2 Scientist work to uncover the past Archaeologist study things left behind by people.They are “excavated” or dug up.Items found are called artifacts. They are all made by man.Such as bowls, stone tools or needles..
3 Scientist also look at fossils Fossils are remains of once living things.They are found deep under layers of earth.
4 Fossils and artifacts show Early people most likely first appeared in Africa.To survive they moved from place to place hunting and gathering for food.
5 Homo Sapiens Means “wise humans” About 20 people lived together in “bands”These “bands” meet basic needs like:foodclothingshelter
6 BandsHad to move according to the season to find food, this is called “migration”As the bands grew they added new areas
7 Ice Age Long period of bitter cold Earth covered in huge sheets of ice called “glaciers”When ice melted it left bare new land for bands to hunt and gather for food
8 New areas created change Needed fires to burn for warmthClothing to fit snug and warmerShelter needed to be strong against the bitter cold and wind
9 Example of needed change “Tundra” a treeless area in the Arctic region.Cold weather required warmer clothesStronger homes to resist wind and coldKeep a fire burning for warmth and cooking of food.
10 Culture: a way of life Each band had its own interest and way of life. Culture is made up oflanguagecustomsbeliefsarts
11 Hunters-gathers change Because they needed a more steady supply of food. (maize=corn)“Domesticated” or tamed plants and animals for people to use.
12 Farmers vs. Nomads Stayed in one place * Moved around Permanent home * Temporary shelterPlanted crops * Looked for grazingLivestock – pigs, cattle, sheep * Livestock moved with them
13 Agriculture: the good and the bad *Greater variety of food*People fought over land*Ground was no longer fertile*New tools*If the crops failed all sufferedDivision of laborPeople could do different jobs