Presentation on theme: "World Hunger Fred Boadu, PhD; J.D. (Law) Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, College Station."— Presentation transcript:
1World HungerFred Boadu, PhD; J.D. (Law) Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, College Station
2Outline Basic Definitions Overview – The facts The Location of the HungryOverview – The factsGrain Production and DemandFactors influencing Food SupplyLand, Labor, Capital, TechnologyOther Supply ShiftersFactors influencing Food DemandIncome, PriceRole of InstitutionsGovernment, International OrganizationsConclusionsMillennium Development Goals, Indicators
3Basic DefinitionsMalnutrition is a general term that indicates a lack of some or all nutritional elements necessary for human health. (Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia).Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is by far the most lethal form of malnutrition/hunger and the one referred to when world hunger is referred to. Children are its most visible victims. Malnutrition plays a role in at least half of the 10.9 million child deaths each year (FAO, 2002).Food Insecurity is when people must live with hunger and fear of starvation (FAO).
12Table 4: Population and Per Capita GDP 1967 and 2020
13Table 4: Population and Per Capita GDP 1967 and 2020 Contd.
14Table 5: People Living on Less Than $1 and $2 a Day Since 1990 and Projected to 2015
15Table 6: Income Demand Elasticities, 1967 and 2020
16Factors Influencing Food Supply LandLaborCapitalTechnologyOther Supply ShiftersLand rights and ownershipDiversion of land use to non-productive usePriceInefficient agricultural practicesGovernanceLack of Democracy and RightsPoliticsConflict, Drought, Famine
17Table 11: Total Projected Investments, Baseline Scenario, 1997-2020
18Supply ShiftersPoverty is the principal cause of hunger. “There are 1.2 billion poor people in developing countries who live on $1 a day or less. Progress in poverty reduction has been concentrated in Asia, and especially, East Asia. In all the other regions, the number of people in extreme poverty has increased. In sub-Saharan Africa, there were 58 million more poor people in 1999 than in 1990 (Food and Agriculture Organization – FAO, 2002).”Hunger is also a cause of poverty. By leading to such effects as poor health, low levels of energy, and even mental impairment, hunger can lead to even greater poverty (FAO 2002).Conflict as a cause of hunger. “Worldwide, there were some 21.5 million refugees and displaced persons in 1999– largely as a result of wars, political turbulence, civil conflict and social unrest (e.g. Afghanistan, the Balkans, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, East Timor, Somalia and Sudan). In such emergencies, malnutrition runs rampant, exponentially increasing the risk of disease and death (World Health Organization 2002).”
20Role of Institutions Government International Organizations Freedom and DemocracyIntellectual Property RightsPatents – World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)International OrganizationsFood and Agriculture Organization (FAO)World and Food Programme (WFP)World BankWorld Health Organization (WHO)Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) – IITA, CIMMYT, IFPRI, ILRI etc.
21Table 12: Annual Freedom in the World Country Scores, 2000-2001: Africa
22Conclusion Millennium Development Goals Indicators Goal 1 - Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerTarget 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day.Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.IndicatorsProportion of population below $1 a day aNational poverty headcount ratio*Poverty gap ratio at $1 a day (incidence x depth of poverty)Share of poorest quintile in national consumptionPrevalence of underweight in children (under five years of age)Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumptionSource:
23Table 13: Progress Toward the Poverty Goal and Projections to 2015