Presentation on theme: "RESETTLEMENT The entire process of relocation and rehabilitation caused by project related activities. What distinguishes involuntary from voluntary resettlement."— Presentation transcript:
RESETTLEMENT The entire process of relocation and rehabilitation caused by project related activities. What distinguishes involuntary from voluntary resettlement is that the former involves people who may be displaced against their wishes, as they are often not the initiators of their movement. African Development Bank, 2003, INVOLUNTARY RESSETLEMENT POLICY
RELOCATION Relocation is perhaps the most difficult of all tasks involving resettlement, because recreating living conditions and, in some cases the settlement and living patterns of entire communities, can be a very challenging and complex task.
Issues in Relocation Planning - Present Site plot size/ average plot area land quality carrying capacity common property resources employment possibilities located people present (density, composition) social services access to markets, towns, infrastructure in general patterns of transportation, communication
Issues in Relocation Planning – People to be resettled number of people ethnic differences (composition, possible conflicts to locals) patterns of living, transportation, communication, employment patterns for utilizing cultural and religious facilities
Choice of Relocation Sites Location and quality of the new relocation site(s) are critical factors in relocation planning because they ultimately determine access to land, social support networks, employment, business, credit, and market opportunities. Each site has its own constraints and opportunities.
Choice of Relocation Sites(2) Selecting sites that match closely the previous site in terms of environmental, social, cultural, and economic characteristics will make it more likely that relocation and income restoration will be successful. Site selection should be assessed from the point of view of the impacts on host communities. Issues like land quality, carrying capacity of the site, common property resources, social infrastructure, and population composition should be considered. Ideally, the new relocation site(s) will be geographically close to the original homes to preserve existing social networks and community ties.
Four Phases of Site Selection I. Site selection and alternatives: Choosing a good location is the most critical element. Start with alternative options; involve the potential resettlers and hosts in the process. II. Feasibility studies: Conduct feasibility studies of alternative sites and consider the potential of the sites from the point of view of ecological similarity, land price, employment, access to credit, marketing, and other economic opportunities for viable livelihoods of the APs and host communities. F. Davidson et al. Relocation and Resettlement Manual: A Guide to Managing and Planning Relocation. IHUD: Rotterdam (The Netherlands), 1993.
Phases of Site Selection(2) III. Layout and design: The layout and design of the relocation site should conform to cultural practices and specifications. Identify the present location of various physical and social facilities in the affected communities; how people are linked to each other at the present sites; and how often and who use the various facilities and social infrastructure. IV. Resettlement site development: Plot size for house construction should be based both on earlier homestead size and needs at the new sites. The resettlers should be allowed the option to build their own houses. Infrastructure and services should be ready before the resettlers are asked to move to the sites.
INVOLUNTARY RESETTLEMENT Development project results in unavoidable resettlement losses, that people affected have no option but to rebuild their lives, incomes, and asset bases elsewhere. Involuntary resettlement can have a dramatic impact on the lives of the people living in an area of influence of development projects. It can cause a sudden break in social continuity and can result in impoverishment of the people who are relocated.
INVOLUNTARY RESETTELMENT (LESSONS LEARNT) A close attention should be paid to the laws and regulations governing expropriations of land tied to resettlement. The development of a good resettlement plan should take into account careful planning, close consultation and coordination among the stakeholders. African Development Bank, 2003, INVOLUNTARY RESSETLEMENT POLICY
LESSONS LEARNT (2) Resettlers should be well integrated with their host communities with provision for sufficient land for their economic activities, and adequate housing, water and sanitation facilities at the point of relocation. The development of a resettlement plan should recognize that most of the people affected by resettlement are generally from the low income groups, employed in subsistence agriculture, fishing, mining, industry, commerce and service activities.
Checklist: Relocation Consider all options and develop alternative relocation strategies in close consultation with APs. Select suitable relocation site(s), if required, as part of the feasibility study. Promote participation of APs and host communities in decisions concerning site selection, layout and design, and site development.
Checklist(2) Establish targets and develop relocation plans in consultation with and participation of the potential APs. Ensure that relocation sites are completed with all amenities before any relocation takes place. Develop programs that can benefit both APs and the host population jointly to foster prospects for social integration.
CASE STUDY: The Three Gorges Hydroelectric in China Relocation of more than 1.2 million people. Many people refuse to accept the requirement to move. Relocation will take place in different provinces The most difficult part of relocation will be the movement of farmers who account for 40 per cent of those to be resettled, because the land is comparatively arid. Experts believe industry and service trades should be given priority to offset the shortage of land. Technological aid and investment from large enterprises are also needed. Newly relocated farmers have engaged in trade, tourism and transportation.
Case Study: Resettlement in Tibet China „liberated“ Tibet in 1951 Military subjugation by the Culture Revolution (Destruction of monastries, etc) „Soft transformation“ by resettlement Marginalization of Tibetans Discrimination (education, employment, life opportunities)
Incentives for voluntary Resettlement Better job opportunities Higher wages (highest in whole China) Preferential tax treatment Bonus payment Shorter working hours More holidays
New Infrastructure New railway to Lhasa More control over the province Larger flood of Chinese migrants
New Face of Lhasa
Case Study: Resettlement in Indonesia Indonesia has a long tradtion in resettlement (since colonial times) Java is overcrowded and has high unemployment and depletion of resources On the other hand there are island which have a surplus of land and resources, but lack of employees. There is the need for decentralisation
Incentives Government supplies: simple timber-build house with garden 1ha land and 0,75 ha land at the periphery basic equipment for agricultural production food rations for 1 to 2 years.
Ranking of advantages Social infrastructure – education for children as most important benefit of transmigration (first in ranking) Home ownership (second in ranking) Sources of income – secure a guaranteed income as principle goal Broad range of commercial, social and cultural activities Status of women – substantially to family income through home industry, handcrafts, trading
Failures Planners expected farming to provide almost all households income, but settlers could not develop their land fully, because of a lack of experience, the intensities/ yields of annual crops were much lower and soil degradation, erosion Inefficiency of supporting services Settlers preference for off-farm employment Difficulties in marketing crops Negative impact on indigenous people Environmental damage caused by inattention, poor follow-up, and lack of accountability during project implementation
The End Das Ende Fin Thank you! Vielen Dank! Gracias!