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The Changing World Social change is the transformation, over time, of the institutions and culture of a society. Three main factors that have consistently.

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Presentation on theme: "The Changing World Social change is the transformation, over time, of the institutions and culture of a society. Three main factors that have consistently."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Changing World Social change is the transformation, over time, of the institutions and culture of a society. Three main factors that have consistently influenced social change include; 1.the physical environment 2.political organization 3.cultural factors. 1

2 Influences on Social Change The physical environment includes such factors as climate or the availability of communication routes (river, mountain passes). These are important to consider, especially as they affect early economic development, but they should not be overemphasized. 2

3 Influences on Social Change Political organization (especially military power) affects all societies, traditional and modern, with the possible exception of gathering & hunting societies. 3

4 Influences on Social Change Cultural factors include religion (which can act as a brake on social change), communication systems (such as the invention of writing), and individual leadership. 4

5 Change in the Modern Period The modern period - from about the eighteenth century to the present day - has seen an extraordinary acceleration in 1.social change 2.the transformations over time of the institutions 3.culture of a society. 5

6 Change in the Modern Period No single-factor theory can explain social change as a whole. Important factors accounting for social change in the modern era are 1.the expansion of industrial capitalism 2.the impact of science and technology 3.the development of centralized nation-states 4.and the emergence of "rational," or critical, ways of thought. 6

7 Change in the Modern Period The most important economic influence on social change is industrial capitalism. The development of science and the secularization of thought have each contributed to the critical and innovative character of the modern outlook. 7

8 Current Change & Future Prospects Where is social change leading us? 1.Postindustrial society--based on knowledge & information, & distinguished by an economy made up mostly of service occupations. The person most associated with this theory is Daniel Bell. 8

9 Current Change and Future Prospects Postmodernism--the belief that society is no longer governed by history or progress. Postmodern society is highly pluralistic & diverse, with no “grand narrative”--overall conceptions of history--guiding its development. 9

10 Current Change and Future Prospects The risk society (Ulrich Beck) Globalization loosens the “social codes.” Factors contributing to globalization include; 1.explosion in global communications 2.the integration of the world economy. 10

11 Current Change and Future Prospects The causes of increasing globalization: 1.Political changes 2.Information flows 3.The role of transnational corporations 11

12 Current Change and Future Prospects The “skeptics,” hyperglobalizers, and transformationalists are three schools of globalization (Held et al., 1999). Skeptics argue that the idea of globalization is overrated. They believe that the present levels of economic interdependence are not unprecedented. 12

13 Chapter 9 Global Inequality “A world where some live in comfort and plenty, while half of the human race lives on less than $2 a day, is neither just, nor stable.” — President Bush 13

14 Quotes “Almost half the world’s population lives on less than two dollars a day, yet even this statistic fails to capture the humiliation, powerlessness and brutal hardship that is the daily lot of the world’s poor.” Koffi Anan, UN Secretary General “Today, across the world, 1.3 billion people live on less than one dollar a day; 3 billion live on under two dollars a day; 1.3 billion have no access to clean water; 3 billion have no access to sanitation; 2 billion have no access to electricity.” James Wolfenson, The Other Crisis, World Bank, October

15 Global Inequality: Differences between Countries Global Inequality – The systematic differences in wealth and power that exist between countries Indicators of Economic Development – – GDP – A country’s yearly output of goods and services per person – Three economic classes as determined by the World Bank -- low, middle, and high. (macro national level) 15

16 High Income Countries – GDP of $9,266 per person – Generally those first to industrialize – Account for only 15% of the world’s population – Lay claim to 79% of the world’s annual output of wealth 16 Global Inequality: Differences between Countries

17 Middle-Income Countries – GDP of $756 - $9,265 per person – Most began to industrialize late in the 20 th century. – Includes 45% of the world’s population – Only accounts for 18% of the annual output of wealth 17

18 Global Inequality: Differences between Countries Low Income Countries – GDP under $755 per person – Mostly agricultural economies that have only recently began to industrialize – Accounts for 40% of the world’s population – Produces only 3% of the annual output of wealth 18

19 Global Inequality: Differences between Countries The Rich get Richer, the Poor get Poorer – From 1988 to 1999, average GDP rose 28% in low-income countries and 51% in high-income countries, widening the gap. – Average person in high-income country earned $25,730, compared to $410 in a low- income country. – 1.5 Billion People, ¼ of the world’s population lives in poverty. 19

20 Global Inequality: Why it Matters to You Rapid globalization of capitalist economy could produce: – Positive Outlook Large, global corporations with workers everywhere competing at a global wage Leveling out of average income – Durkhiem 20

21 Global Inequality Negative Outlook – Polarization between those who benefit from global economy and those who don’t – Could fuel conflict between ethnic groups and even nations Marx Postcolonialism studies Critical Race studies 21

22 Global Inequality: Why it Matters to You The Technology Gap – Gap continues to widen between technologically enabled countries and those without technology 22

23 What can be done ? – Cost of eradicating lethal infectious disease in poor countries would be only $10 billion a year -- less than $15 from each person living in a high-income country. – The Singer Solution to World Poverty By PETER SINGER 15% of income By his calculation, $200 in donations would help a sickly 2- year-old transform into a healthy 6-year-old — offering safe passage through childhood's most dangerous years. 23 Global Inequality: Why it Matters to You

24 Increased funding from high-income countries for scientific and technological research – World Bank provides $60 million per year to poor countries for research; major pharmaceutical company Merck spends $2.1 billion alone. 24

25 25 CHAPTER 20: GLOBALIZATION IN A CHANGING WORLD

26 26 Quiz In the globalization debate, which position argues that while there is more contact among countries than ever before, this contact is not sufficiently integrated to represent a truly global economy? a. skeptics b. transformationalists c. hyperglobalizers d. post-modernists

27 27 Quiz According to hyperglobalizers, which one of the following statements is true? a.Internationalization depends on government acquiescence and support. b. Globalization is making national politics more powerful. c. Globalization means the end of the nation-state. d. Globalization has no impact on how nation-states or governments operate.


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