Presentation on theme: "The Changing World Social change is the transformation, over time, of the institutions and culture of a society. Three main factors that have consistently."— Presentation transcript:
1The Changing WorldSocial change is the transformation, over time, of the institutions and culture of a society.Three main factors that have consistently influenced social change include;the physical environmentpolitical organizationcultural factors.The most important economic influence on modern social change is industrial capitalism. Four major theories of modern social change include the following: postindustrial society, postmodernism, “end of history,” and the risk society.The consequences of globalization are far-reaching. Many of the changes brought by globalization are presenting us with new forms of risk (manufactured risks, environmental risks, and health risks). In 1992, the distance in terms of wealth between the world’s richest and the world's poorest country was approximately 72 to 1. In 1820, it was about 3 to 1. Globalization seems to be exacerbating these trends by further concentrating income, wealth, and resources within a small core of countries.
2Influences on Social Change The physical environment includes such factors as climate or the availability of communication routes (river, mountain passes).These are important to consider, especially as they affect early economic development, but they should not be overemphasized.
3Influences on Social Change Political organization (especially military power) affects all societies, traditional and modern, with the possible exception of gathering & hunting societies.
4Influences on Social Change Cultural factors include religion (which can act as a brake on social change), communication systems (such as the invention of writing), and individual leadership.
5Change in the Modern Period The modern period - from about the eighteenth century to the present day - has seen an extraordinary acceleration insocial changethe transformations over time of the institutionsculture of a society.
6Change in the Modern Period No single-factor theory can explain social change as a whole.Important factors accounting for social change in the modern era arethe expansion of industrial capitalismthe impact of science and technologythe development of centralized nation-statesand the emergence of "rational," or critical, ways of thought.
7Change in the Modern Period The most important economic influence on social change is industrial capitalism.The development of science and the secularization of thought have each contributed to the critical and innovative character of the modern outlook.The most important economic influence on modern social change is industrial capitalism, which depends on and promotes constant innovation and revision of productive technology.
8Current Change & Future Prospects Where is social change leading us?Postindustrial society--based on knowledge & information, & distinguished by an economy made up mostly of service occupations. The person most associated with this theory is Daniel Bell.
9Current Change and Future Prospects Postmodernism--the belief that society is no longer governed by history or progress.Postmodern society is highly pluralistic & diverse, with no “grand narrative”--overall conceptions of history--guiding its development.
10Current Change and Future Prospects The risk society (Ulrich Beck)Globalization loosens the “social codes.”Factors contributing to globalization include;explosion in global communicationsthe integration of the world economy.The risk society--Ulrich Beck posits that the conflict over the distribution of wealth has been replaced by the conflict over various forms of social risk as the central dynamic of society today.Globalization--we all increasingly live in one world. Individuals, groups, and nations become more interdependent. Globalization loosens the “social codes.”Factors contributing to globalization include;explosion in global communicationsthe integration of the world economy.
11Current Change and Future Prospects The causes of increasing globalization:Political changesInformation flowsThe role of transnational corporations
12Current Change and Future Prospects The “skeptics,” hyperglobalizers, and transformationalists are three schools of globalization (Held et al., 1999).Skeptics argue that the idea of globalization is overrated. They believe that the present levels of economic interdependence are not unprecedented.
13Chapter 9 Global Inequality “A world where some live in comfort and plenty, while half of the human race lives on less than $2 a day, is neither just, nor stable.” — President Bush
14Quotes“Almost half the world’s population lives on less than two dollars a day, yet even this statistic fails to capture the humiliation, powerlessness and brutal hardship that is the daily lot of the world’s poor.” Koffi Anan, UN Secretary General“Today, across the world, 1.3 billion people live on less than one dollar a day; 3 billion live on under two dollars a day; 1.3 billion have no access to clean water; 3 billion have no access to sanitation; 2 billion have no access to electricity.” James Wolfenson, The Other Crisis, World Bank, October 1998
15Global Inequality: Differences between Countries Global Inequality – The systematic differences in wealth and power that exist between countriesIndicators of Economic Development –GDP – A country’s yearly output of goods and services per personThree economic classes as determined by the World Bank -- low, middle, and high. (macro national level)
16Global Inequality: Differences between Countries High Income CountriesGDP of $9,266 per personGenerally those first to industrializeAccount for only 15% of the world’s populationLay claim to 79% of the world’s annual output of wealth
17Global Inequality: Differences between Countries Middle-Income CountriesGDP of $756 - $9,265 per personMost began to industrialize late in the 20th century.Includes 45% of the world’s populationOnly accounts for 18% of the annual output of wealth
18Global Inequality: Differences between Countries Low Income CountriesGDP under $755 per personMostly agricultural economies that have only recently began to industrializeAccounts for 40% of the world’s populationProduces only 3% of the annual output of wealth
19Global Inequality: Differences between Countries The Rich get Richer, the Poor get PoorerFrom 1988 to 1999, average GDP rose 28% in low-income countries and 51% in high-income countries, widening the gap.Average person in high-income country earned $25,730, compared to $410 in a low-income country.1.5 Billion People, ¼ of the world’s population lives in poverty.
20Global Inequality: Why it Matters to You Rapid globalization of capitalist economy could produce:Positive OutlookLarge, global corporations with workers everywhere competing at a global wageLeveling out of average incomeDurkhiem
21Global Inequality Negative Outlook Polarization between those who benefit from global economy and those who don’tCould fuel conflict between ethnic groups and even nationsMarxPostcolonialism studiesCritical Race studies
22Global Inequality: Why it Matters to You The Technology GapGap continues to widen between technologically enabled countries and those without technology
23Global Inequality: Why it Matters to You What can be done ?Cost of eradicating lethal infectious disease in poor countries would be only $10 billion a year -- less than $15 from each person living in a high-income country.The Singer Solution to World Poverty By PETER SINGER15% of incomeBy his calculation, $200 in donations would help a sickly 2-year-old transform into a healthy 6-year-old — offering safe passage through childhood's most dangerous years.
24Global Inequality: Why it Matters to You Increased funding from high-income countries for scientific and technological researchWorld Bank provides $60 million per year to poor countries for research; major pharmaceutical company Merck spends $2.1 billion alone.
26QuizIn the globalization debate, which position argues that while there is more contact among countries than ever before, this contact is not sufficiently integrated to represent a truly global economy?a. skepticsb. transformationalistsc. hyperglobalizersd. post-modernistsAnswer: aType: ConceptualSection: The Globalization Debate
27QuizAccording to hyperglobalizers, which one of the following statements is true?a.Internationalization depends on government acquiescence and support.b. Globalization is making national politics more powerful.c. Globalization means the end of the nation-state.d. Globalization has no impact on how nation-states or governments operate.Answer: cType: ConceptualSection: Globalization Debate