Presentation on theme: "Stopping the Spread of Germs Oklahoma Dept. of Corrections – Online Training."— Presentation transcript:
Stopping the Spread of Germs Oklahoma Dept. of Corrections – Online Training
Course Information Editor: Lynne Presley, Training & Staff Development Unit Course Data: From "An Ounce of Prevention Keeps the Germs Away" and "Stopping the Spread of Germs at Work," both produced by the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (used by permission). Additional material provided by Mike Jackson, M.D., Medical Director, Oklahoma Dept. of Corrections. Course Length: One hour (assuming links are followed and read) Oracle Course: SAF108006 Course Released: April 1, 2008
Course Objectives At the conclusion of this course, students will be able to: Understand that humans can be infected by a virus or bacteria Name the appropriate situations when you should wash your hands, and understand effective hand-washing procedures Identify safety steps while preparing and storing food Explain the difference between cleaning and disinfecting a surface Demonstrate how to cough and sneeze safely to avoid spreading germs
What are Germs? We come into contact every day with microorganisms that exist in nature, both good and bad. Certain "bad" microorganisms (germs) are harmful. Examples of bad germs include: Bacteria: Salmonella bacteria can cause food poisoning. Viruses: Rhinoviruses can cause colds. Herpes simplex causes cold sores. Influenza can cause the Flu. Fungi: Trichophyton can cause Athlete's foot. Parasites: Giardia can cause diarrhea.
Germs These bad germs (viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi) can cause many types of illnesses and can spread easily from one person to another, having wide-reaching effects. Electron microscope photo of E. Coli bacteria, which has a history of contaminating our food supply and has caused illness and death. Photo courtesy of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
Infectious Diseases – The Facts Behind the Urgency Salmonella infections are responsible for an estimated 1.4 million illnesses each year. Infectious diseases cost the U.S. $120 billion a year. More than 160,000 people in the U.S. die yearly from an infectious disease.
Illness can be devastating to yourself, your family, and your co-workers. By following the tips in this course, you can help yourself and others to avoid contagious infections. Infectious Diseases – The Facts Behind the Urgency
Wash Your Hands Often Keeping your hands clean is one of the best ways to keep from getting sick and spreading illnesses. Cleaning your hands gets rid of germs picked up from other people... from the surfaces you touch... and from animals with which you’ve had contact.
When to Wash Your Hands Before eating Before, during and after handling or preparing food After contact with blood or body fluids (like vomit, nasal secretions, or saliva) After changing a diaper After using the bathroom After handling animals, their toys, leashes, or waste
When to Wash Your Hands, continued After touching something that could be contaminated (such as a trash can, cleaning cloth, grain, or soil) Before dressing a wound, giving medicine or inserting contact lenses More often when someone is sick at home or at work Whenever they look or feel dirty
How to Wash Your Hands Wet your hands and apply liquid, bar or powdered soap. Rub hands together vigorously to make a lather and scrub all surfaces. Continue for 20 seconds! It takes that long for soap and scrubbing action to dislodge and remove stubborn germs. Need a timer? Imagine singing "Happy Birthday" all the way through twice while you scrub.
How to Wash Your Hands, continued Rinse hands well under running water. Dry your hands using a paper towel or air dryer. If possible, use your paper towel to turn off the faucet. Remember – if soap and water aren't available, use an alcohol-based wipe or hand gel. For more information on washing hands, visit: http://www.cdc.gov/cleanhands
Routinely Clean and Disinfect Surfaces Cleaning and disinfecting are not the same thing. Cleaning removes germs from surfaces – whereas disinfecting actually destroys them. Cleaning with soap and water to remove dirt and most of the germs is usually enough. But sometimes, you may want to disinfect for an extra level of protection from germs.
Routinely Clean and Disinfect Surfaces, continued While surfaces may look clean, many infectious germs may be lurking around. In some instances, germs can live on surfaces for hours – and even days.
Routinely Clean and Disinfect Surfaces, continued Disinfectants are specifically registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and contain ingredients that actually destroy bacteria and other germs. Check the product label to make sure it says "Disinfectant" and has an EPA registration number. Sample EPA label.
Routinely Clean and Disinfect Surfaces: Cleaning in the Kitchen Clean and disinfect counters and other surfaces before, during, and after preparing food (especially meat and poultry). Follow all directions on the disinfectant product label, which usually specifies letting the disinfectant stand for a few minutes.
Routinely Clean and Disinfect Surfaces: Cleaning in the Kitchen, continued When cleaning surfaces, don't let germs hang around on cleaning clothes or towels. Use: Paper towels that can be thrown away, or Cloth towels that are later washed in hot water, or Disposable sanitizing wipes that both clean and disinfect.
Routinely Clean and Disinfect Surfaces: Cleaning in the Bathroom Routinely clean and disinfect all surfaces in the bathroom. This is especially important if someone in the house or work area has a stomach illness, a cold, or the flu.
Food Preparation Area at Work and Home Clean hands and surfaces often. Germs that cause foodborne illness can be spread throughout the kitchen and onto hands from cutting boards, utensils, counter tops, and food.
Food Preparation Area at Work and Home, continued Here's how to stop the spread of germs in the food preparation area: Clean your hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds before and after handling food. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based wipe or hand gel. Consider using paper towels to clean food prep surfaces. If you use cloth towels, wash them often using the hot cycle of your washing machine. If using a sponge… microwave it each evening for 30 seconds or place it in the dishwasher.
Food Preparation Area at Work and Home, continued Rinse all fresh fruits and vegetables under running tap water. This includes those with skins and rinds that are not eaten. For firm-skinned fruits and vegetables, rub with your hands or scrub with a clean vegetable brush while rinsing.
Food Preparation Area at Work and Home, continued Cross-contamination occurs when bacteria spread from a food to a surface, from a surface to another food, or from one food to another. You can help prevent cross- contamination when you: Separate raw meat, poultry, seafood and eggs from other foods in your refrigerator. Use one cutting board for fresh produce, and a different one for raw meat, poultry and seafood. Never place cooked food on a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry, seafood, or eggs.
Food Preparation Area at Work and Home, continued Don't allow juices from meat, seafood, poultry, or eggs to drip on other foods in the refrigerator. Use containers to keep these foods from touching other foods. Never re-use marinade that was used on raw food, unless you bring the used marinade to a boil first.
Food Preparation Area at Work and Home, continued Never thaw meat on the countertop. Thaw it in the refrigerator. Purchase a food thermometer and cook meat and egg dishes to the internal temperatures shown below: For more information about cooking food to safe temperatures, click on this U.S. Dept. of Agriculture link: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Is_It_Done_Yet/Brochure_Text/index.asp
Use Antibiotics Appropriately Antibiotics are powerful drugs used to treat certain bacterial infections – and they should be taken exactly as prescribed by your health care provider. Antibiotics don't work against viruses such as colds and flu. If you are prescribed antibiotics, take all of the prescription, even after you start feeling better. Why? Because the few bacteria remaining in your system after you start feeling better, if exposed to inadequate levels of antibiotics, can quickly develop antibiotic resistance.
Use Antibiotics Appropriately Cartoon used by permission from nearingzero.com
Immunizations Getting immunizations is easy and low-cost, and most importantly, it saves lives. Make sure you and your children get the shots suggested by your doctor or health care provider at the proper time, and keep records of all immunizations.
Immunizations, continued Children should get their first immunizations before they are 2 months old. They should have additional doses four or more times before their second birthday. Adults need tetanus and diphtheria boosters every 10 years. Shots are also often needed for protection from illnesses when traveling to other countries. Get your flu shot. The single best way to prevent the flu is to get vaccinated each fall.
Immunizations, continued Learn more about immunizations by clicking on the links below. For more information on immunizations, visit: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ To learn about shots needed for travel, visit: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/contentVaccinations.aspx http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/contentVaccinations.aspx
Section 6 Avoid Contact With Wild Animals Photo of vampire bat from National Geographic Educational Site
Wild Animal Contact Wild animals can carry diseases that are harmful to you and your pets – but there are simple precautions you can take to avoid contact with a variety of species. Wild Animals: What are the Risks? Mice and other wild animals can carry deadly diseases like hantavirus and plague. Bats, raccoons, skunks, and foxes can transmit rabies. Ticks can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease. Drawing: U.S. Nat'l. Library of Medicine
Wild Animal Contact Keep your house free of wild animals by not leaving any food around and keeping garbage cans sealed. Clear brush, grass and debris from around building foundations to get rid of possible nesting sites for mice and other rodents. Be sure to seal any entrance holes you discover in your house. Use insect repellent to prevent tick bites. Do a routine "tick check" after spending time outdoors. Ticks should be removed immediately with tweezers by applying gentle, steady pressure until they release their bite.
Be Careful with Pets All pets should receive veterinarian care and immunizations. Clean litter boxes daily (pregnant women should NOT clean litter boxes). Don't allow children to play where animals go to the bathroom. About Children and Pets Infants and children under five are more likely to get diseases from animals. Young children should not be allowed to put their hands into their mouths after touching animals. Wash your child's hands with soap and water after animal contact. Be particularly careful when visiting farms, petting zoos, and fairs.
Section 8 Influenza (Flu) Precautions Photo: Testing facility at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Influenza (Flu) Illnesses like influenza (flu) and colds are caused by viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. The flu and colds usually spread from person to person when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Photo of influenza virus from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Influenza (Flu): How to Help Stop the Spread of Germs Take care to point your face into your elbow area when you sneeze or cough. Why? When you cover your mouth with your hand while sneezing and coughing, you transfer the germs to your palm. When you shake hands or touch something, the germs on your palm can contaminate someone else. Dr. Mike Jackson, DOC Medical Director, demonstrates how to cough and sneeze to avoid spreading germs.
Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth when you are ill. Germs are often spread when a person touches something that is contaminated and then touches their eyes, nose, or mouth. Germs can live for a long time (some even 2 hours or more) on surfaces like doorknobs, desks and tables. Use adequate tissues when blowing your nose. Throw the tissues away and then wash your hands. (Use hand-washing procedures as explained in section 1 of this course.) Influenza (Flu): How to Help Stop the Spread of Germs
When you are sick or have flu symptoms, stay home, get plenty of rest, and check with a health care provider as needed. Remember that keeping your distance from others may protect them from catching your germs and getting sick. Common flu symptoms include: Fever (usually high) Headache Cough and/or sore throat Fatigue and muscle aches Runny or stuffy nose Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea Influenza (Flu): How to Help Stop the Spread of Germs
1. Rhinoviruses can cause athlete's foot. A.True B.False Click below for correct answer. False. Rhinoviruses cause colds.
Self-Test 2. Although viruses can harm people, all bacteria are harmless and help the earth's ecology. A.True B.False Click below for correct answer. False. Bacteria can cause severe infections, such as food poisoning.
Self-Test 3. People can die from an infectious disease. A.True B.False Click below for correct answer. True.
Self-Test 4. You should rub your soapy hands together for at least 10 seconds when washing your hands. A.True B.False Click below for correct answer. False – you should rub your soapy hands together for at least 20 seconds, not 10.
Self-Test 5. Wiping a counter with a wet sponge will destroy germs. A.True B.False Click below for correct answer. False – without a disinfectant, germs will just be moved from the counter to the sponge.
Self-Test 6. Counters and other surfaces should be cleaned and disinfected: A.Before preparing food B.After preparing food C.Before, during and after preparing food Click below for correct answer. "C" is the correct response.
Self-Test 7. It's safe to thaw frozen meat on the countertop. A.True B.False Click below for correct answer. False. Meat should always be thawed in the refrigerator.
Self-Test 8. Antibiotics are used to treat virus infections. A.True B.False Click below for correct answer. False. Antibiotics are used to treat certain bacterial infections. They don't work against viruses.
Self-Test 9. Wild animals can carry deadly diseases. A.True B.False Click below for correct answer. True. Wild animals can carry deadly diseases such as hantavirus, plague and rabies.
Self-Test 10. The flu virus can enter and infect someone through the person's nose, mouth, and eyes. A.True B.False Click below for correct answer. True.