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Oracle Bones – Priests would write questions from the rulers on sheep or goat bones. The bones were heated and cracked. The priests would then interpret.

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Presentation on theme: "Oracle Bones – Priests would write questions from the rulers on sheep or goat bones. The bones were heated and cracked. The priests would then interpret."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Oracle Bones – Priests would write questions from the rulers on sheep or goat bones. The bones were heated and cracked. The priests would then interpret the cracks. These interpretations were the wishes of the gods.

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5 The Mandate of Heaven is based on four principles: 1.The right to rule is granted by Heaven. 2.There is only one Heaven therefore there can be only one ruler. 3.The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler. 4.The right to rule is not limited to one dynasty. Here are some of the ways these principles converted into action and justification: – It gives the ruler prestige and religious importance. – It gives the ruler supreme power. quickly – It allows a new ruler to gain power quickly if the people believe he has the 'Mandate of Heaven'. 'Mandate of Heaven'. – A ruler's power must be kept in check by virtue. Mandate of Heaven justifies rebellion – The Mandate of Heaven justifies rebellion as long as the rebellion is successful. Simply because it was successful, obviously then, the new ruler had to have had a Mandate from Heaven.

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8 Three philosophies develop in this time period… Confucianism Confucianism Daoism Daoism Legalism Legalism  These have a huge impact on social and political culture in China!!! ben_cooke/3-chinese-belief- systems

9 Chinese Philosophies Confucianism,Daoism, Legalism and Buddhism Buddhism

10 Kong Fuzi lived BCE Kong Fuzi lived BCE A time of warfare and unrest A time of warfare and unrest Focus: The Importance of How People Relate to One Another Focus: The Importance of How People Relate to One Another Education overcomes ignorance Education overcomes ignorance People are good People are good Ideal ruler is an educated, moral person who guides society by good example. Ideal ruler is an educated, moral person who guides society by good example.

11 Five Relationships Confucianism stresses loyalty, courtesy, hard work, and service. In most of the relationships, the inferior person would eventually become the superior and would be responsible for another inferior, so education held a important place in society. Confucianism stresses loyalty, courtesy, hard work, and service. In most of the relationships, the inferior person would eventually become the superior and would be responsible for another inferior, so education held a important place in society. – Ruler to subject – Father to son – Husband to wife – Older brother to younger brother (The above are unequal relationships) – Friend to Friend (based on love and mutual respect)

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13 Filial Piety – Duties and obligations to ancestors and paren t s Mulan- Mulan- – Scene #1- – Scene #2-

14 Duty is the path to harmony

15 Only virtue gives one the right to rule, not heredity.

16 Virtue can be acquired through education.

17 Daoism Lao Tzu lived around 604 BCE. Little known. Lao Tzu lived around 604 BCE. Little known. “the way” is the life force of all natural things. “the way” is the life force of all natural things. Yin and Yang are complementary principles. Yin and Yang are complementary principles. Against all organizations, including formal education. Against all organizations, including formal education. Least government is best. Ideal ruler doesn’t govern. Least government is best. Ideal ruler doesn’t govern. Harmony created if people follow the dao. Harmony created if people follow the dao. Nonaction, simplicity, humility, quiet, plainness, and peace emphasized. Nonaction, simplicity, humility, quiet, plainness, and peace emphasized.

18 Don’t interfere with the affairs of others Don’t interfere with the affairs of others (individuals or states)

19 Those who know, do not speak of it. Those who speak of it do not know it.

20 Water seems weak, always seeks the easiest way, always flows downhill, yet will wear away stone.

21 Daoism stresses harmony with nature, Confucianism stresses harmony between people.

22 Legalism Attributed to HanFeizi ( BCE) Attributed to HanFeizi ( BCE) Persecuted Confucian scholars and gave philosophy a bad name Persecuted Confucian scholars and gave philosophy a bad name People are naturally evil. People are naturally evil. They are motivated by fear and greed. They are motivated by fear and greed. Punishment/Reward is necessary to control behavior. Punishment/Reward is necessary to control behavior. Severe punishment is necessary to prevent undesirable behavior. (Death penalty) Severe punishment is necessary to prevent undesirable behavior. (Death penalty)

23 Legalism (continued) There is no absolute right or wrong. Laws replace morality. There is no absolute right or wrong. Laws replace morality. Government should be based on world as it exists. (Reject tradition and supernatural) Government should be based on world as it exists. (Reject tradition and supernatural) Good ruler maintains and expands borders. He uses laws, rewards and punishments Good ruler maintains and expands borders. He uses laws, rewards and punishments

24 Strength, not goodness is important

25 Buddhism Spread from India in 1 st Century CE Not concerned with governing but with individual behavior. Controls all aspects of daily life A Buddhist doesn’t eat meat, kill, believes in rebirth, and believes that how a person lives affects his future existence.

26 May all that have life be delivered from suffering" -Gautama Buddha

27 Buddhism (continued) Every living thing is part of a universal spirit. A person who practices good moral conduct, discipline and meditation moves upward to “nirvana”, which ends the painful rebirths. Eightfold Path/Four Noble Truths

28 Over time, Buddhist beliefs blended with Chinese culture. 1. Nirvana became place similar to the western concept of heaven 2. Confucian ideas of proper behavior and respect for family and ancestors 3. Daoism importance of nature  Buddhism is the only religion in China. Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism are all philosophies.

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30 The Great Wall of China

31 Why??? Built Terra Cotta Army-

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33 They developed the idea that the government should be run by the most talented and educated men. 1. Civil Service Exam – Test based upon Confucian ideas, Chinese laws, history and traditions to determine governmental positions. 2. Candidates were chosen by achievement. 2. Candidates were chosen by achievement. 3. Governmental officials shared the same values and traditions. 3. Governmental officials shared the same values and traditions.

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41 A lot of changes occur at the end of the 19 th century…

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