 300 marginal 100 well-off
Ownership/consumption 200 richest villagers own and consume 80% of goods Other villagers own and consume remaining 20%
Material World: A Global Family Portrait Japan Iceland Guatemala
Philadelphia Infant Mortality Red area high than at least 28 “Third World” countries, including: Jamaica Cuba Costa Rica Malaysia Panama Sri Lanka South Korea Taiwan Uruguay Argentina Chile
The Core Industrialized capitalist countries, led by former colonial powers Centers of trade, technology, productivity. Examples: Western Europe, North America, Japan, Australia Exploit the Periphery and Semi-periphery.
The Periphery Poor, ex-colonial nations. Tend to export resources and labor. Examples: Kenya, Bolivia, Pakistan, etc. Exploited by Core and by Semi-periphery
The Semi-periphery Partially industrialized ex-colonial countries. Both exporters and importers of goods. Examples: South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea, etc. (parts of India, China?) Exploited by Core, but also exploit Periphery.
New International Division of Labor Industrial growth of Europe and Japan Internationalization of economic networks New global consumer markets New global technologies
Industrial growth of Europe, Japan European economic bloc –Expanding to east, will it include western Russia? Japan, other East Asian states –Four Tigers (Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong) –China as possible partner in new economic bloc? Relative decline of U.S. in “Tripolar Economy”
Internationalization of economics TRADE –“Free trade” agreements –Standards “race to bottom” FINANCES –24/7 stock markets –Mobile investments PRODUCTION –Overseas “sweatshops” –Core automating, losing industrial jobs
New consumer markets World products –Core luxury goods Media diffusion –CNN, MTV, Hollywood Semi-periphery consumers –Four Tigers, Oil states
New technological innovations Microelectronics Personal computers Internet Satellites Aircraft Robotics (automation) Biotechnology Container ships/rail
Digital Divide Unequal access to telecommunications and information technology 80% of websites in North America 20% of population has 74% of phone lines
“Fast” vs. “Slow” worlds “Fast” (20%) has access to telecommunications, consumer goods, arts & entertainment. “Slow” (80%) has limited access, more resentment of elites. Search for “sense of place” in both areas to lessen alientation.