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World Hunger Fred Boadu, PhD; J.D. (Law) Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, College Station.

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Presentation on theme: "World Hunger Fred Boadu, PhD; J.D. (Law) Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, College Station."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Hunger Fred Boadu, PhD; J.D. (Law) Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, College Station

2 Outline Basic Definitions Basic Definitions The Location of the Hungry The Location of the Hungry Overview – The facts Overview – The facts Grain Production and Demand Grain Production and Demand Factors influencing Food Supply Factors influencing Food Supply Land, Labor, Capital, Technology Land, Labor, Capital, Technology Other Supply Shifters Other Supply Shifters Factors influencing Food Demand Factors influencing Food Demand Income, Price Income, Price Role of Institutions Role of Institutions Government, International Organizations Government, International Organizations Conclusions Conclusions Millennium Development Goals, Indicators Millennium Development Goals, Indicators

3 Basic Definitions Malnutrition is a general term that indicates a lack of some or all nutritional elements necessary for human health. (Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia). Malnutrition is a general term that indicates a lack of some or all nutritional elements necessary for human health. (Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia). Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is by far the most lethal form of malnutrition/hunger and the one referred to when world hunger is referred to. Children are its most visible victims. Malnutrition plays a role in at least half of the 10.9 million child deaths each year (FAO, 2002). Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is by far the most lethal form of malnutrition/hunger and the one referred to when world hunger is referred to. Children are its most visible victims. Malnutrition plays a role in at least half of the 10.9 million child deaths each year (FAO, 2002). Food Insecurity is when people must live with hunger and fear of starvation (FAO). Food Insecurity is when people must live with hunger and fear of starvation (FAO).

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5 Child MalnutritionUndernourishment Regional Proportions

6 Overview – The Facts  Over 800 million people go to bed hungry each night; most of them are women and children, World Food Programme (WFP). Grain Production and Demand

7 Table 1: Growth Rates of Population and Total Cereal Demand,

8 Table 2: Per Capita Cereal Production and Annual Growth Rates in Developing-country Regions,

9 Table 3: Per Capita Meat Demand 1967 and 1997

10 Some Microeconomics Households, Firms, and Hunger

11 Factors Influencing Food Demand Income Income Per Capita Income Per Capita Income Price Price Other Demand Shifters Other Demand Shifters Population Population Household Size Household Size Household Expenditure Household Expenditure

12 Table 4: Population and Per Capita GDP 1967 and 2020

13 Table 4: Population and Per Capita GDP 1967 and 2020 Contd.

14 Table 5: People Living on Less Than $1 and $2 a Day Since 1990 and Projected to 2015

15 Table 6: Income Demand Elasticities, 1967 and 2020

16 Factors Influencing Food Supply Land Land Labor Labor Capital Capital Technology Technology Other Supply Shifters Other Supply Shifters Land rights and ownership Land rights and ownership Diversion of land use to non-productive use Diversion of land use to non-productive use Price Price Inefficient agricultural practices Inefficient agricultural practices Governance Governance Lack of Democracy and Rights Lack of Democracy and Rights Politics Politics Conflict, Drought, Famine Conflict, Drought, Famine

17 Table 11: Total Projected Investments, Baseline Scenario,

18 Supply Shifters  “There are 1.2 billion poor people in developing countries who live on $1 a day or less. Progress in poverty reduction has been concentrated in Asia, and especially, East Asia. In all the other regions, the number of people in extreme poverty has increased. In sub-Saharan Africa, there were 58 million more poor people in 1999 than in 1990 (Food and Agriculture Organization – FAO, 2002).”  Poverty is the principal cause of hunger. “There are 1.2 billion poor people in developing countries who live on $1 a day or less. Progress in poverty reduction has been concentrated in Asia, and especially, East Asia. In all the other regions, the number of people in extreme poverty has increased. In sub-Saharan Africa, there were 58 million more poor people in 1999 than in 1990 (Food and Agriculture Organization – FAO, 2002).”  Hunger is also a cause of poverty. By leading to such effects as poor health, low levels of energy, and even mental impairment, hunger can lead to even greater poverty (FAO 2002).  “Worldwide, there were some 21.5 million refugees and displaced persons in 1999– largely as a result of wars, political turbulence, civil conflict and social unrest (e.g. Afghanistan, the Balkans, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, East Timor, Somalia and Sudan). In such emergencies, malnutrition runs rampant, exponentially increasing the risk of disease and death (World Health Organization 2002).”  Conflict as a cause of hunger. “Worldwide, there were some 21.5 million refugees and displaced persons in 1999– largely as a result of wars, political turbulence, civil conflict and social unrest (e.g. Afghanistan, the Balkans, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, East Timor, Somalia and Sudan). In such emergencies, malnutrition runs rampant, exponentially increasing the risk of disease and death (World Health Organization 2002).”

19 Factors affecting Food Shortages

20 Role of Institutions Government Government Freedom and Democracy Freedom and Democracy Intellectual Property Rights Intellectual Property Rights Patents – World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Patents – World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) International Organizations International Organizations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) World and Food Programme (WFP) World and Food Programme (WFP) World Bank World Bank World Health Organization (WHO) World Health Organization (WHO) Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) – IITA, CIMMYT, IFPRI, ILRI etc. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) – IITA, CIMMYT, IFPRI, ILRI etc.

21 Table 12: Annual Freedom in the World Country Scores, : Africa

22 Conclusion Millennium Development Goals Millennium Development Goals Goal 1 - Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Goal 1 - Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day. Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day. Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Indicators Indicators Proportion of population below $1 a day a Proportion of population below $1 a day a National poverty headcount ratio* National poverty headcount ratio* Poverty gap ratio at $1 a day (incidence x depth of poverty) Poverty gap ratio at $1 a day (incidence x depth of poverty) Share of poorest quintile in national consumption Share of poorest quintile in national consumption Prevalence of underweight in children (under five years of age) Prevalence of underweight in children (under five years of age) Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption Source:

23 Table 13: Progress Toward the Poverty Goal and Projections to 2015


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