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Responsible Conduct in Research Collaborative Science.

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1 Responsible Conduct in Research Collaborative Science

2 Introduction The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) supports several programs designed to promote education and training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) that covers the following nine instructional areas: – Data Acquisition, Management, Sharing and Ownership – Conflict of Interest and Commitment – Human Subjects – Animal Welfare – Research Misconduct – Publication Practices and Responsible Authorship – Mentor / Trainee Responsibilities – Peer Review – Collaborative Science Also included and important is the financial management of the grant funds and the appropriate charging of research expenses. Education in responsible conduct is essential because unethical or compromised behaviors on the part of researchers lead the public to lose trust in the research community. When trust is lost, credibility is lost. When credibility is lost, the opportunity to improve human well-being and protect the environmental is lost. When belief that science can make a difference is lost, funding for research is lost. The America Competes Act states that any graduate student, undergraduate student or postdoctoral associate who receives support from a federal award MUST have instruction in the Responsible Conduct of Research.

3 Research Misconduct Research Misconduct – The Office of Science and Technology (OSTP) in the Executive Office of the President has issued a definition of misconduct that applies to all agencies and recipients of federal funds. – NSF and PHS (Public Health Service - including NIH) have implemented this policy. – Research Misconduct is defined as fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research or in reporting research results. Fabrication – is making up data or results and recording or reporting them. Falsification – is manipulating research materials, equipment or processes or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record. Plagiarism – is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results or words without giving appropriate credit. This includes taking another’s proposal ideas during the review of their proposal. It does not include honest error or differences of opinion!

4 Collaborations (APA Online) Research collaborations occur more frequently today than they did in the past due to a growing likelihood of research funding for interdisciplinary projects and advances in communication technologies. Collaborations take place in a variety of forms, including the borrowing and lending of supplies, resources, and equipment between researchers; seeking input from an expert in a different discipline; and partnering with colleagues who have a similar background or field of knowledge for fresh ideas and abilities. It is essential for collaborating researchers to establish a clear management plan at the beginning of the endeavor in order to avoid the potential difficulties which they might otherwise encounter. This plan should include the goals and direction of the study, responsibilities of each contributor, research credit and ownership details, and publication technique. Team members must be open with one another, keeping colleagues informed of developments, changes, and problems.

5 Collaborative Research Collaborative science covers all aspects of developing and maintaining research collaborations. This includes communicating and establishing the parameters of the collaboration, such as authorship determinations and sharing of data and materials. Another dimension is collaboration between researchers from academia and industry, which will have additional guidelines. Postdocs are in the process of transitioning to independence and building their professional network. As this professional network grows and new project ideas emerge, postdocs and their supervisors should be sure to have clear communication about the responsibilities of their own collaboration as well as the possibilities for collaboration with others. Setting up these ground rules is a critical first step for postdocs, who, depending upon the nature of their appointment and the concerns of their PI, may not be aware of potential complications with their participation in collaborations. For example, some PIs may be concerned about postdocs collaborating outside of their primary project, especially when 100% of the postdoc’s effort is funded by that project. Postdocs will naturally want to broaden their scholarly network to benefit both their science and their career prospects. However, building these networks through outside collaboration can increase the postdoc’s potential for conflict with the interests of his or her PI, making communication about the nature and scope of the collaboration as well as the expectations of the PI critically important. National Postdoctoral Association -

6 Benefits of Collaboration Loan-Clarke & Preston, 2002 describe the benefits of collaboration as including: More effective use of individual talents. A collaborative relationship helps ensure the availability of a wide-range of complex skills, techniques and knowledge necessary to complete a project and/or solve a particular problem. Knowledge and skill transfer. Collaboration facilitates the transfer of tacit knowledge while honing the participant’s social and management skills. Teamwork is hard to teach in a classroom but is best learned by participating and engaging in team activities. Although I would add, that exposure to both venues provides the best teaching tool. Stimulation and Creativity. Collaboration is synergistic. New insights and perspectives often result from the exchange and/or clash of views and ideas. Networking. Collaborations offer opportunities to make new contacts, broaden one’s knowledge base, give differing perspectives and increase productivity. Intellectual Companionship – Collaborations can help participants overcome the isolation that is sometimes associated with research. Enhanced Dissemination of ideas – Presentations and publications that result from collaborations usually increases in number, which leads to the findings being disseminated to a wider audience. Increased distribution leads to the likelihood of the findings having a greater impact Loan-Clark, J., & Preston, D. (2002), Tensions and Benefits in Collaborative Research Involving a University and Another Organization. Studies in Higher Education 27(2), 169-185. Necessity. Often the need for expertise to complete a project brings people of varying fields and disciplines together Smith, M. F. 2005. Making the team work: Being part of a collaborativeventure. Annual Meeting of the Society of Research Administrators International Symposium, 2005 October 15 - 19; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Proceedings, p. 18

7 Characteristics of Successful Team Members Likens (1998, 2001) listed some fundamental characteristics desirable for successful team members, which included: Ability to trust and be trustworthy (trust), Abundant common (or good) sense, Creativity and willingness to share with the team, Collective ability to make up deficiencies – Shared experiences, Willingness to give the team time, Personality – listens, enjoys working with others, is curious and interested, is open to new ideas and approaches, and Serendipity – kismet and karma. Likens, Gene E. (2001), Ecosystems: Energetics and Biogeocehmistry. A New Century of Biology, edited by W. J. Kress and G.W. Barrett, Smithsonian Press, Washington, pp.53-88. Respect and truthfulness. Smith, M. F. 2005. Making the team work: Being part of a collaborative venture. Annual Meeting of the Society of Research Administrators International Symposium, 2005 October 15 - 19; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Proceedings, p. 18Making the team work: Being part of a collaborative venture These characteristics along with team building strategies are the necessary ingredients to building successful teams. Some important team building strategies include training team leaders; mentoring by experienced team members; face to face communication outlining team and individual expectations; developing effective and efficient time management strategies; clear communication on team and individual expectations about responsibilities, priorities, openness and trust; clear understanding of roles and authorship order; using experience and commitment to fine tune common sense (a necessary ingredient for serendipity); and good administrative help in order to facilitate team function and accountability (Likens, 2001).

8 Collaborative Research Tutorial Provided by the Office of Research Integrity –

9 Resources Columbia University Training Module (available courtesy of the Office of Research Integrity) Northern Illinois University Training Module (available courtesy of the Office of Research Integrity) University of New Hampshire - Title.htm Title.htm Silence is Not Golden: Making Collaborations Work – PREEMPTING DISCORD: PRENUPTIAL AGREEMENTS FOR SCIENTISTS – Allocating Credit in Collaborative Research – Supporting Collaborative Science through a Knowledge and Data Management Portal - William Pike, Ola Ahlqvist, Mark Gahegan, Sachin Oswa -

10 I certify that I have completed the rcr Training Module on Research Collaborative Science Date Print Name Signature Certificate of Completion Please print out sign and return to Grants and Compliance Office Click to Print

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