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Making the Modern World. The Century We Became Us 1700180019002000 Travel across Atlantic Weeks DaysHours Travel across U.S.Months DaysHours Communication.

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Presentation on theme: "Making the Modern World. The Century We Became Us 1700180019002000 Travel across Atlantic Weeks DaysHours Travel across U.S.Months DaysHours Communication."— Presentation transcript:

1 Making the Modern World

2 The Century We Became Us 1700180019002000 Travel across Atlantic Weeks DaysHours Travel across U.S.Months DaysHours Communication across Atlantic Weeks Instant

3 Inventions 1800-1900 Steamship, 1807 Telegraph 1837 Automobile 1884 Bicycle 1885 Camera (film) 1888 Dynamite 1866 Dynamo 1871 Elevator, 1852 Electric Iron 1882 Electric Motor 1837 Phonograph 1877 Typewriter 1867 Welding 1877 Sewing Machine 1846 Light Bulb 1879 Telephone 1876 Blast Furnace 1856 Electric Stove 1896

4 Overcoming limitations Limitations of Space Limitations of Time

5 Food Preservation Telecommunications Lighting Rapid Production Growth of Leisure

6 The Impact of Lighting

7 Europe - Early 1800's Coal + Heat = Coke. Coking, originally developed on a large scale for steel making, gives off: – Liquid Fuels – Gases Coking gases lead to piped Gas Lamps. Demand for gas soon leads to a gas industry in its own right.

8 Lighting in America 1830 Whale Oil: Except in cities, America too dispersed for piped gas. Need for portable high- quality fuel answered by whale oil. 1860 Kerosene Lamp: Kerosene developed as a substitute for increasingly scarce whale oil. 1876 Electric Light 1920 Bulb-blowing Machinery. Brought light bulbs down in cost from dollars to pennies. One of the oldest unchanged mass-production devices.

9 Social Impact of Lighting Community life – Safer to go out at night – Places to go: theaters, social gatherings, etc. More Effective Use of Leisure Time – Easier to Read – Adult Education for Working Classes Demand for more Leisure Time

10 The Role of Communications You can’t have skyscrapers without telephones Mail delivery financed transportation technology – Railroads, 19 th Century – Air Travel, 20 th Century

11 Effects of Overcoming Time Time only matters if it's yours More Leisure More Effective Use of Leisure More Experiences

12 Limitations of Space Space = Time if you have to move slowly Railroad (Bulk Transport) Personal Transportation Air (Personal and Cargo)

13 Overcoming Space: Canals 1800's Canals in England 1825 Erie Canal: Access to Great Lakes and West 1856 Soo Canal: Iron to feed U.S. steel industry The age of canals was short, and canals don't look very impressive on the map, but they were a critical link in transportation history

14 Railroads 1800 Prototypes in Mines 1829 Manchester-Liverpool, England 1835 1000 Miles in US 1840 3000 Miles in US 1860 30,000 Miles in US 1869 Transcontinental

15 Effects of the Railroad Opening of Markets Rise of Consumer Goods Exploitation of Colonies -but- Third World (especially India) Rail Systems

16 Travel in the U.S., 1800

17 Travel in the U.S., 1830

18 Travel in the U.S., 1857

19 Where the Rails Met



22 Historical Oddity

23 Union Pacific Cut

24 The Rival Routes

25 What Happened to the Rails

26 Not Far Away…

27 Travel in the U.S., 1930

28 Effects of Overcoming Space Manufacturer - Access to Raw Materials Seller - Access to Markets Consumer - Access to Goods The railroad created the consumer society

29 Inventing Christmas Christmas as we know it is mostly 19 th century Very much dependent on the evolution of a consumer society

30 Pre-1800 Christmas Traditions 735 AD, St. Bede named the magi: Melchior, Gaspar Balthazar (black) 12th Century O Come O Come Emmanuel (English 1851) Other carols with old roots: The First Noel, Angels We Have Heard on High, What Child is This, God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen, Deck The Halls, 12 Days of Christmas (Most Lyrics 19 th C) Luther??? Away in a Manger (English 1885) 1719 Joy to the World 1739 Hark the Herald Angels Sing (Words by Charles Wesley, Music by Mendelssohn 1840) 1742 Handel’s Messiah 1743 O Come all ye Faithful (English 1885)

31 1800's Carols 1818 Silent Night 1847 O Holy Night (1st music on radio?) 1848 Once in Royal David's City 1850 It Came Upon A Midnight Clear 1857 We Three Kings 1863 I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day 1868 O Little Town of Bethlehem 1857 Jingle Bells

32 Christmas Evolves Legal Holiday (Alabama 1836 – Federal 1870 – Oklahoma 1907) 1834 Charles Dickens “A Christmas Carol” 1841 First Christmas Tree in England 1843 Xmas Cards (X = Xρηστος) Mass Produced Christmas Ornaments – 1850’s Germany – 1870’s England – 1880’s U.S. 1882 Christmas Lights

33 Santa Claus Fusion of Dutch and English traditions 1822, Clement Clark Moore, “The Night Before Christmas” 1860’s Thomas Nast creates modern image of Santa Claus 1897 New York Sun “Yes, Virginia, There is a Santa Claus”

34 Thomas Nast

35 20th Century 1916 Carol of the Bells (Melody, Lyrics 1936) 1934 Winter Wonderland 1942 White Christmas 1944 Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas 1946 Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire (The Christmas Song) 1948 Sleigh Ride 1949 Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer 1950 Frosty the Snowman 1951 Silver Bells 1958 Little Drummer Boy 1962 Do You Hear What I Hear?

36 Christmas Factoids Carol of the Bells originated as a Ukrainian New Year’s Carol, 1916. The English lyrics (1936) have no relation to the original words Do You Hear What I Hear? written by Noel Regney and Gloria Shayne in 1962, was written as an appeal for peace in response to the Cuban Missile Crisis

37 Urban Sprawl Steamboat suburbs, 1830’s Railroad suburbs by 1850’s “Commuter, “ 1865 Planned suburbs, late 1800’s Streetcars and Interurban railroads

38 Wisconsin Interurban Railroads

39 Midwest Interurban Railroads

40 Interurban Rail, Los Angeles

41 Los Angeles Streetcar Lines

42 Los Angeles doesn’t sprawl because it has freeways -- Los Angeles built freeways because it sprawls

43 The Downside of Light Rail Lines were very unprofitable Owners invested in real estate – Ironically, light rail created urban sprawl Sometimes built amusement parks at the end of the line Lines frequently serviced owners’ developments and bypassed others

44 If You Think Cars Pollute, Consider Horses New York City generated thousands of tons of horse manure a day Horses often cruelly overworked 15,000 horses a year died on the streets of New York each year Many were just abandoned

45 Roads 1790: Nicolas Cugnot, prototype steam carriage 1800’s: Thomas Telford – Old-style roads damaged by wheels – Well-graded roads damaged by horses’ hooves – By 1830’s, Britain (finally) had roads better than the Roman Empire

46 Roads and Vested Interests Telford advocated steam carriages to reduce wear on roads Prototypes actually ran in 1830’s Stiff opposition from stagecoach operators, who held mail contracts Stagecoach operators eventually eclipsed by railroads Delayed advent of auto by half century

47 Personal Transportation Bicycle: toy for rich in 1830’s Fully modern design by 1880’s First true personal transportation – Not bound by streetcar routes – Doesn’t need to be fed – Unchaperoned women (Gasp!) Pioneered mass production technology and metallurgy for automobile

48 Another Technological Spiral

49 George B. Selden: “Inventor” of the Automobile Foresaw mechanized transport coming Took out a patent in 1879 on a largely imaginary “road engine” Delayed issuance of the patent for 16 years (1895) Collected royalties for 17 years despite doing nothing for the technology Selden’s gimmick led to reforms

50 1883 Stationary Gas Engine

51 Early Motorcycle, 1885

52 1889 Daimler Auto

53 1902 Daimler Roadster

54 Mercedes Jellinek

55 World War I Railroads insufficient for Army’s needs Army turned to truck convoys Civilians found convoy routes featured such revolutionary innovations as: – Route Markings – Regular Maintenance – Snow Removal

56 Pershing’s Map, 1922

57 The Interstate Highway System

58 World War II: The First High-Tech War First war whose outcome depended critically on simultaneous technological advances Radar Computers Missiles Jet Aircraft Nuclear Weapons

59 Post-War Political Changes Military-Industrial Complex Cold-War

60 Post-War Lifestyle Changes Growth of Suburbs Professionalization – GI Bill – Growth of Universities – Overtraining? Rise of Materialism Erosion of Family?

61 Technology and Sex Appeal Cross-cultural studies: desirability = youth = likelihood of reproductive success Most variable norm: body mass – Cultures of scarcity favor heavy build – Cultures of abundance favor slim build Cultural norms often linked to status, control of resources, display of wealth, availability of leisure As technology changes lifestyle or resource availability, norms may change

62 Blue Blood and Red Necks Pre-Modern – Pale complexion = no need to work outside = wealth and leisure – “Blue blood:” veins visible through pale skin – Pale makeup popular – “Redneck:” sunburned from constant outdoor work

63 Blue Blood and Red Necks Modern: much work sedentary and indoor Tan = abundant leisure plus resources to enjoy it Tanning Salons

64 Much of Today's "High Tech" is an improvement on older "Low Tech." In many ways, the "Low Tech" advance was the real revolution Freeway vs. Railroad Light Bulb vs. Gas Lamp Internal Combustion or Electric Motor vs. Steam Automobile vs. Bicycle

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