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Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How to work with information and data to meet specific business needs OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 20131 Communication methods
Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How ICT can be used to support business working practices OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 20132 Voice telephonesSMS Instant messagingEmail Chat roomsForums Bulletin boardsVoIP Video conferencingWebcams BlogsSocial networking There are many ways tin which businesses communicate with their employees and customers. Each of the ways has its advantages and disadvantages: Communication methods
Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How ICT can be used to support business working practices OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 20133 Voice telephonesAdvantages include:Disadvantages include: Voice conversations can be held; Calls can be taken at a fixed location (land lines) or any geographic location (mobiles) Voice mail messages can be left; Smart/mobile phones have lots of other features (e.g. pictures can be sent during a call). The phone signal for a mobile may be weak or down so calls cannot be taken; Land line phones may not always be answered; Time differences may not be considered when making a call to a phone. Voice telephones
Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How ICT can be used to support business working practices OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 20134 This is the abbreviation for Short Message Service and is a system that allows mobile phone users to send and receive text messages. SMSAdvantages include:Disadvantages include: It’s cheap – usually included in mobile phone packages; Short messages can be sent; Can quickly connect many people around the world. Only short messages can be sent; Can be difficult to type an SMS on a phone keypad; May not be delivered if the phone network is down. SMS
Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How ICT can be used to support business working practices OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 20135 This is the abbreviation for electronic mail. Email is a way that a computer user, including users of mobile phones such as Blackberry and iPhones connected to the Internet, can communicate with other connected users through text and by sending documents, images, sound and video clips as attachments. Email Advantages include:Disadvantages include: Information can be sent quickly to many people for the time it takes to email one person. Effective in providing quick answers to questions. A range of information can be sent as attachments to an email Can be accessed using a range of devices such as Blackberry, iPhone, notebooks and laptops, as long as there is access to the internet. Employees’ / customers’ email addresses can be stored Email can become impersonal or misunderstood. Emails may get sent to the wrong person if addresses are not checked People may not receive emails because of no internet connection / filters on email settings Attachments can contain a virus. Email accounts can get hacked with spam being sent to all contacts.
Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How ICT can be used to support business working practices OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 20136 Instant messaging is the exchange of typed messages between computer users in real time via the internet. Instant messagingAdvantages include:Disadvantages include: Messages are sent in real-time and responses are instantaneous. Files/pictures can be sent in instant messaging conversations. It is similar to talking face-to-face to a person. It is possible to talk to many people at once. Emotions cannot be expressed as well as they can be when actually talking to a person. People can send viruses through files/pictures. Instant messaging
Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How ICT can be used to support business working practices OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 20137 Chat rooms are sites on the internet where a number of users can communicate in real time. Chat rooms are usually related to a particular topic. Chat rooms Advantages include:Disadvantages include: Brings people together who have an interest in a specific topic; Users may not have the opportunity to interact in the real world due to, for example, remote location. Information provided by users may be false/untrue; You don’t know whom you are talking to; Can be very addictive.
Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How ICT can be used to support business working practices OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 20138 Bulletin boards are an information storage system designed to allow any authorised computer user to access, view and add to it remotely. Bulletin boards Advantages include:Disadvantages include: Any registered user can make comments: these are visible to everyone immediately ; Can get a fast response to a question/comment; For general discussion on topics, interesting and useful comments can be given. Any registered user can make comments/answers which may be wrong; Needs to be moderated by a responsible / trustworthy person.
Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How ICT can be used to support business working practices OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 20139 Insert image from page 75 of book This is the abbreviation for Voice-over Internet Protocol. This is a system that allows the human voice (analogue signal) to be converted to digital so that telephone calls may be made over the internet. Phone-to-phone communication can also use this technology. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Voice-over-IP (VoIP)Advantages include:Disadvantages include: With a broadband Internet connection (DSL or cable), PC-to-PC phone calls are free; Calls can be made wherever there is a broadband connection by signing in to the VoIP account; Lots of features such as call forwarding, call waiting, voicemail, caller ID and three-way calling. Data, such as pictures and documents, can be sent, at the same time as the call is being made. Examples of VoIP services include Skype and Google Talk. These services also allow video- conferencing. PC to voice phone calls can be costly No service during a power cut. Poor or limited internet connection can affect the quality of the sound of the call, such as voice delay, or dropped calls. Using a PC at the same time can reduce the quality of the call.
Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How ICT can be used to support business working practices OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 201310 This is the conduct of a videoconference which allows two or more locations to communicate by simultaneous two-way video and audio transmissions. Video conferencing Advantages include:Disadvantages include: People don't need to travel to meetings Fuel/travel costs reduced Better for the environment People taking part in the conference can be at different locations Video-conferencing can be carried out using VoIP services such as Skype and Google Talk. If the business already has these services for VoIP then the cost of equipment can be reduced. Time zones may be different if people are in different parts of the world The equipment can fail or systems may crash/go off-line Training may be needed to use the equipment Someone may need to be employed to set up and maintain the equipment. To take part in the conference everyone must have the equipment – this may be expensive.
Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How ICT can be used to support business working practices OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 201311 Webcams are video cameras that input to a computer connected to the Internet, so that live streaming of images can be viewed by internet users. Webcams Advantages include:Disadvantages include: Webcams are used when a business is carrying out a video-conference. Allows real-time and face to face personal interaction. When combined with a high-speed internet connections and other equipment allow people around the country or world to see and communicate. Can reduce travel expenses and allow projects to be monitored in real-time. Objects/charts can be shown Can be expensive to buy if advanced features are needed. Does not fully show human reactions to what is being said or shown
Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How ICT can be used to support business working practices OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 201312 A website on which an individual or group of users record, for example, opinions and information on a regular basis. Blogs Advantages include:Disadvantages include: They are an easy way to keep people updated on a project. Can be used as marketing tools by businesses and to get customer/employee feedback. Need to be moderated which can take a lot of time. Posts are not private and information could be ‘leaked’.
Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How ICT can be used to support business working practices OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 201313 The use of a dedicated website to communicate informally with other members of the site, by posting, for example, messages, photographs or videos. Social networking Advantages include:Disadvantages include: Enables users to upload pictures/files to share. Connections between friends can be made. Can be used to promote a business so increasing awareness. A business can ‘follow’ their competitors to see what they are doing. Lack of anonymity – some users may post too many personal details so affecting work and private life. Can be time consuming and detract from ‘normal’ life. Some people can become obsessed with social networking sites. Scams and identity theft can occur.
Unit 1 Understanding computer systems: How ICT can be used to support business working practices OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 © Hodder & Stoughton 201314 An internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages. They differ from chat rooms as the messages are not shown in real-time. To be able to see new messages the forum page must be reloaded or refreshed. Forums Advantages include:Disadvantages include: Ideas can be shared between users. Posts/threads can be read and reread. They can be time consuming to maintain and monitor. Comments/posts are not available in real-time..
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