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Modern World History From the Age of Discovery to the Present Sources: The Wealth and Poverty of Nations Landes, 1999 The End of Poverty Sachs, 2005 Wikipedia.

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Presentation on theme: "Modern World History From the Age of Discovery to the Present Sources: The Wealth and Poverty of Nations Landes, 1999 The End of Poverty Sachs, 2005 Wikipedia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern World History From the Age of Discovery to the Present Sources: The Wealth and Poverty of Nations Landes, 1999 The End of Poverty Sachs, 2005 Wikipedia

2 Agricultural Revolution Haves –Plants easy to domesticate –Animals easy to domesticate –East-west continent orientation Similar climate –Crops move easily –Culture follows –Successful Agriculture Population explosion –Metallurgy –Ships –Writing –Fierce warfare Have-nots –No Or later

3 Industrial Revolution Haves –Many competing countries –Expanded trade Without regulation –Raw materials Colonies Iron, coal –Individual freedoms Ideas, science Literacy, books Economic, social –Technologies Power: coal, water Optics Machinery Big guns Have-nots –No Government control –No Or undeveloped –No Conservative religion Social, economic hierarchies –No

4 Age of Discovery: 15 th -16 th century

5 Doctrine of Discovery Originated as a Papal Bull in 1455 –To allow Portugal to conquer West Africa –And other non-Christian lands Extended later –To include Spain’s conquests Basis of later European claim to colonies –and American expansion Columbus

6 Early World Powers: Portugal and Spain Portugal –Discovers Brazil By sailing south around tip of Africa to find India –Dominant force in Indian Ocean –Early Monopoly on Spice Trade Spain –New World Colonies extracted for wealth: gold –Plantation system –Slavery

7 Colonies: 1700s

8 Colonial Economic System Empire Colonies Wealth, Taxes Conquest Food, Resources

9 New World Slave Trade

10 Slave Trade Triangle Slaves captured or bought in Africa Shipped to Caribbean to work on Sugar plantations Slaves traded for sugar Sugar traded in Europe for manufactured goods European manufactured goods traded in Africa for slaves Slave Trade Triangle

11 Slave Trade

12 Caribbean

13 African slaves in the New World

14 Government IdeologyEconomy Agricultural Slavery Economy Religion Justified Slavery Legalized Slavery Agriculture depends on Slavery

15 Religious Justification for Slavery Noah cursed Ham’s son: "Cursed be Canaan! The lowest of slaves will he be to his brothers. He also said, 'Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem! May Canaan be the slave of Shem. May God extend the territory of Japheth; may Japheth live in the tents of Shem and may Canaan be his slave'. " Genesis 9:25-27 Descendents of Ham were thought to inhabit Africa This was used to justify African slavery Curse of Ham 4yOXmj64/SB3TSHotapI/AAAAAAAAABo/TyhSyVUY5Q0/s1600- h/HamLeavesNoah.jpg

16 Agricultural Slavery Economy Owners Slave Population Labor Food Production

17 Slavery in Islamic Countries Slavery permitted in Koran –Muhammad owned slaves Non-Muslims enslaved in Jihad Freeing of slaves encouraged More women enslaved –For domestic help, harems Sex outside of marriage permitted with female slaves Not primarily for agriculture –Men often castrated Some used as warriors Breeding of slaves not common –Needed to be constantly imported Millions from Africa over 14 centuries –Death tolls high Abolished in 20 th century –Persists in Sudan, Mauritania Zanzibar Slave Market, 1860s

18 Protestant Reformation: 16 th century Germany, Netherlands, England –Freedom from authority of Church –Reading Bible in common language –Triggers new thought and science –Where the industrial revolution began Martin Luther

19 Protestant Reformation

20 Counter Reformation Spain, Portugal, Italy –Repression of new ideas –Ban on foreign books education suffered –Heresies punished to preserve Church –Inquisition: Protestants, Jews, Moslems –Fell behind in technology

21 Long term effect on literacy Literacy in 1900 –Britain : 97% –Italy: 52% –Spain: 44% –Portugal: 22%

22 Galileo Italian experimental scientist: –Showed that earth must revolve around sun –Published in Italian, not Latin Condemned by the Church for heresy: 1633 –Forced to confess error –Huge blow for Italian science –Church finally forgave Galileo 1981

23 Isaac Newton English scientist –born the year Galileo died, 1642 Invented calculus Discoveries in: –Optics, Gravitation, Motion, Mechanics Built on discoveries of : –Kepler, Copernicus, Galileo Founder of modern physical science

24 Why Early Leaders Declined Spain and Portugal –very wealthy in 16 th century from New World gold –Spent money on wars and luxuries –Did not have to make things could buy them –Did not have to improve agriculture could buy food –Eventually money ran out

25 Why Early Leaders Declined Italy was a renaissance center of trade and manufacture –But no colonies in New World –Old power structures prevented change Venice, Italy


27 Dutch East Indies Company 1602-1798 Netherlands –Half the population lived in cities: industrial –Prosperous shipping, trading: Middlemen –Money lending allowed –Protestant Spain wages war on Protestantism in Netherlands Dutch send own ships to Indian Ocean: –Dutch East Indies Company

28 Dutch East Indies Company 1602-1798 Soon dominant in Spice Trade Virtual Monopoly on spice Islands of Indonesia Dutch East Indies

29 British Rise British pirates –better ships, guns American Colonies –settled by dissidents to start a new life Britain ahead of Europe in –Textiles –Iron –Coal –Agriculture –Roads –Freedoms Queen Elizabeth, 1600

30 Industrial Revolution Started in England late 1700s –cotton spinning Produced goods for the masses Fortunes made –age of unrestrained capitalism Raw materials came from colonies. –Manufactured in Europe –Colonies were guaranteed markets for manufactured goods

31 Trade with colonies

32 Industrial Revolution Spawned abuses of labor: –women, children –sometimes chained to machines Rich became richer: dominated world Inequity of wealth –led to Socialism, Communism in Europe

33 Why England? Open society –Individual initiative –social mobility Political liberty –Open debate –Property rights Center of scientific revolution –Isaac Newton Principia Mathematica, 1687 Isaac Newton

34 Why England? Geographical advantages –Island nation Extensive sea trade Less risk of invasion –Navigable rivers Internal trade –Good agricultural climate –Proximity to N. America Raw materials –Coal abundant Fueled Industrial Revolution

35 Fossil Fuels Made Industrial Revolution possible Coal powered steam engines –Transportation –Industrial production on huge scale Textiles, clothes Steel Fertilizer Chemicals Pharmaceuticals By 20 th Century –Service industries –Communications –Electrification

36 Effect of the Industrial Revolution

37 British in India Set up trade in India Corrupt Mogul Empire in India –ignores British gains British soon control India Export cotton from India to Britain Machine cotton spinning in Britain –starts industrial revolution British empire expands –Africa, Asia, Australia

38 British Imperialism


40 British Empire At its peak controlled one sixth of humanity

41 Government IdeologyEconomy Religious and cultural justification Domination of Resources and Markets Military domination Imperialist Expansion

42 Russian Empire

43 European Imperialism 1700s-1800s Other European countries scramble to set up colonies all over world –France –Belgium –Germany –Denmark

44 African Colonialism “When the missionaries came to Africa they had the Bible and we had the land. They said, 'Let us pray.' We closed our eyes. When we opened them we had the Bible and they had the land.” – Bishop Desmond Tutu Bishop Desmond Tutu, Nobel Prize winner 1984

45 Ethnic Groups in Africa

46 Spanish Colonies: South and Central America “Spain transmitted to us everything it had: –its language, –its architecture, –its religion, –its dress and its food, –its military tradition and – its judicial and civil institutions; –wheat, –livestock, –sugar cane, –even our dogs and chickens….

47 Spanish Colonies “But we couldn’t receive from Spain Western methods of –production and –distribution, –technique, –capital, and the –ideas of European society, because Spain didn’t have them.” --Juan Bosch, first democratically elected president of the Dominican Republic

48 Westward Expansion of the U.S.A.

49 Native Americans

50 U.S. Policies toward Native Americans “The immediate objectives are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements. It will be essential to ruin their crops in the ground and prevent their planting more” –President George Washington

51 U.S. Policies toward Native Americans “If it be the Design of Providence to Extirpate these Savages in order to make room for Cultivators of the Earth, it seems not improbable that Rum may be the appointed means” –Benjamin Franklin

52 U.S. Policies toward Native Americans “This unfortunate race, whom we had been taking so much pains to save and to civilize, have by their unexpected desertion and ferocious barbarities justified extermination and now await our decision on their fate” –President Thomas Jefferson

53 U.S. Policies toward Native Americans “What is the right of the huntsman to the forest of a thousand miles over which he has accidentally ranged in quest of prey? –President John Quincy Adams

54 U.S. Policies toward Native Americans “The hunter or savage state requires a greater extent of territory to sustain it, than is compatible with the progress and just claims of civilized life … and must yield to it.” –President James Monroe

55 U.S. Policies toward Native Americans “They have neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement which are essential to any favorable change in their condition. Established in the midst of another and a superior race, and without appreciating the causes of their inferiority or seeking to control them, they must necessarily yield to the force of circumstances and ere long disappear” –President Andrew Jackson

56 U.S. Policies toward Native Americans “The tribes of Indians inhabiting this country were savages, whose occupation was war, and whose subsistence was drawn from the forest…That law which regulates, and ought to regulate in general, the relations between the conquerer and conquered was incapable of application to a people under such circumstances. Discovery [of America by Europeans] gave an exclusive right to extinguish the Indian title of occupancy, either by purchase or by conquest.” –Chief Justice John Marshall (served 1801-1835) pg

57 U.S. Policies toward Native Americans “Is one of the fairest portions of the globe to remain in a state of nature, the haunt of a few wretched savages, when it seems destined by the Creator to give support to a large population and to be the seat of civilization?” –President William Henry Harrison

58 U.S. Policies toward Native Americans "The buffalo are disappearing rapidly, but not faster than I desire. I regard the destruction of such game as Indians subsist upon as facilitating the policy of the Government, of destroying their hunting habits, coercing them on reservations, and compelling them to begin to adopt the habits of civilization." – Secretary of the Interior Delano, 1874

59 U.S. Policies toward Native Americans “If I would hear that every Buffalo in the northern herd were killed, I would be glad.” “The only good Indians I ever saw were dead.” –General Philip Sheridan

60 U.S. Policies toward Native Americans “The settler and pioneer have at bottom had justice on their side; this great continent could not have been kept as nothing but a game preserve for squalid savages.” –President Theodore Roosevelt

61 Government IdeologyEconomy Religious and cultural justification Western land and resources Policies toward Native Americans U.S. Westward Expansion

62 Age of Imperialism

63 Mark Twain “All the territorial possessions of all the political establishments in the earth--including America, of course-- consist of pilferings from other people's wash. No tribe, howsoever insignificant, and no nation, howsoever mighty occupies a foot of land that was not stolen.” -- Mark Twain

64 Age of Imperialism Diffusion of wealth occurred –From Britain to its colonies USA, Australia, New Zealand –From N. Europe to S. Europe Railroads built Serfdom ended Industry financed by capital –From Europe to the world Latin America Asia Africa

65 Age of Imperialism European wealth = power Exploitation of Africa, Asia –Forced Africans to grow cash crops –Head taxes forced Africans to work in mines and plantations Sometimes hundreds of miles away from family –Natural resources taken –Private armies ensured compliance With military force from home country as backup British cannon used to execute rebels in India, 1857

66 WWI: clash of imperialist powers Germany Russia France England U.S. Ottoman Empire

67 WWII: Reaction to WWI Germany Japan Britain France U.S. Russia China Axis Powers

68 Independence after WWII

69 Cold War: Reaction to WWII First world: Western Europe and allies Second world: Russia, China and allies Third world: former colonies in Africa, Asia, Americas Iron Curtain

70 U.S. Dual Course after WWII Competing with USSR for Influence in Third World Promoted Ag in Third World -- Green Revolution Military Intervention --Korea, Vietnam, etc.

71 Inequity First World Third World WealthFood, Resources

72 Terrorism: Reaction to Inequity Powerlessness –Economic –Military Desperation –Nothing to lose –Religious motivation State sponsored –Cuba –Iran –North Korea –Syria –Sudan 911

73 Hunger Today Colonialism, economic domination, and repressive governments have had a huge impact on World Hunger.

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